Table of Content

    05 March 2019, Volume 39 Issue 3
    FSH receptor-binding inhibitor inhibits ovarian development in mice
    2019, 39(3):  309-460. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effects of different concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone receptor binding inhibitor (FRBI) on ovarian development, reproductive hormone secretion and protein expression in mice. Methods The mice of FRBI groups were intramuscularly injected with 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg FRBI, respectively. Mice of FSH group were intramuscularly injected with 10IU/mL FSH. Mice of the control group were injected with 0.20 mL normal saline. Each group was injected for 5 days. The body weight and ovarian weights of five groups mice were accurately weighed. Ovarian cortex thickness(OCT)and secondary follicles were observed and measured under the light microscope. ELISA was used to determine the serum concentrations of FSH. Expression levels of FSH receptor (FSHR) in the ovarian tissues were detected using Western blot. Results There were no significant differences of body weights between all groups. Ovarian weights of FRBI groups were significantly lower than that of control group (P <0.05) after day 15 on, with the least value of FRBI-30 mg group. The OCT,maximum longitudinal diameter (MLD) and maximum transverse diameter (MTD) of three experiment groups were less than those of CG and FSH group (P <0.05). The smallest values of MLD and MTD were found in the FRBI-40 mg group. Serum concentration of FSH FRBI-20 mg group was the lowest. Expression levels of FSHR proteins in the ovaries were gradually reduced along with the increase of FRBI doses. They were significantly less than that of FSH group (P <0.01). Conclusions FRBI could dose-dependently inhibit the growth and development of mice ovaries, and reduce serum FSH concentration, additionally attenuate expression levels of FSHR protein in ovaries.
    Genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-STR loci in Tujia and Hui population and the cluster analysis of 13 ethnic groups
    2019, 39(3):  314-320. 
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    Objective To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-STR loci in Hubei Tujia and Gansu Hui population, and analyze the genetic relationships of 13 ethnic groups in China, and to evaluate their forensic value and population genetic value. Methods The 27 Y-STR unrelated Tujia males in 391 unrelated Tujia males in Hubei and unrelated Hui males in 377 unrelated Hui males in Gansu were amplified with the STRtyper-27Y system, and the PCR products were analyzed by the 3500XL Genetic Analyzer. The AMOVA analysis, cluster analysis and MDS analysis were calculated by Mega6.0 and SPSS19.0. Results The polymorphisms of 27 Y-STR loci in Hubei Tujia and Gansu Hui population had generally higher gene diversity value which were ranged from 0.2569(DYS438) to 0.9376(DYF387S1) and 0.4605(DYS391) to 0.9672(DYS385ab), and totally 383 and 368 haplotypes were observed. There were distinctions among 15 ethnic groups. The genetic distance between 15 ethnic groups were ranged from 0.0002 to 0.2222, and the conclusion of cluster analysis and MDS analysis were similar to the ethnogeny research and ethnic migration history. Conclusions The 27 Y-STR loci display high genetic polymorphisms in Hubei Tujia and Gansu Hui population, and these 27 loci are useful genetic markers for forensic personal identification and paternity testing.
    Adenosine A1 receptor agonist alleviates the cognitive dysfunction in rats with diabetes mellitus and depression
    2019, 39(3):  321-325. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) agonist on learning and memory function of diabetic rats with depression. Methods The rats were divided into control group, model group and metformin(Met)group (0.18g/kg Metformin was given by ig. for 28 days) and metformin combined with adenosine A1 receptor agonist (Met+CPA) intervention group (metformin was given by ig, and then the CPA was intraperitoneally injected at 1 mg/kg from day 22 and administered for 7 days). The levels of blood glucose and learning/memory function in rats were observed. Then the concentration of glutamate in hippocampus was detected by ELISA. At last, the expression of GLT-1 and BDNF in hippocampus were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western-blot. Results Compared with the normal group, the content of blood glucose and the learning and memory function of the model group were significantly decreased(P<0.01). In addition, the concentration of glutamate in hippocampus was significantly increased(P<0.01), while the expression of GLT-1 and BDNF were significantly decreased(P<0.01或P<0.05). Compared with the model group, only the blood glucose level decreased significantly in Met group (P<0.01) with the other indexes did not change significantly. However, there was found that the levels of glucose in blood and glutamate in hippocampus were decreased significantly in Met + CPA group(P<0.01). Furthermore, the cognitive function was significantly improved and the expression of GLT-1 and BDNF were increased(P<0.01或P<0.05). Conclusion Activation of adenosine A1 receptor can effectively improve the cognitive function of diabetic rats with depression, which may be related to its anti-neurotoxicity by reducing the glutamate release and increasing neuronal nutrition function.
