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Table of Content

    05 January 2019, Volume 39 Issue 1
    Decreased autophagy contributes to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis caused by β1- AA
    2019, 39(1):  1-6. 
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    Objective To investigate whether the reduced autophagy induced by β1- adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (β1-AA) could activate the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) -induced apoptosis pathways in cardiomyocytes. Methods Rats were selected for immunization with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop of the β1-AR (β1-AR-ECII). β1-AA in the serum were purified by affinity chromatograph. Antibody purity were determinated by SDS-PAGE. The autophagy related proteins such as Beclin1, LC3 and p62 were evaluated by Western blot. Expression of GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12 were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry which involved in ERS-induced cell apoptosis. Results Compared with the control group, the expression of Beclin1 and LC3 was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased after treatment for 12 h and 24 h with β1-AA. The expression of GRP78,CHOP and caspase-12 was increased after 12 h and 24 h with the existence of β1-AA. Inhibition of autophagy by 3MA further enhanced and pretreatment with Rapa partially attenuated ERS-mediated cardiomyocytes apoptosis induced by β1-AA. Conclusion 1) β1-AA could decrease autophagy and activate ERS-mediated apoptosis pathway in cardiomyocytes. 2) Decreased autophagy is involved in the activation of ERS-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis in cardiomyocytes induced by β1-AA.
    High expression of LSD1 in human rectal adenocarcinoma
    2019, 39(1):  7-10. 
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    Objective To analyze the high expression of lysine - specific histone demethanase 1(LSD1) in rectal adenocarcinoma and its clinical significance. Method The mRNA expression of LSD1 was detected by q-PCR in rectal adenocarcinoma and its adjacent tissues. The expression of LSD1 protein was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between the expression of LSD1 protein and clinicopathological features and prognosis of rectal adenocarcinoma was analyzed. Result The mRNA and protein expression of LSD1 in rectal adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in (P < 0.05). High expression of LSD1 was significantly correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, depth of invasion and TNM staging (P < 0.05). The prognosis of patients with high expression of LSD1 was poor (P < 0.05). Conclusions High expression of LSD1 may promote the occurrence and development of rectal adenocarcinoma, and inhibition of LSD1 may be one of the potential molecular targets for targeted therapy of rectal adenocarcinoma.
    Effects of BDE-209 and/or BPA exposure at low dosage on imprinting genes expression in early neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cell line FY-hES-10
    2019, 39(1):  11-15. 
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    Objective To study the effects of Decabrominated biphenyl ether (BDE-209) and/or Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on imprinting gene expression in human embryonic stem cell neural differentiation. Methods Neuroprogenitor cells were derived from human embryonic stem cell line FY-hES-10 cells by using Small-molecule inhibitors, and were exposed to BDE-209 and/or BPA for 11 days. Nestin, imprinting genes(SNRPN, KCNK9, UBE3A and PEG10) expression were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Q-PCR. Results Compared with the solvent control group, the Nestin positive rate of FY-hES-10 derived neuroprogenitors cells in BDE-209 and/or BPA exposure groups were lower. The expression levels of SNRPN,KCNK9 and UBE3A in BDE-209 and/or BPA exposure groups were lower, the expression levels of PEG10 were also lower in BDE-209 1nmol/L and BDE-209 1nmol/L +BPA 1nmol/L gruops with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The expression level of PEG10 did not change significantly in BPA 1nmol/L exposure group. Conclusions BDE-209 and/or BPA may affect imprinting genes expression resulting in neurodevelopmental toxicity.
    Mechanical trauma increases expression of cardiomyocyte apoptosis protein in rats
    2019, 39(1):  16-21. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of calpain on apoptosis protein expression of caspase-3 and caspase-12 in rat cardiomyocytes after mechanical trauma. Methods The rats were divided into control group, trauma group , and calpain inhibitor (MDL28170) treatment group (i.p, 24 mg / kg). The protein expression of caspase-3, caspase-12, calpain-1 and calpain-2 were detected by Western blot. caspase-3 and caspase-12 activity were measured by activity detection kits. The mRNA expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2 were detected by real-time PCR. Results Compared with the control group, the expression and activity of caspase-3 and caspase-12 were both increased (P <0.01), and the expression of calpain-2 increased (P <0.01). Compared with the trauma group, the expression of calpain-2, the expression and activity of caspase-3 and caspase-12 were significantly decreased (P <0.05) after intervention with inhibitor MDL28170. Conclusions Up-regulation of calpain-2 in cardiomyocytes induced by mechanical trauma may be an important reason for the increase of the expression and activity of caspase-3 and caspase-12.
