Table of Content

    05 February 2019, Volume 39 Issue 2
    Genetic polymorphisms and genetic relationship of 23 autosomal STR loci in Kazakh population of Xinjiang
    2019, 39(2):  157-164. 
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    Objective To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 23 autosomal short tandem repeats(STR)loci in Xinjiang Kazakh population, and explore the population genetic relationships and evaluate its application value on forensic medicine. Methods The DNA of 550 unrelated individuals in Xinjiang Kazakh population were amplified using HuaxiaTM Platinum kit, and the PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis through 3500XL genetic analyzer. The fragment sizes of alleles were analyzed subsequently by GeneMapper ID-X v1.4. Allele frequencies and forensic genetic parameters of 23 STR loci were statistically analyzed and compared with the available data of other populations from different races and regions. Results The power of discrimination(DP), and polymorphic information content(PIC) ranged from 0.8206 to 0.9879, 0.5888 to 0.9200. The total discrimination power and cumulate probability of exclusion were 1-9.2942×10-29 and 1-6.9503×10-11, respectively. Comparing with 23 reference populations, the genetic distance (Nei’s DA) between Xinjiang Kazakh in this study and Xinjiang Hotan Kazakh in database was the smallest(0.0044), while it was relatively larger between Xinjiang Kazakh and Tibet Tibetan (0.0333). Conclusions The results show that the 23 STR provided highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing. The study of genetic diversity among different populations is useful in research of their origins, migrations and their relationships.
    Pinocembrin protects rat diabetic nephropathy
    2019, 39(2):  165-169. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective effect of Pinocembrin (PB) on rat diabetic nephropathy (DN) and its associated mechanism. Methods SD rats in this study were divided into 5 groups including normal control ( group N, standard feed ) ,DN model group (group M ,high-sugar-fat food+ STZ 40 mg/kg), pinocembrin groups (the high dose group H :40 mg/kg.d, the low dose group L ,20 mg/kg.d, oral gavage), valsartan group (group V, 30 mg/kg.d, oral gavage) randomly. The end of 4th, 8th and 12th week after modeling were considered as time-points in this study. At each time point, the level of 24 hours urine protein (24 h TUP ), blood glucose (BG) were examined. The level of serum Ang II was determined by ELISA method. The renal pathological changes were evaluated by HE staining and PAS staining, and the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the kidney was detected by immunohistochemical method. Results 1) The TG level in group H and group L were significantly lower than the data in group M (P<0.01); 2) At the end of 4th, 8th and 12th week after treatment , the 24 h TUP level in group H , group L and group V were significantly lower than the data in group M (P<0.01); 3) Compared with group M, The renal hypertrophy index in group H , group L and group V was significantly decreased (P<0.05); 4) Morphological evaluation: Kidneys of each DN group were characterized by glomerular hypertrophy and proliferation in different degree. The mesangial expansion index (MEI) of group H ,group L and group V decreased when compared for group M(P<0.01); 5) The serum concentration of AngⅡ and the expression of NF-κB protein in group M was significantly higher than that in group N (P<0.01) . Those data decreased markedly in group H ,group L and group V when compared with group M (P<0.01). And those data were positively correlated, (P<0.001). Conclusions There is a protective effect of PB on rats DN, The possible mechanism is reducing the serum concentration of AngⅡ and expression of NF-κB protein in renal tissue possibly.
    Heme oxygenase-1 alleviates the cardiomyopathy in diabetic mice
    2019, 39(2):  170-174. 