    Association of ALK protein expression with clinical pathology in non-small cell lung cancer
    2019, 39(3):  326-331. 
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein and the pathological features of non-small cell lung cance (NSCLC). Methods The expression of ALK protein in paraffin-embedded specimens of 125 NSCLC patients was detected by VENTANA ALK (D5F3) immunohistochemical method (IHC). ALK protein expression was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The expression of EML4-ALK fusion gene was analyzed to analyze the relationship between the expression of ALK protein and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of NSCLC. Results The expression of ALK protein was positive in 15 patients (12.0%) in 125 patients. The positive expression of ALK protein was mainly in the cytoplasm and a few in the cell membrane. The positive rate of ALK protein in patients with smoking history was significantly lower than those without smoking history. The positive rate in cancer was significantly higher than that in non-adenocarcinoma, and the positive rate in high-to-differentiated carcinoma was significantly lower than that in poorly-differentiated carcinoma (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that ALK-positive patients had better prognosis than negative ones (P<0.05). Fifteen ALK protein-positive cases were verified by FISH and 10 cases were FISH positive. Conclusions The expression of ALK protein is closely related to the history of smoking, clinical pathology and tumor differentiation in NSCLC patients. IHC can be used as a reliable ALK screening method to increase the ALK detection rate. FISH detection is of great significance for the diagnosis of ALK protein-positive lung cancer.
    Over-expression of ornithine decarboxylase antienzyme-1 promotes the apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549
    2019, 39(3):  332-336. 
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    Objective To evaluate whether up-regulating ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)antizyme-1 (AZ-1)can regulate the expression of polyamine metabolic enzymes and proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer A549 or not. Methods A549 cell line was transfected with pcDNA3.1-HOAZ1 and pcDNA3.1 respectively and a blank control group without any treatment was established, total RNA and protein were collected after 48 hours. The expression of AZ-1, ODC and ornithine decarboxylase anti-enzyme inhibitor-1(AZIN-1)were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis in the same treatment conditions. Results After transfected with pcDNA3.1-HOAZ1 plasmid, the expression of ODC was significantly inhibited, and the expression of AZIN-1 was not significantly regulated. Up-regulating AZ-1 caused apoptosis (P<0.05).
    Metabolomic research on hyperuricemia in rats using UPLC-MS/MS
    2019, 39(3):  337-342. 
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    Objective To investigate the comprehensive serum metabolic profiles of hyperuricemia rats and to screen potential biomarkers associated with hyperuricemia by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods Hyperuricemia rat model was established by consistent daily intragastric administration of of adenine and potassium oxazinate for 3 weeks, rats were fed with 10% yeast extract at the same time. The metabolomics method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to compare the difference of serum metabolic profiles between hyperuricemia model and control groups. Results Comparing with control rats, 14 potential biomarkers were identified in hyperuricemia rats, such as uric acid, hypoxanthine, allantoin, creatinine, hippuric acid, kynurenine, tryptophan, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulphate, taurine, palmitic acid, stearic acid, LPC (17:0) and LPC (18:0). The results showed that hyperuricemia affected purine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, bile acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in rats. Conclusions In this study, 14 different serum metabolites of hyperuricemia model rats were screened, which were helpful to explain the metabolic profiles changes caused by hyperuricemia, and to provide help for early screening, diagnosis and treatment of hyperuricemia.
    A C-terminal truncated HPV31 L1 gene can be used to produce L1 VLP vaccine in baculovirus system with high yield and good immunogenicity
    2019, 39(3):  343-347. 
