Table of Content

    05 December 2018, Volume 38 Issue 12
    Association of serum proneurotensin levels with metabolic syndrome in Guizhou Han population
    2018, 38(12):  1673-1679. 
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    Objective To investigate the association of serum proneurotensin (PNT) levels with metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related items. Methods A total of 312 Hans from Guizhou province were recruited in the present study and divided into control, non-MetS and MetS groups according to age and gender. Subjects with or without MetS were diagnosed according to the IDF diagnostic criteria. Serum PNT levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results Serum PNT levels in the MetS group were significantly increased by 10.3% compared with the controls [ (57.54±13.16) ng/L vs. (52.19±13.28) ng/L, P<0.05]. Serum PNT level was independently negatively correlated with age, but positively correlated with TG, FBG and LDL-C in all subjects. TG, FBG, LDL-C and age were independent factors for serum PNT levels. According to tertiles of PNT, binary logistic regression analysis between MetS and controls showed that the risk of MetS in subjects with the highest serum PNT levels was 1.32-fold higher than in those with the lowest PNT levels after adjusting for age and gender [odds ratio (OR) = 2.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34~4.87, P<0.05]. Conclusions It has been founded that serum PNT levels are positively correlated with components of MetS and independently negatively correlated with age. Subjects with high serum PNT levels are more susceptible to MetS than those with low PNT levels. PNT might be the risk factor of MetS.
    Clinical features and genetic detection of a family with hereditary late-onset deafness
    2018, 38(12):  1680-1685. 
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    Objective Investigate the clinical features and pathogenic genes ofa family with hereditary late-onset deafness in Inner Mongolia, and to provide evidence for the early screening and diagnosis of this disease. Methods Through family survey, conducted audiological testing and physical examination of the family members; draw a family tree, collate and analyze the family data; extracting peripheral blood DNA; using the candidate gene capture sequencing method was used to detect the 127 known genes in the proband, the mutated gene loci were amplified by PCR and Sanger sequenced. Results The family a total of 6 generations, which dates back to the 53 people, 19 people are deaf, postlingually deaf, showed delayed and progressive hearing loss, the age of onset was 10~40 years, patients with hearing loss showed bilateral symmetric mild to severe sensorineural deafness. The results of the proband identified 1 potential pathogenic loci:GJB3, c.400A>G that were not clinically clear. The sequence was verified by direct sequencing, and there was no common segregation in this family. Conclusions It is dominant. From the proband we captured the gene mutation(GJB3, c.400A>G) and from a autosomal dominant deafness family detection it can not be identified as the family mutation, further through a new generation of sequencing of whole genomesequencing technology to explore.
    Osteoking ameliorates tree shrew osteoporosis model through regulating the differentiation of osteocytes
    2018, 38(12):  1686-1690. 
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    Objective To explore whether OK could ameliorate the OP in the castration OP tree shrew model. Methods Forty-eight female experimental tree shrews were randomly divided into control group (n = 8), OP model group (n = 8). The animals were removed bilateral ovaries (detecting a 25% decline in whole body BMD), and received saline by gavage daily. The tree shrews in OK-L (n = 8), OK-M (n = 8) and OK-H (n = 8) group were given the OK 0.5 mL/d, 1.5 mL/d and 3.0 mL/d of OK by gavage, tree shrews in positive control (n = 8) group were given the Premarin 1.5 mL/d, all the tree shrews were sacrificed 10 weeks later, the serum and bone were collected, the serum E2, Ca2+, P3+, BGP, ALP, the urine Ca, P, and the BMD were measured; RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression level of OPG, RANKL and RUNX2. Results Low,medium and high dose of OK can increase the E2, Ca2+, P3+, ALP levels in serum significantly,and reduce the Ca, P levels in serum and the BGP level in serum; As well as upregulating the expression levels of OPG and RUNX2, downregulating the expression level of RANKL. Conclusions OK can increase the secretion of E2, inhibit bone resorption and enhance bone formation, and increase the BMD to alleviate the OP.
    Generation of testis-derived iPSCs from obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia
    2018, 38(12):  1691-1695. 