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    Objective To determine whether heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a major role in modulating diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and the mechanisms involved in this process. Methods: HO-1 transgenic mice (HO-1 / DM) and wild type mice (Wt / DM) diabetes model were established by conventional intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After eight weeks, echocardiography was used to detect left ventricular function in mice. Left ventricular myocardium was detected by HE staining and the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, Gpx3 and p47 phox mRNA were detected by RT-qPCR. H9C2 cells were cultured in high glucose and were overexpressed HO-1 to observe its effect on ROS production. Results: Compared with Wt/Con mice, the blood glucose, food intake, water intake and urine output were significantly increased and the body weight was significantly decreased in Wt/DM and HO-1/DM mice. Compared with Wt/Con mice left ventricular function was significantly impaired in Wt/DM mice. Left ventricular function was better in HO-1/DM mice than in Wt/DM mice. Wt/DM mice myocardial structure disorder and inflammatory reaction cell infiltration. Compared with Wt/DM mice myocardial structure tends to be normal in HO-1/DM mice. In the Wt/DM mice, the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, Gpx3 and p47phox were higher than the Wt/Con mice (p<0.05), overexpression of HO-1 significantly inhibited this phenomenon. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that HO-1 is cardioprotective in the context of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
    Construction, identification of human CYP4Z1 gene recombinant lentiviral vector and its growth inhibition on breast cancer cells
    2019, 39(2):  175-181. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of CYP4Z1 RNAi lentiviral vector on CYP4Z1 mRNA expression, proliferation and MAPK signals of breast cancer cells. Methods The relative expression levels of CYP4Z1 in the MDA-MB-468, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cells were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Three kinds of CYP4Z1 RNAi lentiviral vectors were constructed and infected into CYP4Z1 overexpression of breast cancer cells. Then, RT-PCR was used to screen out the CYP4Z1 RNAi lentiviral vector which could exert the best interference effect in breast cancer cells. The cells proliferation and the expression levels of MAPK signals of CYP4Z1 RNAi on breast cancer cells were detected by MTT methods and Western blot, respectively. Results The levels of CYP4Z1 mRNA and protein expression were highly in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells (P<0.05). Three groups of CYP4Z1 RNAi recombinant lentiviral vectors were successfully constructed (LV-CYP4Z1-RNAi-1/2/3). CYP4Z1 mRNA expression levels were decreased in MDA-MB-468 cells after infected with the three groups of recombinant lentiviral vectors, and the reduction rate of known-down CYP4Z1 in LV-CYP4Z1-RNAi-2 group reach to 81% (P<0.01). In addition, CYP4Z1-RNAi-2 significantly inhibited cells proliferation and the protein expression levels of p-ERK1/2 in MDA-MB-468 cells (P<0.05). Conclusions CYP4Z1 RNAi lentiviral vector is successfully constructed and CYP4Z1-RNAi-2 remarkably suppresses MDA-MB-468 cells proliferation via downregulation of ERK1/2 signal.
    The serum uric acid is related to hypertension in Chinese population
    2019, 39(2):  182-186. 
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    Objective To explore the association between serum uric acid and hypertension in Chinese population. Methods A total of 22 983 individuals (10 787 males and 12 796 females) were collected from 2007 to 2011 derived from the Chinese Physiological Constant and Health Condition (CPCHC) survey and were divided into hypertension group and non-hypertension group according to whether they had hypertension or not. Physical examination and biochemical tests were performed in both groups. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the two groups. Chi- square test was used to compare the two groups. Results The prevalence of total hyperuricemia was 13.0% (2977/20006), the prevalence of HUA in hypertension group was much higher than non-hypertension group (18.3% vs 11.2%,P<0.05). The prevalence of hypertension in HUA group was significantly higher than in non-HUA group (male: 38.2% vs 26.0%, P <0.05; female: 37.4% vs 20.2%, P <0.05). The prevalence of HUA in hypertension group was significantly higher than that in non-hypertension group by age, and the prevalence of HUA increased with age after 45 years in both groups. The prevalence of HUA in Han, Hui, Mongolia, North Korea, Tibet, Tujia and other ethnic groups was significantly higher than non-hypertension group. Conclusion Serum uric acid levels is potentially related to the prevalence of hypertension.
    Relationship between 69C/T gene variation and degree of coronary stenosis in patients with coronary heart disease
    2019, 39(2):  187-191. 
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    Objective To investigate whether ATP-binding cassette transporter 1(ABCA1) 69C/T single nucleotide polymorphisms variation is correlated with coronary heart disease(CHD) in the Inner Mongolia region,and the association of this polymorphism with blood lipids,degree of pathological changes in coronary artery . Methods The target fragments of ABCA1gene was amplified and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-restriction fragments length polymorphism(RFLP) technique in 345 patients with CHD and control subjects without CHD. Results 1. The frequency of TT genotype and T allele of ABCA1 69C/T gene was all significantly higher in CHD patients than that in controls(P<0.05). TT genotype odds ratio was 2.938(95%CI: 2.048~4.216,P <0.05).It was shown TT genotype were risk factors for CHD accidents by logistic analysis. 2. There was an obviously different distribution frequency of the TT genotype and T alleles of 69C/T gene in single、double and multi coronary artery lesion group(P<0.05),as well as that in A、B and C type group of coronary artery lesion(P<0.05). Conclusions ABCAl gene 69C/T polymorphism is associated with CHD risk in the Inner Mongolia region.The TT genotype and T alleles of the ABCA1 gene 69C/T polymorphism is associated with increased CHD risk. The TT genotype and T alleles of the ABCA1 gene 69C/T、-565C/T can increased the area and severity of coronary artery lesion.