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    Objective To produce human papillomavirus(HPV) type 31 L1 virus-like particle(VLP) vaccine in baculovirus system. Methods A C-terminal 27 residues truncated HPV31 L1 gene (HPV31 L1MΔC) which optimized with Sf9 cell bias condons, was synthesized and expressed in baculovirus system. Cells infected with HPV31 L1MΔC recombinant baculovirus were lysed by sonification, or incubation with either ionic surfactant-containing buffer or nonionic surfactant-containing buffer, and the supernatants were harvested respectively for expression assays. The supernatants prepared by incubation with nonionic surfactant-containing buffer were purified by CsCl ultracentrifugation and HPV31 L1MΔC protein was identified by dynamic light scatter (DLS) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). BALB/c mice were immunized with 0.1 μg HPV31 L1MΔC VLP intramuscularly at weeks 0, 2 and sera at week 4 were taken for neutralization assay against HPV31 pseudovirus. Results HPV31 L1MΔC protein was expressed in all three kinds of supernatants prepared by either sonification or incubation with two different surfactant-containing buffer, and amounted for 10% of the total proteins. The yield of purified HPV31 L1MΔC was up to 11.5 mg per liter suspension medium. HPV31 L1MΔC protein showed an average hydrodynamic diameter of 103.3 nm with a mean polydispersity index of 0.190 by DLS, and presented VLP with an average diameter of 50~60 nm which is similar to native virions by TEM. HPV31 L1MΔC VLP induced high titer of HPV31 neutralizing antibody (1,440) in mice. Conclusions The VLP produced with HPV31 L1MΔC truncated gene in baculovirus system is a promising candidate for development of multivalent HPV L1VLP vaccine for its high yield and potent immunogenicity.
    Isolation, identification and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Coxsackie virus A6 in Jiujiang area
    2019, 39(3):  348-352. 
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    Objective To investigate the isolation,identification and molecular epidemiological characteristics of the CVA6 of hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic in Jiujiang.Methods Throat swabs from children with hand foot mouth disease were collected and the suspends was inoculated into RD cells.The isolation and pathogenicity of CVA6 were detected by CVA6 virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) analysis,MTT assay,CVA6 virus-specific nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and homology and phylogenetic analysis.Results The CPE cells were found after 5 generations in RD cells incubated with the supernatant. RD cells were infected with the supernatant collected for 2 consecutive infections, and the same CPE appeared. The VP1 region of the CVA6 virus was identified by sequence alignment to confirm that the viruses were CVA6, named JJ2012037 and JJ2012039 respectively.The MTT detection showed that CVA6 could inhibit the proliferation of host cells in a time-dependent manner. Nucleotide sequence homology analysis was carried out by using VP1 sequences of CVA6 strains from different countries and regions.The results showed that the homology of the CVA6 strain was as high as 99.2-99.6% with the strain separated from Shanghai.Conclusion Two strains of the epidemic CVA6 strain of hand-foot-mouth disease have been successfully isolated.The molecular epidemiology of the two CVA6 strains is close to the epidemic of CVA6 from shanghai, which may be the same subtype of the gene.
    Urantide ameliorates the injury of high fat diet-induced alcoholic fatty liver in rats
    2019, 39(3):  353-359. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of urantide on the nonalcoholic fatty liver in atherosclerosis rats. Methods Seventy-two SD rats were randomly divided into control,high-fat diet,positive drug group, urantide 3d group,urantide 7d group and urantide 14d group.The model group was established by injecting a loading dose of vitamin D3 and feeding a high-fat diet.After 3、7 and 14 days of treatment the rats were sacrificed,measuring the TC, TG, LDL, AST, ALT and TBIL in blood serum,detect UⅡ and GPR14 mRNA and protein expression by Western blot and PCR respectively. Results With the increase of treatment dose and incubation time of Urantide, fatty infiltration of the liver was significantly reduced, fat particles significantly decreased; liver function and blood lipids profile significantly improved;UⅡ and GPR14 mRNA and protein expression was significantly decreased.Conclusions The compound of Urantide can ameliorate the symptoms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.
    AKT intervention on the proliferation of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 through regulating HIF-1 expression
    2019, 39(3):  360-364. 