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    Objective To establish testis-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) of patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), and contrast the difference in the two lines process. Methods 5 to 6 mm3 testicular tissue of 3 OA and idiopathic NOA patients were excised for primary culture, transfected Sendai virus in 3rd or 4th passages, and transferred cell on feeder after they are dense. Then pick the iPS clone on the 21st to the 22nd day, establish iPSCs line and identify iPSCs pluripotency and differentiation potential. Results Two iPSCs lines were successfully established, there were no significant differences in the two lines. Both AP stains were positive, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), SRY-related-box protein-2 (SOX2), and stage-specific embryonic antigen- 4 (SSEA-4) and tumor rejection antigen-1-60 (TRA-1-60) were all positive for immunofluorescence staining; teratoma test in mice also showed that the obtained two iPSCs could differentiate to three-dimensional germ layers. Conclusion Using the Sendai virus non-genomic integration transfection approach, testis-derived iPSCs can be established in OA and idiopathic NOA patients.
    Efficacy of apatinib on patient-derived xenograft mouse model for gastric cancer and the significance of CD31
    2018, 38(12):  1696-1701. 
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    Objective To investigate the predictive biomarker of efficacy of apatinib and its feasibility in combination with paclitaxel on patient-derived xenografts (PDX) for gastric cancer (GC). Methods A total of six GC PDX mouse models were selected. Each model was divided into control group, apatinib group, paclitaxel group and combination group. The tumor volume and the body weight of mice were measured and the tumor growth inhibition (TGI) rate was calculated. Targeted next-generation sequencing and transcriptome sequencing were conducted on tumor tissues of PDX models, respectively. The CD31 expressions of tumor tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. Results Apatinib monotherapy showed selective antitumor activities on six GC PDX models,which was superior to paclitaxel. After apatinib treatment, the expressions of FGFR1/2 were downregulated. The differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in biological processes of vasculature development, blood circulation, inflammation response, and protein cascade activation and the complement and coagulation cascade signaling pathway. PDX models with relatively high microvessel density were more sensitive to apatinib than that of models with lower microvessel density. Conclusions Apatinib exerted its antitumor effect by inhibiting angiogenesis in GC PDX models. The microvessel density of tumor tissue might predict the efficacy of apatinib, and whether the combination of apatinib and paclitaxel should be recommended in clinical practice needs further validation.
    Construct R778L type hepatolenticular degeneration mouse model with CRISPR/Cas9 system
    2018, 38(12):  1702-1707. 
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    Objective R780L mutant mice directed against the human hepatolenticular degeneration R778L mutation type were constructed using a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing system. Methods The conserved nature of the ATP7B gene and protein in humans and mice was confirmed by BLAST. Microinjection of mouse fertilized eggs was carried out by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and pathological and physiological tests were performed on the symptoms of hepatolenticular degeneration mouse model. Results The sequences of ATP7B gene and protein between humans and mouse were highly conserved. The homozygous R780L mutant mouse were successfully obtained by CRISPR/Cas9 system, which showed significant liver copper ion deposition and elevated serum ALT and AST and no detectable off-target effects were observed. Conclusion Successfully constructed a R780L mutant mouse model for human hepatolenticular degeneration R778L type using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knock-in system.
    Ferulic acid regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion through estrogen receptor α in human breast cancer cell line
    2018, 38(12):  1708-1712. 
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    Objective To figure out whether ferulic acid regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Methods After 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 mmol/L ferulic acid treatment for 24 h, CCK-8 assay was performed to detect cell viability and colony formation was detected by soft agar assay. After 0 or 2.5 mmol/L ferulic acid treatment for 24 h, scratch assay and transwell assay were performed to reveal migrating and invasing abilities. Gene expressing silencing and overexpression were employed to evaluate whether estrogen receptor α was involved in the regulatory role of ferulic acid. RT-qPCR analysis was performed to detect MALAT-1 levels after ferulic acid treatment. Results With the growing concentration of ferulic acid, cell viability was promoted (P<0.05). Compared to control group, ferulic acid treatment promoted proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in MCF-7 in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). Silencing of ERα decreased the effect of Ferulic acid on MCF-7; overexpression of ERα increased the effect of ferulic acid on MB231. It was also revealed that ferulic acid exposure regulated MALAT-1 expressing level in a ERα dependent manner. Conclusion Ferulic acid serum regulates lncRNA MALAT-1 and the proliferation, migration and invasionin MCF-7 cells depending on the existence of ERα receptor.