    Effect of miR-26a on phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by platelet-derived growth factor B
    2019, 39(2):  192-196. 
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    Object To investigate the role of miR-26a played in the PDGF-BB induced VSMC phenotypic transformation. Methods Primary mouse aortic VSMCs were divided into blank control group, anti-miR-26a group, PDGF-BB+anti-miR-control group and PDGF-BB+anti-miR-26a group, which were treated with Ad-GFP, anti-miR-26a, PDGF-BB+anti-miR-control and PDGF-BB+anti-miR-26a respectively. Then VSMCs phenotypic transformation was observed. The mRNA and protein expression of alpha-SMA, calponin, SM-MHC and VSMC differentiation marker genes, were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The expression of miR-26a was determined by real-time PCR also. Results Compare with control group, PDGF-BB induced a dose-dependent and time-dependent suppression of the mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA, calponin and SM-MHC(p<0.05); PDGF-BB significantly increased the miR-26a expression in VSMCs(p<0.05); Inhibition of miR-26a partly abrogated the depression of PDGF-BB on alpha-SMA, calponin and SM-MHC(p<0.05). Conclusions PDGF-BB increases the expression of miR-26a in VSMCs. MiR-26a promotes cell proliferation and migration of VSMCs, miR-26a may play a critical role in PDGF-BB induced VSMCs phenotype transformation.
    TRPV4 agonist 4α-PDD alleviates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
    2019, 39(2):  197-202. 
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    Objective To tested whether the endothelial transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) activation could improve functional recovery in rats subjected to brain ischemia/reperfusion and its mechanisms. Methods 30 SD rats were randomly divided into Sham group, middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)group and 4α-PDD group. The volume of cerebral infarction was detected by TTC method;the degree of nerve injury was evaluated by Garcia score; the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), VEGF receptor -2 (VEGFA-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA were detected by quantitative RT-PCR; CD3 and Sox2 proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with Sham group, the volume of cerebral infarction and neurological deficit in MCAO group increased significantly (P < 0.001). 4α-PDD reduced infarct volume (p < 0.001) and improved functional outcomes (p < 0.05) on day 3 after MCAO.TRPV4 activation significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) expression in the ischemic region(p < 0.001). The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGF receptor-2 were significantly higher in the 4α-PDD group(p < 0.001). 4α-PDD treatment also caused a significantly increase of microvessel density (p < 0.001). In addition, Neural progenitor cells (NPC) proliferation and migration in the ischemic hemisphere were increased, respectively. Conclusion TRPV4 activation by 4α-PDD may improve functional recovery through angiogenesis and neurogenesis after MCAO.
    CYP11A1 promoter methylation in human placenta is associated with fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia
    2019, 39(2):  203-206. 
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    Objective To investigate the correlation between CYP11A1 gene promter methylation and fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia (PE).Methods The bisulfite pyrosequncing assay and qRT-PCR were used to demonstrate CYP11A1 methylation and expression patterns respectively in FGR, PE and FGR-PE, as well as Control associated placentas and cord blood of fetus.Results The promoter of CYP11A1 was found to be significantly hypomethylated in FGR, PE and FGR-PE placentas. And the methylation of CYP11A1 gene was relatively lower in FGR- PE than other case.Meanwhile the increased CYP11A1 expression was inversely modulate with CYP11A1 hypomethylation FGR, PE and FGR-PE placentas. which only found in placenta but not in cord blood of fetus.Conclusion As tissue-specific epigenetic marker of CYP11A1 gene, which was associated with fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia or both.
    Dopamine inhibits Erastin induced ferroptosis in PC12 cell line
    2019, 39(2):  207-212. 