    Hyperoxia reduces the expression of Bmi1 and Lgr5 in intestinal stem cells of newborn rats
    Liu Dongyan
    2019, 39(1):  22-26. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of hyperoxia treatment on the expression of Bmi1 and Lgr5 in intestinal stem cells of neonates with different ages. Methods Neonatal rats were randomly divided into normal air control group and hyperoxia group (85% O2) and sacrificed at different ages (3 days, 7 days, 10 days, 14 days).Intestinal specimens were collected, the expression of Bmi1 and Lgr5 of its intestinal stem cells was detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blott, and real-time PCR. Results The protein and mRNA expression levels of Bmi1 and Lgr5 in the hyperoxia group were significantly lower than those in the normal control group at different ages (P<0.05).Conclusions The expression of Bmi1 and Lgr5 in the intestinal stem cells of newborn rats at different ages was decreased in hyperoxia environment. Therefore, hyperoxia is considered to affect the growth and development of intestinal stem cells in neonatal rats, which may be the reason of hyperoxia-induced intestinal damage.
    Comparison of peripheral neuropathy between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus rats
    2019, 39(1):  27-31. 
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    Objective To observe the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Methods Male SD rats(10 rats in each group), common diet for 6 weeks to establish type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) model by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ, and high fat and high sugar diet for 6 weeks to establish type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model by single intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg 2%STZ. The normal control group (Con) is also established. The body weight, blood sugar were measured at different time. The mechanical withdrawal threshold was tested by electronic Von Frey instrument and hydrothermal tail-flick test was also conducted before death. The sciatic nerve pathology was examined. Results After 1st, 8th weeks of diabetes, compared with Con group and T2DM group, the body weight in T1DM group decreased significantly (P < 0.01).The blood glucoses in T1DM group and T2DM group were significantly higher than Con group (P < 0.01). DM Group the tail flick latencies in DM groups were longer than that of Con group (P < 0.01), and the numerical value in T2DM group was longer than that in T1DM group (P < 0.05). The threshold of mechanical pain in DM groups were significantly lower than that in group Con (P < 0.01), and the decrease in T2DM group was more obvious than that in T1DM group (P < 0.01). In DM groups, the myelinated nerve fibers in the sciatic nerve were arranged in disorder, with axonal swelling or shrinkage, uneven density of myelin sheath, vacuolar degeneration and partial myelination of nerve fibers. The degree of nerve damage in T2DM group was more severe than that of T1DM. Conclusion: The degree of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic rats induced by STZ is more severe than that of type 1 diabetic rats.
    Down-regulation of insulin like growth factor 1 receptor inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of retinoblastoma cells
    2019, 39(1):  32-36. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of IGF-1R on the growth and apoptosis of retinoblastoma cells. Methods Retinoblastoma cell line WERI-Rb-1 transfected with siRNA control and IGF-1R siRNA, the levels of IGF-1R in transfected cells were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot, cell proliferation was detected by MTT, detection of cell clone formation by plate cloning assay, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, Western blot was used to detect the levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bax, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK in the cells. Results After transfection of IGF-1R siRNA, the levels of IGF-1R mRNA and protein were decreased(P<0.05). The proliferation and colony forming ability of transfected IGF-1R siRNA decreased(P<0.05), the apoptosis rate and the levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and p-p38MAPK in the cells were increased(P<0.05). Conclusions Downregulation of IGF-1R inhibits the growth of retinoblastoma cells, promoting apoptosis of retinoblastoma cells, the mechanism of action is related to cleaved caspase-3, Bax and p-p38MAPK.
    A2aR inhibitors inhibits proliferation and migration of human non-small cell lung cancer cells line A549
    2019, 39(1):  37-41. 