    IL-6 level is increased upon intrapartum fever in labor analgesia
    2018, 38(12):  1713-1717. 
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    Objective To study whether miRNA is associated with the intrapartum fevers at term in Labor Analgesia. Methods Term cases with or without intrapartum fever after Labor Analgesia, and other cases without receiving Labor Analgesia were recruited. Maternal serum and umbilical vein blood were collected and assayed for interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. The relative expression of miR-146b、miR-124 and miR-21 were determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis; 293T cells were transfected with miRNA mimics or control. The effects of miR-146b on IL-6 expression were measured by dual-luciferase assay. The effects of miR-146b on inflammatory signaling pathway were examined by Western blot analysis. Results Maternal and umbilical vein IL-6 levels were higher in intrapartum fevers cases than in controls (median of 145 pg/mL vs 42 pg/mL or 37 pg/ml, p < 0.01). miR-146b expression in both Maternal and umbilical vein was decmiR-146b mimic into 293T cells reduces the reporter gene activity. miR-146b inhibits IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway in 293T cells. Conclusions miR-146b is associated with the maternal inflammatory response after receiving Labor Analgesia via regulating IL-6 expression.
    HBX protein trans-activiate gene XTP4 promotes the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line
    2018, 38(12):  1718-1723. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of over-expression of XTP4 and the interference of XTP4 on cell migration and invasion in HepG2. Methods The experiment was divided into control group, overexpression group and interference group. The constructed recombinant plasmid XTP4 and the chemically synthesized XTP4 small interfering RNA (siRNA) were transiently transfected into HepG2 cells and cultured for 48 hours. Real-time quantitative PCR (q RT-PCR) Western blotting was used to detect the expression of XTP4 mRNA and protein, Snail and NF-κB as well as EMT-related molecules in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Through cell scratch healing experiment and Transwell migration and invasion assay, the cell migration and invasion ability was observed. Results The XTP4 plasmid was successfully re-cultured and extracted. The transcription and translation levels of XTP4 in overexpression group were significantly higher than those in control group. The migration and invasion ability of XTP4 were significantly increased, while the expressions of NF-κB, Snail and MMP-9 were also increased. The transcription level and translation level of XTP4 in the interference group were significantly lower than those in the control group, the ability of migration and invasion was also significantly decreased, and the expressions of NF-κB, Snail and MMP-9 were decreased. Conclusions Hepatitis B virus transactivator XTP4 may promote the migration and invasion of HepG2, which may be related to the regulation of NF-κB, Snail and MMP-9. EMT-related molecules E-cadherin and N-cadherin may be involved.
    Comparison of the effects of two kinds of extract oil on gastric acid secretion and pepsin activity in mice with gastric ulcer
    2018, 38(12):  1724-1726. 
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    Objective To compare the effect of two kinds of extract oil on gastric acid secretion and pepsin activity in mice with gastric ulcer and provide experimental basis for the treatment of gastric ulcer disease. Methods One hundred and twenty KM mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, okra seed oil and ginger oil prevention group. The gastric ulcer mice model were induced by ethanol, which were then given drugs for one week. The total acidity of gastric juice and pepsin activity in each group were measured and calculated. Results The total acidity and pepsin activity of gastric juice in the model group were higher than that in the blank control group (P<0.05). The total acidity and pepsin activity of gastric juice in okra seed oil group and ginger oil group were lower than that in the control group; The total acidity and pepsin activity of gastric juice in okra seed oil group were lower than that in ginger oil group (P<0.05). Conclusions Okra seed oil and ginger oil have protective effect on gastric ulcer in mice gastric mucosa, and the protective effect of the same dosage of the seed oil of okra is more significant.
    Role of RNA methylation reader YTHDF2 in the development of human acute myeloid leukemia
    2018, 38(12):  1727-1732. 