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    Objective To test dopamine effect in different inducers caused pheochromocytoma PC12 cell death. Methods RT- qPCR was used to test gene expression of tumor associated and nerve related markers of PC12 cells; CCK8 was used to evaluate cell viability of different physiological concentration of dopamine(0,6.25,12.5,25,50,100 μmol/L)treating PC12 cells and dopamine effect on drug induced ferroptosis, necrosis and apoptosis; flow cytometry was used to test cell cycle changes and positive cell rate of PI and Annexin V during dopamine inhibit ferroptosis. Result PC12 cells expressed tumor specific genes and some neural associated markers. Dopamine had cytotoxicity against PC12 cells at 25, 50, and 100 μmol/L. The physiological concentration of dopamine specifically exhibit anti Erastin induced ferroptotic activity, but has no significant effect on apoptosis and necrosis. Dopamine can effectively reduce the increase of PI and Annexin V double positive cells and S phase to G2/M phase block caused by Erastin. Conclusions The physiological concentration of dopamine is cytotoxic to PC12 cells and can protect PC12 inhibit ferroptosis induced by erastin.
    Naringenin ameliorates severe acute pancreatitis-induced myocardial injury in mice
    2019, 39(2):  213-217. 
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    Objective To investigate the molecu?lar mechanism in SAP-induced myocardial injury in mice and to explore the protective role of naringenin. Methods Animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, SAP group, and Nar group (n=12 each group). Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection with LPS (8%,4mg/kg, pH=7) twice at 1 h intervals, to induce SAP model. Naringenin (200mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally 0 , 12 and 48 h after LPS injection. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to analyze the con?centration of creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin I(cTnI). Real time PCR and Western blot were used to analyze mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, Caspase-1, ASC and IL-1?. Results Compared to the control group, SAP generated not only edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and acinar cell necrosis in pancreatitis, but also the histological examination of swelled/disordered myocardial fibers and congested blood vessels in myocardium. Moreover, SAP-induced elevation of CK-MB/LDH and cTnI concentrations in serum and up-regulation NLRP3、caspase-1,ASC and IL-1? in both mRNA and protein levels in the heart tissues(p<0.05). naringenin treatment inhibits SAP-induced elevation of CK-MB, LDH and cTnI concentrations in serum, alleviated SAP-induced pathological features. Moreover, compared to SAP group, Naringenin treated group down-regulated NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1 and IL-1? expression in both mRNA(p<0.01) and protein levels in the heart(p<0.05). Conclusion: Naringenin protectes severe acute pancreatitis-induced myocardial injury in mice by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.
    Microsatellite instability, HER2 expression are correlated with the malignancy of colorectal cancer
    2019, 39(2):  218-221. 
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    Objective To investigate the correlation between microsatellite instability (MSI) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression with its malignancy in colorectal cancer, and the clinical application value of the combination of MSI and HER-2 in colorectal cancer. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 425 colorectal cancer patients who did not receive any form of adjuvant therapy before the treatment of gastrointestinal surgery in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University. Statistical analysis was carried out to analyze the correlation between MSI and HER2 expression with its clinical data. Results The high expression of HER2 in colorectal cancer was related to the degree of tumor differentiation and depth of invasion (P<0.05). MSI-H and MSS/MSI-L were related to tumor size. There were differences in the site, differentiation, tissue type, depth of invasion, anemia, and CA199 expression (P<0.05). There was a correlation between MSI and HER2 expression. Conclusions HER2 and MSI have certain synergy effects in evaluating the degree of malignancy of colorectal cancer. The combined detection of these two factors could have an important guiding role in the assessment of malignancy of colorectal cancer.
    Gene polymorphism of alcohol metabolism key enzyme ALDH2 in Ningxia Hui and Han ethnic
    2019, 39(2):  222-224. 
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    Objective To study the frequencies of allele and genotype distribution of Key enzyme of alcohol metabolism ALDH2 Gene G1510A polymorphisms in the Hui and Han people in Ningxia Province. Method The key enzyme of alcohol metabolism ALDH2 Gene G1510A polymorphisms was examined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods in 162 hui and 236 han healthy adults. Results The key enzyme of alcohol metabolism ALDH2 Gene G1510A genotypes and alleles frequencies were(GG:69.14%;GA:27.16%;AA:3.70%;G:82.72%;A:17.28%)of Ningxia Hui ethnic, respectively.The key enzyme of alcohol metabolism ALDH2 Gene G1510A genotypes and alleles frequencies were(GG:71.19%;GA:25.00%;AA:3.81%;G:83.69%;A:16.31%)of Ningxia Han ethnic. The Phenotype frequency and allele gene frequency of The key enzyme of alcohol metabolism ALDH2 Gene G1510A were not significantly different between the female and male people in Ningxia too. Conclusion The key enzyme of alcohol metabolism ALDH2 Gene G1510A distribution in the Hui and Han ethnic of Ningxia is not significantly different.