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    Objective To explore the effects and mechanism of A2aR inhibitors(A2aRi) on proliferation, migration, apoptosis in A549 cells. Methods Experiments were divided into control group and intervention group, but the intervention group were treated by different concentrations of A2aR inhibitors. Cells proliferation determined by MTT method. A549 cells migration ability was detected by scratch experiment. Observing expression of A2aR and caspase3 determined by immunofluorescence staining. A2aR, caspase3 protein and A2aR mRNA expression determined by Western blot and RT-PCR . Results A2aRi could inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells(P<0.01)and migration ability of A549 cells were weaken. Red fluorescence intensity of A2aR is less than control; Green fluorescence intensity of caspase3 was enhanced. They expressed in cytoplasm. The expression of caspase3 protein was increased(P<0.01), but the expression of A2aR protein was decreased(P<0.01); and the expression of A2aR mRNA level was down-regulated. Conclusions A2aR is high expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells, A2aRi can inhibit proliferation and migration ability of A549 cells.
    Transfection of miRNAs reduces LPS-induced aquaporin 1 expression in rat intestinal microvascular endothelial cells
    2019, 39(1):  42-46. 
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    Objective To investigate the influences of miRNAs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced aquaporin 1 (AQP1) expression in rat intestinal microvascular dothelial cell. Methods The rat intestinal microvascular endothelial cells were separated from newborn rat intestine by pipetting and digesting with trypsin. Immunofluorescence was used to verify the separated cells. The expression levels of AQP1 and miRNAs were determined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The miRNAs array combined with online softwares was used to identify the miRNAs which targeted AQP1. Transient transfection was performed to further verify the target miRNAs. Results Immunofluorescence staining showed vWF positive in intestinal microvascular endothelial cells. After treated with LPS (0, 0.1, 1, 10 mg/L), the mRNA expression level of AQP1 were decreased with the increased concentration of LPS. Compared with control cells, there were significant differences of AQP1 mRNA expression levels in 1 and 10 mg/L LPS-treated cells(P<0.05 and P<0.001). Compared with the control group, 22 miRNAs were up-regulated (≥2 fold) and 9 miRNAs were down-regulated(<2 fold)in LPS-treated group. miR-423-5p, miR-874-5p, miR-361-3p, miR-219a-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-133b and miR-666 could bind to the promoter region of AQP1. miR-874-5p, miR-361-3p, miR-133b and miR-666 were up-regulated in LPS-treated intestinal microvascular endothelial cells as compared with the control cells. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of AQP1 was decreased after transfection of miR-133b or miR-666 mimics in rat intestinal microvascular endothelial cells compared with cells transfected with control sequence. Conclusions LPS could up-regulate the expression level of miR-133b and miR-666 to inhibit the expression of AQP1, thus affect the intestinal mucosal permeability.
    Role of MCUR1 in multiple myeloma
    2019, 39(1):  47-52. 
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    Objective To explore the expression of MCUR1 in MM patients, and to analyze the effect and molecular mechanism of MCUR1 on the cell cycle and apoptosis of MM cells lines. Methods The leukemia RPMI 8226 cells transiently transfected with the MCUR1 small interfering RNA1 and 2 were used as experimental groups (siMCUR1-1 and siMCUR1-2), and paralleled with negative control siRNA (siCtrl) as the control group. The mRNA expression of MCUR1 in MM patients and control group was analyzed by real-time PCR. The effect of silencing MCUR1 was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot. The effects of MCUR1 on the cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells were detected by using CCK-8 and flow cytometry respectively. Detection the protein expression of p53 and its downstream molecular by Western blot. Results Compared with normal group, the MCUR1 mRNA expression in MM patients was higher (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the cell growth of the siMCUR1 groups were significantly decreased in RPMI 8226 cells (P<0.05), and the percentage of siMCUR1 cells in G1 phase was significantly increased,while the percentage of siMCUR1 cells in S phase was significantly decreased. The apoptosis percentage of siMCUR1 cells was higher than that in the control cells. The protein level of p53 and BAX in the siMCUR1 cells were higher than that in the control cells, while the protein level of BCL2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E in the siMCUR1 cells were lower than that in the control cells. Conclusions The expression of MCUR1 is raised in MM patients, while MCUR1 promotes MM cells growth through down-regulation of p53.