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    Objective To study the expression and function of RNA methylation reader YTHDF2 in the development of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from AML patients and normal controls were used to detect the relative expression of YTHDF2 mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR analysis; THP-1 cells were transfected with siRNAs specific to YTHDF2 or control. The effects of YTHDF2 knock-down on THP-1 cell proliferation were examined by CCK-8 (p<0.05). The effects of YTHDF2 knock-down on THP-1 cell monocytic differentiation were examined by FACS analysis. The influence of YTHDF2 on target gene MZF1 mRNA stability was determined by quantitative RT-PCR after AcD treatment. The influence of YTHDF2 on target gene MZF1 protein expression was determined by Western blot (p<0.05). Results The expression of YTHDF2 mRNA was up-regulated in the PBMCs from AML patients compared to the normal controls. Knock-down of YTHDF2 reduces THP-1 cell proliferation and promotes its monocytic differentiation induced by PMA. YTHDF2 could regulate MZF1 expression by affecting the stability of MZF1 mRNA. Conclusions YTHDF2 might act as oncogene in AML by controlling the expression of its target gene MZF1.
    Puerarin attenuated sevoflurane Induced injury in human neuroglioma cell H4
    2018, 38(12):  1733-1736. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of puerarin on the injury of H4 human neuroglioma cells induced by sevoflurane. Methods H4 human neuroglioma cells were cultured in vitro and divided into 4 groups: control group; sevoflurane group (cells were treated with 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 h); puerarin (cells were cultured only with 100 μmol/L puerarin for 6 h); sevoflurane+puerarin group (cells were pre-treated with 100 μM puerarin for 1 h before the expose to sevoflurane for 6 h). CCK8 assay was used to detect the cell viability. Cell apoptosis was detected by caspase 3 activity kit and flow cytometry. The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) was tested by probe DCFH-DA. Spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Western blot was used to assess expression of BACE1. Results Compared with control group, cell viability of sevoflurane group was significantly decreased(p<0.01), apoptosis and the expression of BACE1 was obviously increased (p<0.01), the level of ROS and MDA was significant increased (p<0.01) while the activities of SOD was significantly depressed(p<0.01). However, the puerarin observably attenuated these changes (p<0.01). Conclusion Puerarin protected H4 human neuroglioma cells against apoptosis and oxidative stress and attenuated the expression of BACE1 induced by sevoflurane, suggesting that it may be new strategy for prevention of Alzheimer’s disease caused by inhalation anesthetics.
    Up-regulated mir-548p expression inhibits the proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3
    2018, 38(12):  1737-1742. 
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    Objective To study the effects of miR-548p on the proliferation and migration of SKOV-3 cells in ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro, and its relevant mechanism. Methods The expression of miR-548p in ovarian cancer tissues,paracancerous tissue and ovarian cancer cell lines were analyzed by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Moreover, the effects of miR-548p on SKOV-3 cell proliferation and migration were explored by MTT and Transwell assays using miR-548p mimics in SKOV-3 cells. Western blot method was used to detect the effects of miR-548p on matrix metalloproteinases, mitochondrial apoptosis related proteins and NF-κB signaling pathway in SKOV-3 cells. Results MiR-548p was poorly expressed in ovarian tissues and ovarian cancer cell lines compared to adjacent normal ovary tissues and cell lines. The increase of miR-548p expression inhibited the proliferation and migration of SKOV-3 cells, decreased the related MMP-2, MMP-9 and Bcl-2 expression, and increased Bax expression. Conclusion MiR-548p regulates the proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells through reducing the phosphorylation level of p65, and provides a new target for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
    Trimethylamine oxide promotes inflammatory response in human aortic vascular endothelial cells
    2018, 38(12):  1743-1748. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of trimetylamine oxide (TMAO) on the inflammatory response of human aortic endothelial cells and mouse abdominal aorta, and further explore the activation of NF-κb in the inflammatory response signaling pathway. Methods The human aortic endothelial cells were divided into control group and TMAO group. The cells were treated with TMAO. The cell survival rate was detected by CCK-8 method. The mRNA expression of inflammatory response factor was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The protein expression and its nuclear status was detected by western blotting, in vivo mice were divided into control group and TMAO group. Mice were treated with intraperitoneal injection of TMAO, and the expression of inflammatory factor mRNA was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Results At TMAO 1 000, 3 000, and 5 000 μmol/L, the survival rate of the cells was decreased (P<0.01). The mRNA expression of inflammatory response factors was significantly increased after TMAO treatment of cells and mice. High increased phosphorylation of p65 and p65 and proteins into the nucleus (P<0.05). Conclusions TMAO may stimulate vascular endothelial cells to release inflammatory response factors through activation of NF-κb signaling pathway, and may affect the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.