    Expressions of SUMO1 and SENP1 in lung development of neonatal rats
    2019, 39(2):  225-229. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression levels of SUMO1 and SENP1 during lung development in rats. Methods Neonatal rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 8 rats each group. Pulmonary tissue were collected for further study at 1 d, 4 d, 7 d, 14 d after birth. The mRNA expressions of SUMO1 and SENP1 were detected by RT-qPCR. Western blot was used to analysis the protein expressions of SUMO1 and SENP1. Results The expression of SUMO1 mRNA had no significant changes at 1 to 14 d. Compared with 4 d, free SUMO1 decreased and conjugated SUMO1 increased at 14 d (P<0.05). The protein expression of free SUMO1 at 4 d was significantly higher than 1 and 7 d (P<0.05), then remained stable at 7 to 14 d. The expressions levels of SENP1 mRNA and protein showed the same tendency with free SUMO1. Conclusions SENP1 maintain the dynamic balance of SUMOylation by mediating deconjugation of SUMO1 protein, this process may play an important role during lung development.
    Stemness of the sphere formed human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63
    2019, 39(2):  230-234. 
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    Objective To isolate and identify cancer stem like cells (Sphere formed cells) from human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63, and study it’s invasion and metastasis ability. Methods Non-adherent culture was performed and PKH26 staining was used to identify cancer stem like cells in MG-63 spheres. Western blot was used to detect stemness associated protein expression in spheres cells. Self-renew and invasion of sphere formed cells were detected by methylcellulose semisolid culture and Transwell methods. The key proteins of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion and metastasis in sphere cells were also detected by Western blot. Results The single PKH26 positive cell was observed in sphere formed cells after MG-63 cells were cultured for 11days. Compared with the monolayer cells, the sphere formed cells presented higher self-renewal ability (P<0.01), invasion ability enhanced 1.45 times (P<0.01) and increased expression of snail and MMP2 companied with decreased expression of E-cadherin. Conclusions Sphere formed cells in MG-63 show stemness characteristics and EMT, which are related with invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.
    Application value of the 21-gene recurrence score in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast
    2019, 39(2):  235-239. 
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    Objective To explore the association of 21 gene recurrence score (RS) and clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of axillary lymph node negative, hormone receptor (HR) positive invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast (ILC) and to evaluate the application value of 21 gene RS in ILC. Methods The clinicopathologic data of 32 ILC who underwent 21 gene RS testing from May 2012 to December 2015 was retrospectively analyzed. At meantime, 301 invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) were selected from the same hospital as control group. Results In 32 ILC patients, low risk (RS<18), intermediate risk (18≤RS<31) and high risk (RS≥31) group accounted for 87.5%, 12.5% and 0%. While in 301 NST patients, low, intermediate and high risk group accounted for 64.5%, 26.6% and 9.0%. There were significant differences in RS between ILC and NST groups (P<0.05). Tumor grade and Ki-67 index were significantly different between the 2 groups (P<0.05 for all). After a median follow-up of 38 months, no recurrence occurred in 32 ILC and the recurrence rate of low, intermediate and high risk group in NST cohort was 3.6%, 8.8% and 11.1%. Conclusions The difference of RS distribution between ILC and NST was significant, and the proportion of high-risk group in ILC was significantly lower than that of NST. The role of RS in ILC chemotherapy decision-making remains unclear. The prognostic value of RS for ILC remains to be determined by more clinical studies.
    Ferroptosis is a new form of regulatory cell death
    2019, 39(2):  247-251. 
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    Ferroptosis is a form of regulatory cell death characterized by the excessive accumulation of iron-dependent lipid hydroperoxide within the cell. It is related to the occurrence and development of many mammalian diseases.. Highlighting the link between ferroptosis and mammalian diseases can provide a new strategy for the treatment of clinical diseases.
    Protective effect of H2S on the aging ischemic cardiomyocytes
    2019, 39(2):  252-255. 