    CYP19 enhances inhibition of dehydroepiandrosterone on high fat-induced MMP-9 expression in rabbit aorta and HUVEC
    2019, 39(1):  53-58. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of DHEA on antiatherosclerosis and its mechanisms. Methods In vitro cultured HUVEC were divided into 6 groups: control group; ox-LDL group (30 mg/L ox-LDL); DHEA (low and high concentration) intervention group (30 mg/L ox-LDL + 0.1 and 1 μmol/L DHEA); DHEA+ATRA intervention group (30 mg/L ox-LDL + 1 μmol/L DHEA + 0.01 μmol/L ATRA); DHEA group (1 μmol/L). The expressions of HUVEC MMP-9 mRNA and protein were determined by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. The eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-CYP19-GFP (CYP19) and pcDNA3.1-GFP were transfected into HUVEC respectively. The transfected HUVEC were treated with ox-LDL and DHEA. The expressions of MMP-9 mRNA and protein of transfection groups were determined by RT-qPCR and ELISA. Rabbits were divided into 5 groups: control group; high lipid group (oral 1%cholesterol and 3%lard oil); DHEA intervention group (oral 0.27% DHEA); DHEA+ATRA intervention group (oral 0.6 mg/kg?d ATRA); DHEA group. The expressions of aortic MMP-9 mRNA and protein were determined by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Results The expression of MMP-9 in HUVEC in ox-LDL group was significantly increased as compared with control group (P<0.05); The expressions of MMP-9 in DHEA (low and high concentration) intervention groups were obviously decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The expression of aortic MMP-9 in high lipid group was significantly increased as compared with control group (P<0.05). Compared with high lipid group the expression of MMP-9 in DHEA intervention group was obviously decreased (P<0.05). The expression of MMP-9 in CYP19+ox-LDL+DHEA group was significantly decreased as compared with empty plasmid+ox-LDL+DHEA group (P<0.05). Conclusions DHEA inhibits high lipid induced MMP-9 expression in rabbit aorta and HUVEC. CYP19 over-expression can enhance the effect of DHEA.
    Tumor markers and angiogenic factors are related to clinical staging and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients
    2019, 39(1):  59-62. 
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between tumor markers and angiogenesis factors and clinical staging and metastasis of colorectal cancer. Methods The levels of tumor markers and angiogenic factors in 100 colorectal cancer patients and 100 healthy people in the same period were detected by electrochemiluminescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the relationship between the levels of tumor markers and angiogenic factors with TNM staging and tumor metastasis of different tumors was analyzed. Results The levels of CEA, CA19-9, Ang-2, VEGF and IGF-1 in the cancer patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Single factor variance results showed that there was a significant difference in CEA, CA19-9, Ang-2, VEGF and IGF-1 levels between different TNM scores (P<0.05). With the progression of tumor, CA19-9, Ang-2 and IGF-1 levels increased significantly (P<0.05), compared with the stage I, II and III, the levels of CEA and VEGF in the stage IV were significantly increased (P<0.05). The levels of CEA, CA19-9, Ang-2, VEGF and IGF-1 in tumor metastasis group were significantly higher than those in non metastasis group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The levels of tumor marker and angiogenesis factors in the colorectal cancer patients are abnormal increase, the detection of its index level has an important clinical value in evaluating tumor staging and metastasis prediction.
    miR-145 suppresses proliferation of human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells
    2019, 39(1):  63-69. 
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    Objective To investigate the specific mechanism of miR-145 regulating cell proliferation of human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Methods 38 pairs of ICC tissues and adjacent tissues were collected. At the same time, to investigate miR-145 function in ICC cells, HuCCT-1 and RBE ICC cell lines were transfected with miR-145 mimics and siRNA-mediated knockdown of NUAK1. The expression of miR-145 and NUAK1 was detected by RT-qPCR. And cell proliferation was observed by cell proliferation and cycle analysis. The target genes of miR-145 were confirmed by the luciferase report. The protein level of AKT pathway was studied by Western blot. Results The expressions of miR-145 in cancer tissues were significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues (p<0.05). While NUAK1 expressions in cancer tissues were significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues (p<0.05), and there was a certain correlation between them. The cell counts of the miR-145 overexpression group and the NUAK1 interference group were less compared with the negative control group (p<0.05). The number of cells in the G1 phase were increased markedly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the wild type fluorescence signal was suppressed significantly (p<0.05). The expression of pAKT and pFOXO1 was significantly decreased, while tAKT and tFOXO1 showed no significant change (p<0.05). Conclusion miR-145 may prevent ICC proliferation by targeting NUAK1 and its downstream effectors, and can therefore be useful for clinical diagnosis and targeted therapy of ICC.
    miR-24 inhibits proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell line SW620 by regulating CARMA3
    2019, 39(1):  70-75. 