    LXA4 reduces LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines release in obesity rats
    2018, 38(12):  1749-1752. 
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    Objective To study the effects of LXA4 to the releasing of inflammatory cytokines in obese rat. Methods Rats were used to create obesity model with high fat diet (HFD) and the control group were fed with normal diet (ND). These successfully established models were then divided into three subgroups, including the control group, LPS group and LXA4 intervention group. All of rats were killed after 12 hours and heart blood was collected to detect TNFα and IL-6 levels though ELISA. Western Blot experiments tested the activation in the downstream NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways. Results Comparing with ND group, IL-6 and TNFα levels both increased significantly in HFD group(P<0.05). After LPS injection, the levels of IL-6 and TNFα both increased in ND and HFD group(P<0.05). However, LXA4 intervention can obviously decrease the releasing of IL-6 and TNFα(P<0.05). Both NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways activated obviously in HFD group comparing with ND group. In addition, LXA4 intervention can decrease the activation of NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways caused by LPS in ND and HFD group. Conclusion LXA4 intervention can effectively reduce the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and inhibit the activation of NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways caused by LPS in obese rats, which revealing dual protective effects on obesity and inflammatory reaction.
    Determination of vancomycin concentration by UPLC-MS/MS and comparison with microparticle chemiluminescence method
    2018, 38(12):  1753-1758. 
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    Objective To establish the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for vancomycin in human serum. Methods The analyses were carried out using the Waters ACQUITY UPLC/AB SCIEX QTRAP 4000 ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, with ACQUITY UPLC BEH Amide chromatography column and norvancomycin as internal standard. The electrospray ionization and positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for vancomycin mass spectrometry measurement. The method evaluation tests included specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and method comparison with micro-particle chemiluminescence method. Results The method of UPLC-MS/MS for vancomycin had good specificity. The retention time of vancomycin was 2.0 minutes. The linear range was 1-100 mg/L (R2 = 0.997) with the quantitative limit of 1mg/L. The inter-day and inner-day precision were less than 15%, and the accuracy was in the range of 96.2%~108%. The correlation analysis showed a good linear between micro-particle chemiluminescence immunoassay method and UPLC-MS/MS, with the correlation equation y=0.576x+2.367 (R2=0.911). There was 21% negative bias when UPLC-MS/MS compared with chemiluminescence method for higher specificity. Conclusions A simple and accurate method of UPLC-MS/MS/MS for determination of vancomycin in human serum is developed in this study, which has good correlation with chemiluminescence method, and is appropriate for clinical application.
    Rsearch progress of cell carries carried oncolytic virus
    Hui TANG
    2018, 38(12):  1761-1765. 
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    Oncolytic viruses are administered intratumorally and intravenously. Oncolytic viruses delivered through intravenous injection trend to be eliminated by immune system and fail to exert anti-tumor activity. The anti-immune/tumor effect can be better exerted by using cells carries having lymphocyte characteristics, having stem cell characteristics, having tumor cell characteristics, and transporting oncolytic virus to reach a tumor site.
    Pyroptosis and tissue fibrosis
    2018, 38(12):  1766-1770. 
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    Pyroptosis is a new type of programmed cell death that is specific to caspace-1. Associated stimuli activate inflammatory corpuscles and initiate pyroptosis, leading to cell death and the release of inflammatory factor IL-1β and IL-18. Pyroptosis mediates the axial pathological changes of "pyroptosis-inflammatory response-fibrosis" in many kinds of fibrosis diseases, expands inflammatory cascade reaction, and exacerbates the course of tissue fibrosis. Therefore, the initiation of cell pyroptosis has gradually become a new direction of drug target.
    Circular RNA and cardiovascular diseases
    Ju-xiang LI,
    2018, 38(12):  1771-1775. 
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    Circular RNA (cirRNA) is a class of circlar of circular non-coding RNAs that exist in all organisms. With the development of sequencing technology, it has been found that there are thousands of circons in human being. At present, the most studied is that the circRNA can be a microRNA (miRNA) sponge, specifically absorbed miRNA, so that the expression of related miRNA in vivo is down-regulated. CircRNA has been found to play an important role in cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm, myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. CircRNA can regulate cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis through different mechanisms, and then cause the corresponding development of cardiovascular disease.