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    The hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third endogenous gas messenger in recent years and widely exists in the body. H2S reduces the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and apoptosis and restores the protective effect of ischemic post-conditioning on I/R injury in the aging ischemic cardiomyocytes. Its mechanism is mainly related to the reduction of oxidative damage, up-regulation of autophagy and maintenance of protein homeostasis.
    Relationship between tumor suppressor gene methylation and osteosarcoma
    2019, 39(2):  256-259. 
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    The pathogenesis mechanism of osteosarcoma closely related to the expression inactivation or even loss of multiple tumor suppressor genes, including PTEN, WWOX, WIF-1, SPARCL1, p53 and so on, which inhibited the growth of osteosarcoma. Methylation was one of the important epigenetic features, and the relevant studies about the methylation of these tumor suppressor genes provided valuable or fundamental support to clinical diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis of osteosarcoma, which also offered an ingenious idea to develop new anti-osteosarcoma drugs.
    Research progress of the formin protein Daam1 and the metastasis of breast cancer
    2019, 39(2):  260-263. 
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    Daam1(Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1) is a member of the formin proteins, which contains 1,068 amino acids and is widely expressed in human tissues. Abnormal activation of Daam1 in breast cancer cells is closely associated with the metastasis and invasion of breast cancer. Given its important function in process of breast cancer metastasis, Daam1 may be the new molecular target for targeted therapy of breast cancer.
    Research progress on the diseases caused by abnormal expression of transcription regulator FOXN1
    Xiao He Yin-Hong SONG
    2019, 39(2):  264-267. 
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    Since report of FOXN1 deficiency, the function of FOXN1 in thymus and skin has been focused on increasingly. FOXN1 is the critical regulator for the development of thymus epithelial cells which determines the development and maturation of T cells, therefore, FOXN1 is fundamental for thymus development, function, and homeostasis. In the skin, it also plays a pivotal role in keratinocytes and hair follicle cell differentiation, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated.
    New biomarkers and prevention of pre-diabetes
    2019, 39(2):  268-271. 
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    Prediabetes is defined as an intermediate state of plasma glucose levels between normal blood glucose and diabetes, so early detection and treatment can effectively intervene in the prediabetic stage and prevent the progression of diabetes, thus reducing the incidence of diabetes. Therefore, some new and more sensitive biomarkers have been found to be particularly important, for example, adiponectin,FetA and α-HB. In addition, exercise and dietary intervention are also best ways to control prediabetes.
    Clinical significance of Whole exome sequencing in mechanism research and treament in lung cancer
    2019, 39(2):  272-276. 
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    Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a gene analysis method that uses the sequence capture technique to capture and enrich the whole exon region DNA and perform high-throughput sequencing. WES can be used to detect genetic mutations associated with protein functional variability directly. Since the WES is sequenced only for the DNA of the exon region, it is much simple, more economical and efficient than the whole genome sequencing, and its target area coverage is higher, which is easy to detect. At present, WES has been applied to the study of pathogenic genes and susceptibility genes associated with various complex diseases such as lung cancer.In this paper, The clinical significance of WES in mechanism research and treament in lung cancer was been reviewed.
    Research progress on gene mutations and targeted therapy of type II endometrial carcinoma
    Hai-Fang WU Xiang-Yu MENG Heng-Yi Xu
    2019, 39(2):  277-280. 
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    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is one of the most commen gynecological cancer, Its subtype non-estrogen-dependent endometrial carcinoma (type II) is usually associated with gene abnormalities such as P53 gene mutation and HER-2 overexpression. Molecular targeted therapy may improve the therapeutic effect and prognosis of type II endometrial carcinoma.
    Exploration on the guidance model of postgraduates in clinical medicine
    2019, 39(2):  281-284. 
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    Objective To understand the guidance of master degree students of clinical medicine,under the training mode of " Hospital-Education collaboration". Methods A total of 584 professional master students in PUMC were surveyed by questionnaires. Results The implementation of "Hospital-Education collaboration" policy has brought about the change of training mode and the improvement of training requirements. Conclusion Through the analysis of questionnaires to understand the current situation, it is proposed to combine training requirements and student needs, adjust the guidance model, establish a team of instructors, carry out specific training, in order to ensure and effective guidance for the students.
    Current status of ictal testing during video-EEG monitoring
    2019, 39(2):  285-288. 