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    Objective To identify the role of miR-24 in human colorectal cancer SW620 cell proliferation. Methods SW620 cells were cultured in vitro. The miR-24 was predicted with bioinformatics and identified with dual luciferase report system. Expressions of miR-24 and CARMA3 were determined with Real-time PCR and Western blot after transfection of miR-24. The proliferation of SW620 cells was detected in vitro by CCK8. Results miR-24 can inhibit CARMA3 expression by binding to 3’ UTR of CARMA3 mRNA. miR-24 can negative control the CARMA3 expression. The proliferation of SW620 cells was negative controlled by miR-24. Conclusion The miR-24 may negatively regulate CARMA3 expression by binding to its 3’ UTR in human colorectal cancer SW620 cells and cell proliferation.
    Over-expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 regulates invasion of human glioblastoma cell line U251
    wang can
    2019, 39(1):  76-80. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of BMP4 on glioblastoma cell invasion and its mechanism. Methods In human malignant glioma cells U251, myc, myc-BMP4, siCtrl, siBMP4 was transfected into cells, and changes on the invasive ability of cells with high and low BMP4 expression were detected by Scratch wound healing assay, In mechanism study, RT-PCR and western blot assay were used to detect the expression of E-cadherin and Snail1 in four groups. Results Wound healing results showed that high BMP4 expression in U251 cells decreased cell invasion(P<0.01), and low BMP4 expression increased cell invasion; RT-EPCR and Western blot assay results showed that high BMP4 expression significantly increase E-cadherin expression(P<0.01), low BMP4 expression significantly decrease E-cadherin expression(P<0.01), when BMP4 expression was high, Snail1 protein expression was decreased(P<0.01). Conclusion: BMP4 can regulate GBM cell invasion through negative regulation of Snail1 signaling pathway.
    Improved treatment by combined naso-pharyngeal surgery for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in 340 cases
    2019, 39(1):  81-84. 
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    Objective To observe the curative effects of combined surgical treatment on obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods Nasopharyngeal OSAHS patients were randomly divided the patients from December 2014 to December 2016 were as control group received uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (H-UPPP) .Combined treatment group, including implementation of H-UPPP combined with expansion nasal surgery. We compared two groups of treatment efficiency and operation data, comparing the preoperative and postoperative MSpO2, LSpO2, SpO2, AHI index, PSQI score, the ESS score and complications. Results The effective rate of the combined treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The average time of hospitalization was shorter than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The MSpO2 and LSpO2 in the combo group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while TS90% was lower than that of the control group (P< 0.05). The incidence of AHI index, PSQI score, ESS score and complications after operation in the combined treatment group were lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions H-UPPP combined with nasal dilatation can significantly improve blood gas analysis index and sleep and breathing quality, shorten hospitalization time and reduce postoperative complications, which is worthy of clinical application.
    Research progress of ROS in regulating macrophage polarization
    2019, 39(1):  92-96. 
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    Macrophages are divided into classically (M1)-and alternatively (M2)-activated macrophage phenotypes.The former secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines to amplify inflammation, while the latter secrete inflammation inhibition factors to inhibit excessive inflammation and promote angiogenesis,tissue repair, tumor growth and so on. As an important second messenger, ROS not only lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines,but also promote the occurrence and development of cancer.Under different stimulating conditions,ROS can transform macrophage into different phenotypes by regulating the polarization process,and further play different roles.
    Advances in the interaction between SNCA and GBA gene in Parkinson’s disease
    2019, 39(1):  97-101. 
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    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, whose cause and the mechanism is unclear. We gradually discover that genes related to PD,such as SNCA, GBA, LRRK2, SCARB2, LAMP3, BAB29/RAB7L1, MAPT, GAK, SREBF1, GPNMB, et al., increase the indicine of the sporadic PD. SNCA gene and GBA gene are the genetic factors of PD, and their interaction in PD is still illuminated.
    Role of mononuclear phagocyte system in hypertension
    2019, 39(1):  102-105. 
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    Chronic inflammatory induced by innate and adaptive immune system involves in the occurrence, development and target organ injury of hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system, as part of innate immune system, is composed of monocyte, macrophage and monocyte derived dendritic cell, which participates in blood pressure regulation through vascular inflammation, central sympathetic nerve system and water-salt balance.