    Research progress on the role of cytokines in severe malaria
    2018, 38(12):  1776-1780. 
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    The high-risk groups of malaria infection are mainly children and pregnant women. Severe malaria is the main cause of deaths. Its clinical manifestations are severe anemia, acute renal failure and so on. Cytokines produced by the host immune response against Plasmodium infection have an important role in controlling the occurrence, development and prognosis of malaria. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are closely related to the development and progression of severe malaria.
    Research progress of long non-coding RNAs in gastric cancer
    2018, 38(12):  1781-1785. 
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    Long non-coding RNAs(lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides and are closely related to the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. The abnormal expression of lncRNAs affects the biological processes of gastric cancer cells. For instance, lncRNA HOTAIR, GHET1, DANCR, HULC and MEG3 can regulate the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer via multiple mechanisms such as epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Therefore, lncRNAs are expected to become new biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer and have potential guiding significance for therapy and prognosis.
    Research progress of sestrins retarding the aging
    2018, 38(12):  1786-1790. 
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    Previous studies have shown that excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and chronic avtivation of mTORC1 will result in aging.Sestrins,a family of highly consevered stress-inducible proteins,are important negative regulators of both ROS and mTORC1 signaling pathways;however,the mechanistic basis of how sestrins suppress these pathways remains unknown.In recent years,great disvoveries about sestrins have deeply increased our understanding of sestrin function.These disvoveries have also uncovered new potential therapeutic strategies that may eventually enable us to attenuate aging and age-related diseases.
    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase and neuroblastoma
    2018, 38(12):  1791-1794. 
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    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common and deadly childhood solid tumors, originated from the medulla of the adrenal gland or the paravertebral sympathetic nervous system. Studies have shown that many genes are involved in the development of NB, in which ALK plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NB. The new targeted therapy based on ALK inhibitors has become a research hotspot in the treatment of NB. However, the mechanism of ALK in NB is not yet clear. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pathogenesis of ALK in NB, which can provide new ideas for targeted therapy of NB.
    Progress in the treatment of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy
    2018, 38(12):  1795-1798. 
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    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a familiar disease in orbit, ranking top among the orbital diseases with highest incidence. Traditional treatment includes the use of corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical treatment. In recent years, relative researches about selenium, biological immunosuppressive agents have been increased and showed great potential in the treatment of TAO.
    Research progress of major signal pathways and signaling molecules in bone metabolism
    2018, 38(12):  1799-1803. 
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    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by decreased bone mass and increased bone fragility. The osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts and the mineralization of extracellular matrix are important processes of bone mass maintenance .And this process is regulated by multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways. This article reviews the major pathways related to bone metabolism, including Wnt, BMP, RANKL and NOTCH signaling pathways, and the key molecules involved in these pathways. By intervening the activation of these pathways, bone metabolism can be regulated. And this provides a new target for the treatment of osteoporosis.
    Establishment of a new curriculum of academic literacy and research ability for the medical graduates
    2018, 38(12):  1804-1807. 
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    The objective of medical research is to explore the essence of life science, to reveal the mechanisms of human diseases and to improve human health and diagnosis and treatment level. This requires the medical graduates to have more prominent innovative thinking, more comprehensive scientific quality, more rigorous academic style and more tenacious scientific spirit. To this end, we established a new curriculum of academic literacy and research ability for the medical graduates based on the teaching practices in the Department of Neurobiology of Fourth Military Medical University in the past two years. This aims to cultivate outstanding medical graduates and to lay a solid foundation for the professional medical talents.
    Investigation of practice and skill of statistical consultation in general hospital
    2018, 38(12):  1808-1812. 
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    Objective To summarize the requirements of statistical consultation and investigate the way of improve consultants skill in scientific research platform of general hospital. Methods We consecutive collected information of 352 statistical requester from scientific research platform of central research laboratory of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between September 2014 and May 2018, analyzing characteristics of requester, consulting purpose, and methodology requirement. Results People who have intermediate title contributed the largest proportion (45.4%), followed by people who have senior academic titles (34.4%). According to proportion of consulting purpose from high to low, the order of consulting purpose were writing and publishing research paper (73.0%), conducting study (9.4%), applying for funds (8.5%),writing graduation thesis (6.3%), etc. The weight of modern statistical method such as survival analysis is becoming heavy. Conclusions The requirements of statistical consultation is increasing. Consultants need to have great communication skills, excellent theoretical knowledge, rich experience in clinical research, familiar with statistical software, and strong learning capability in modern statistical method.