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    Objective In the training of epilepsy rotation, the teaching of semiology is the focus and difficulty, but the ictal testing is not included in regular training. By investigating the current situation of neurological medical staff in Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University for the ictal testing during video-EEG monitoring, it will provide reference for the improvement of the training of epilepsy rotation in the future. Methods Questionnaires which were designed by ourselves were conducted to the medical staff working in the Department of Neurology in Xuanwu Hospital through WeChat. The contents of the questionnaire mainly included the geographic data of medical staff, the status of ictal testing during video-EEG monitoring and the effect of the questionnaire. Results A total of 57 subjects were collected. The medical staff were not comprehensive enough to do ictal testing during video-EEG monitoring. The understanding of clinical significance of some ictal tests was poor, and further training was needed. After the questionnaire, all subjects were aware of the significance of the ictal testing during video-EEG monitoring, and indicated that they would be applied in future work. Conclusions It is necessary to include the training of ictal testing during video-EEG monitoring in epilepsy unit so as to improve the training efficiency and clinical practice.
    Enlightenment of massive open online course for reform of human anatomy teaching
    2019, 39(2):  289-292. 
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    Massive open online course has become a hot issue about researching and discussion nowadays. This is a big challenge for the traditional teaching, with its characteristics of large-scale, openness and curriculum miniaturization. Massive open online course initiates a revolution in medical curriculum learning, depending on the advantages of flexible teaching time, freedom of learning time, rich curriculum resources, fair and reasonable evaluation system. Under the new educational mode, human anatomy as an important medical basic course needs to use the superiority of massive open online courseto improve the teaching effect, with the help of optimizing the curriculum content, changing teaching mode and innovating the evaluation system.
    Evaluation of rescue capability in critical illness of emergency doctors by using mixed simulation technology
    2019, 39(2):  293-297. 
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    Objective To discuss the current situation of rescue capability in critical illness of emergency doctors based on the mixed high-fidelity simulation technology and to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the competency-based rescue capability assessment. Methods The mixed high-fidelity simulation technology was used to simulate the actual clinical critical illness scenarios, and then compare the differences of score between different genders, educational background, professional titles, training years, and work experience. Results A total of 38 emergency doctors participated in the examination. The total score was (74.38±11.26). The score of attending physicians group and the residents group were: (78.66±6.82) and (70.96±12.07) respectively. The score of attending physicians was significantly higher than that of the residents. The Score of standardized training resident group and the further education physician group were (71.21±12.28) and (79.63±7.75) respectively, with that of further education physicians significantly higher than that of the residents. The score of work experience of 1-3 years group, 4-10 years group and ≥10 years group were (70.00±12.14), (82.90±6.89) and (76.04±6.45) respectively, with that of 4-10 years group was obviously higher than that of 1-3 years group. Conclusions: The application of mixed high-fidelity simulation technology to evaluate rescue capability of emergency residents and further education physicians is effective and feasible.
    Discussion on clinical competency-based evaluation criteria for emergency residency
    2019, 39(2):  298-302. 
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    Objective To discusse on clinical competency-based evaluation criteria adapting for emergency residency and provide important evidence for the emergency residency evaluation system further improvement in china. Method We developed the emergency residency competency criteria based on the milestones for the emergency residency from the Accreditation Council for graduate medical education (ACGME) in USA. The criteria have been revised according to the needs of emergency system in China. 367 persons who come from the emergency residency training bases around China participated in the survey about the clinical competency criteria. The statistics of the data is done by the software of Excel,and analyzed by SPSS 20.0. Results A total of 367 persons participated in the survey. They come from 31 provinces around China. Most of them are the administration staff who are in charge of the emergency residency training program. Most of them agree the competency criteria we have developed for the emergency residency.Conclusion The competency criteria we developed were well accepted by the other emergency residency training bases in China. It may provide essential evidence to establish criteria for the emergency residency evaluation system in our country.
    Research on medical students’ autonomous learning ability based on structural equation model
    2019, 39(2):  303-308. 
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    Cultivating medical students' autonomous learning ability is an important issue for teaching reform of medical schools and teaching hospitals in recent years. From the perspective of influencing factors and assessment system of medical students' autonomous learning ability and based on theoretical analysis, this paper build structural equation model and questionnaire and applied SPSS for data analysis to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the theoretical model of the current medical students' autonomous learning ability, providing reference for improving the quality of medical education.