    Research progress of exosomes in sepsis diagnosis and treatment
    2019, 39(1):  106-109. 
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    Exosomes are small (30~150 nm) vesicles of endocytic origin produced by all cells under physiological and pathological conditions,with the potential to transfer proteins, lipids, small RNAs, messenger RNAs, or DNA between cells. Exosomes, regulate many pathophysiological processes, including immune responses and inflammatory reactions, tumors, and infections, which play a central role in cellular communication.
    Research progress of regulatory B cells promoting the development of tumor
    2019, 39(1):  110-114. 
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    Regulatory B cells are a newly designated subset of B cells that have shown to play a significant role in inhibiting tumor immunity and promoting the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Bregs can suppress diverse cell subtypes through the secretion of cytokines, such as IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-β, thus attenuating anti-tumor immune responses.
    Effect of FOXO1 on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver
    2019, 39(1):  115-119. 
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    As a member of the forkhead box transcription factor (FOXO) family, FOXO1 is subjected to protein–protein interactions and post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. FOXO1 can promote the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and can bind to the apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) promoter to induce ApoC-III expression and aggravate hypertriglyceridemia. FOXO1 phosphorylation contributes to the promotion of liver microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) expression and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) production. The role of FOXO1 in glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver provides a new therapeutic target for insulin resistance and diabetes.
    Research progress in assessment methods and mechanisms of neural disease induced by blood-brain barrier injury
    2019, 39(1):  120-124. 
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    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a significant physiological barrier segregated between the central neural system and peripheral blood circulation. It plays an essential role in maintaining the brain homeostasis. Many neurological conditions are accompanied with blood-brain barrier disruption(e.g. traumatic brain injury、intracranial tumor、chronic neurodegenerative disorders).Recently many experiments have suggested that the blood-brain barrier disruption may be a cause rather than just a result from brain damage which suggested that the BBB is an important therapeutic target. However, the current lack of concise and accurate blood-brain barrier assessment has become a limiting factor in the clinical practice and research of central neuropathy.
    Reform and practice of multi-levels flipped class in pathobiology experimental teaching
    2019, 39(1):  125-128. 
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    To meet the “Open and Innovation” teaching mode of modern university and strengthen the competency of clinical medical students, the teacher reforms the experiment assignments and teaching methods. The study uses multi-levels teaching model to flip the class. The study aims to promote students learning “systematic and integral” knowledge and build creative skills, problem solving and research ability.
    Applying mind mapping in pathophysiology teaching
    2019, 39(1):  129-131. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of auxiliary mind mapping teaching method in pathophysiology teaching. Methods Taking the class as a unit, the students of clinical medicine were selected randomly. Out of them, the traditional teaching method was used in the control group, while the experimental group assisted the teaching of mind mapping on the traditional basis. At the end of the course, a questionnaire survey was conducted on the teaching effectiveness. Results The understanding ability, learning efficiency, initiative, satisfaction, knowledge structure clarity, mastery ability and the divergent thinking ability of the students in the experimental group were significantly better than those in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusions Auxiliary mind mapping teaching method can significantly improve the teaching quality of pathophysiology.
    Influence of medical vocabularies on learning human histology in minority language students
    2019, 39(1):  132-135. 
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    Because of their poor language foundation, minority language students in medical colleges have poor understanding in the process of theoretical knowledge. In particular, when studying morphological disciplines such as "human histology", the students of the minority language say that medical professional vocabularies will significantly affect the learning efficiency. The author collects the learning situation of "human histology" feedback from clinical medical students in a university in Xinjiang by means of questionnaires. After the analysis and arrangement, it is found that teachers should pay attention to the learning needs of the students in the process of teaching, and can use the corresponding method of word map to further explain the vocabularies of the remote professional, in order to help the students to understand and master the medical knowledge better.
    Application of problem-clinical medical curriculum combined with problem-based learning teaching model in nursing training of the emergency ward
    2019, 39(1):  136-139. 