    Practice and exploration of the medical immunology teaching combined with clinical application
    2018, 38(12):  1813-1816. 
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    With the increasing importance of medical immunology in clinical medicine, how to combine with clinical knowledge effectively in the teaching process is a goal of medical immunology course. In order to unite the clinical application with basic knowledge of medical immunology, this article introduced clinical cases, news reports and stories, qualification examination, cutting-edge advances into classroom teaching. This teaching method would be beneficial to cultivate medical students' logical thinking ability, clinical analysis ability and the ability to solve the problem of clinical practice, thus they will become high-quality clinical professional talents with thick foundation, heavy practice and strong ability.
    Investigation on the current state of sonographers in Tibet Autonomous Region
    2018, 38(12):  1817-1820. 
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    Objective To investigate the current state and training need of ultrasonographers in Tibet autonomous region. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of sonographers in all medical units in Tibet autonomous region, which is taken in May 2018. The examiners' confidence and training needs were scored. Results A total of 144 valid questionaires was gained. Few sonographers in Tibet autonomous region can perform interventional ultrasound, abdominal vascularity, transvaginal gynaecological scan, echocardiography, carotid and extremity vascularity independently. They have a moderate degree of confidence in performing the ultrasound examination, and a high degree of training needs. Conclusions There is a shortage of sonographers in Tibet autonomous region. Targeted training in ultrasound should be carried out.
    Application of 3-dimensional printing in simulation-training of anesthesia
    Xu-Lei CUI HUANG Yu-guang
    2018, 38(12):  1821-1823. 
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    Three-dimensional (3D) printing could produce solid objects of any shape or geometry using additive manufacturing. In recent years, 3D printing has been introduced in simulation training of anesthesia. It can print simulation-training models of any shape with high-fidelity according to the clinical and training needs, and help residents to practice important clinical skills. Currently, 3D printing is already deployed in the simulation training of neuraxial blockade, difficult airway and tracheotomy, and fibreoptic bronchoscopy and double-lumen bronchial tubes, which have gained positive feedback from the residents being trained.
    Medical professionalism in healthcare providers in China: A nominal group technique research.
    2018, 38(12):  1824-1827. 
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    Medical professionalism has been valued globally. However, Western frameworks of medical professionalism may not resonate with Chinese cultural values because of communication and social issues. Furthermore, there were seldom researches taking other groups rather than doctors and nurses into consideration and it is hard to get quantitative results in traditional discussion group. It was the first time that we use Nominal Group Technique in Chinese medical education research. Participants from Peking Union Hospital and Peking Union Medical School were sorted into 13 occupational groups, each discussing and ranking categories of medical professionalism.
    Effect of teaching based on questionnaire survey of the course molecular biology experiment for postgraduates
    Xiao-zhong PENG
    2018, 38(12):  1828-1831. 
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    Objective To investigate the postgraduates’ professional background and the purpose of the course choice, for improving teachers’ concepts and methods of teaching. Methods We designed the anonymous questionnaire, including the postgraduate’s professional background, the purpose of the course choice, the mastery of the experimental technology before the class, and the expectation of the student for teaching about theoretical knowledge, the methods and techniques of the experimental operation, the precautions and so on. The questionnaires were collected and analyzed the after the investigation. Results The students are mainly masters and research postgraduates. Most of the students have studied the theoretical knowledge of molecular biology, but they lack the training of experimental techniques. Cell transfection, quantitative PCR, luciferase reporter gene detection, and cell apoptosis detection, are the four experimental techniques that students most want to learn. Conclusions Through the investigation, we have known the professional background of the students and the purpose and practical needs of students.The results of the investigation can be a good reference for teachers to controlling the teaching time of the theoretical knowledge, the experimental operation, the matters needing attention, and so on.
    Overview and implication of medical education system in Czech Republic
    2018, 38(12):  1832-1834. 
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    From three aspects of undergraduate education, postgraduate education and residency training, the medical education system in Czech Republic was detailed and summarized. In view of the characteristics and advantages of Czech Republic in medical education, some thinking and suggestions in medical education system were proposed for China.