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    Objective To explore the value of combined use of PCMC and PBL teaching model in nursing training in emergency ward. Methods We choose west China hospital of Sichuan university from June 2015 to December 2015, a total of 108 nursing interns as the research object, and according to the different teaching mode will be randomly divided into traditional teaching group (control group) and the combined teaching mode group (experimental group) or "heuristic teaching mode of Clinical medicine" (Problem - originated Clinical Medical Curriculum, referred to as: PCMC) and "based on the problems of the teaching mode" (Problem -based learning, PBL) dual mode of joint. In nursing teaching. Analysis of qualified rate (theory + operation) and satisfaction degree of intern nursing in different teaching mode. Results The total acceptance rate of the trainees in the experimental group was 100.00%, compared with 77.78% (P = 0.05) in the control group. The degree of satisfaction of the trainees in the experimental group was 95.00%, compared with 70.00% (P = 0.05) in the control group. Conclusion Compared to the control group, the experimental group of emergency ward nursing intern teaching, can not only help them to achieve good results, and can improve the emergency department patients satisfaction on nursing interns is worthy of promotion.
    Exploration of quality grade evaluation system on medical literature
    2019, 39(1):  140-143. 
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    Objective Study of the development of medical literature quality evaluation system, to provide theoretical basis for the evaluation of the literature, in order to guide the design of the experimental research. Methods Through the elaboration of literature of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine literature content level evaluation system, summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of medical literature evaluation system. Results The methods and tools used in the existing literature evaluation, which have advantages and disadvantages, especially in TCM literature the evaluation methods need to be further perfect. It should be based on the type of study to choose the appropriate evaluation system. Conclusions Medical literature is the basis of medical research, only high quality literature is beneficial to guide the scientific research, to evaluate the method of literature content and tools is worthy of our in-depth study and improve.
    The contrastive study on identity issues of medical students in China and abroad during clinical clerkship
    2019, 39(1):  144-148. 
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    Objective To preliminarily analyze the situation of identity issues of Chinese medical students and to explore the potential solution. Methods Choose medical students from China and abroad as study subjects and use self-designed questionnaire to investigate the adverse events that medical students go through during clerkship and the attitudes of medical students towards identity issues. Results The total amount of valid questionnaires is 402 from China and 74 from abroad. The demographic characteristics show no significant difference between these two groups. Fewer medical students from abroad have been through the distrust from patients and refusal to perform medical procedures due to their student identity. Students from abroad are more inclined to clarify their student identity compared to Chinese students (77% vs 30.9%). The proportion of students who acknowledge patients’ right to know is significantly higher than that of China (97.2% vs 88.8%). Conclusion Medical students in China are facing a more challenging identity issue compared to students from abroad. They go through adverse events more frequently. This circumstance needs to be solved by institutional building.
    Application of flipped class teaching in pathology experiment class
    2019, 39(1):  149-152. 
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    Objective To explore the application effect of flipped class teaching in pathological experiment class. Methods In the experimental teaching of pathology, Grade 2014 undergraduate students of Fourth Military Medical University were selected as control group, which used the traditional teaching method. Grade 2015 undergraduate students of Fourth Military Medical University were selected as experimental group, which used the flipped class teaching method. The teaching effect of the flipped class teaching method was observed by presenting pathological experiment assignments, the examination results of the experimental class and the questionnaire survey. Results The results of pathological experiment assignments and the experimental class were significantly better than those of the control group(P<0.05). And questionnaire survey results showed that the flipped class teaching method in experimental group had better recognition than that of traditional teaching method in control group(P<0.05). Conclusions The flipped class teaching method of pathology experiment class has stimulated students' interest in learning, arouse the enthusiasm and initiative of the students, and improve the teaching quality of pathology experiment.
    Evaluation of clinical and research performance of clinical postdoctoral program candidates
    2019, 39(1):  153-156. 
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    Objective To have an in-depth understanding of the correlations between the training approach and the outcome of clinical and research of the clinical post-doctor candidates, and to strengthen the training accordingly. Methods The 2016 clinical post-doctor candidates are taken as the object of study, using single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square test, and multiple comparison method to describe and analyze the test results of medical theory, clinical practice, English, specialty interview and the research outcomes before graduation. Results The 8-year (including the the 8-year transferred from 7-year) clinical medical doctors exceed the graduates of other channels in terms of clinical competency and comprehensive performance, but with less research outcome, and vice versa. Different training approach of medical doctoral graduates has its own characteristics. Conclusions It is crucial to integrate goals and approaches of training to improve the quality of training and to facilitate career paths.