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    Objective The effect of knockdown of AKT expression on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its regulation was analyzed. Methods SMMC-7721 Cell line was transfected with recombinant lentivirus contained a HIF-1 siRNA and/or AKT siRNA. Then, the transfection efficiency was observed by inverted fluorescence microscope, the cell growth inhibition rate was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), the expression level of HIF-1 protein was detected by Western blot, and the protein expression of HIF-1 was analyzed statistically. Results SMMC-7721 cells was transfected with siRNA-lentivirus with ≥90% efficiency. The inhibition rate of HIF1-siRNA group, AKT-siRNA group, and HIF1-AKT-siRNA group decreased significantly as compared to the siRNA-NC group (P<0.05), and the expression of HIF-1 proteins was significantly higher. On the other hand, the inhibition rate of HIF1-AKT-siRNA group was significantly higher as compared to the HIF1-siRNA group and AKT-siRNA group, and the expression of HIF-1 proteins decreased significantly (P<0.05). while the inhibition rate in the HIF1-siRNA group was significantly higher as compared to the AKT-siRNA group, and the expression of HIF-1 proteins decreased significantly. There is a negative correlation between the expression of HIF-1 protein and the inhibition rate of cell proliferation (r=-0.874, P<0.05). Conclusion The downregulation of HIF-1 or AKT expression inhibits the cell proliferation in SMMC-7721 cells. HIF-1 plays a vital role in the cell proliferation in human hepatoma cell, down-regulation of HIF-1 protein expression can inhibit human hepatoma cell proliferation. The knockout of AKT resultes in downregulation of the protein expression of HIF-1 and intervenes on the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma synergizing with down-regulation of HIF-1.
    Over-expression of PRDX6 enhances the migration and invasion of lung cancer cell line A549
    2019, 39(3):  365-368. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of high expression of PRDX6 on migration and invasiveness of lung cancer A549 cells. Methods 1) In vitro cultured human lung cancer A549 cells,divided into blank group for not transfection,experimental group for transfection PRDX6 and control group for empty plasmid transfection;2) The expression of PRDX6 in each group was detected by western blotting;3) The migration and invasion of cells in each group were assessed by transwell chamber assays. Results 1) The expression of PRDX6 protein in the experimental group was significantly higher than those in the blank and the control group(p﹤0.05).2) the capacity of A549 cells migration and Invasion in the experimental group was the highest among thethree groups(p﹤0.05).Conclusions The high expression of PRDX6 can enhance the migration and invasion of A549 cells.
    Gene diagnosis of a case of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
    2019, 39(3):  369-374. 
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    Objective One case of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) was clinically diagnosed and genetically analyzed, providing clues and directions for classifying the genetic mechanism of JNCL. Methods Diagnosing the clinical feature of the patient and analyzing his pedigree , the DNA of the patient and his parents was extracted and sequenced by whole exome sequencing. Simultaneously, the verification of Sanger sequencing, analysis of the mutation pathogenicity and the homologous comparison of protein sequences were performed on the patient and his parents. Results The patient has carried compound heterozygous mutations of the CLN3, namely c.1001G>A(p.Arg334His)and c.154T>C(p.Tyr52His), which were inherited from his father and mother, respectively, and analysis of their mutation pathogenicity was deleterious and the homologous comparison of protein sequences was highly conservative . Conclusion The patient has suffered from juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis probably caused by compound heterozygous mutations of the CLN3 gene. It's not previously reported that the heterozygous missense mutation, namely c.154T>C(p.Tyr52His). Whole exome sequencing can be used as a diagnosis method for the discovery of JNCL, and it can provide a basis for the diagnosis of clinical complicated phenotypic diseases.
    USP22 siRNA inhibits invasion of human colonic cancer cell line SW480 by TIMP-2
    2019, 39(3):  375-380. 
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    Objective To study the role of USP22 and its target-controlled TIMP-2 on invasion of human colorectal carcinoma cells (CRC). Methods The expression of USP22 in CRC cells was detected by western blot. SW480 cells were chosen for further experiments because of USP22 high expression. The SW480 cells were categoried into transfected group and control group (NC siRNA). The expression of Hif-1α、Hif-1β、cdc42、RhoA、Smad7、TIMP-1、TIMP-2 mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in control group and trasfected group. The expression of USP22 and TIMP-2 was determined by Western blot and RT-qPCR in control group and two transfected groups. Invasive activities of SW480 was detected by Transwell. Results USP22 expression was highly expressed in SW480 (P<0.05). After silencing the USP22 gene, TIMP-2 expression and the invasive activities of SW480 were suppressed compared with control group (P<0.05). Knockdown of TIMP-2 gene did not infuence the expression of USP22, but the invasive activities of SW480 were suppressed (P<0.05). Conclusions USP22 may inhibit the invasion and metastasis of CRC by controlling the expression level of TIMP-2.
    Clinical characteristics and treatment in patients with renovascular hypertension caused by fibromuscular dysplasia
    2019, 39(3):  381-384. 
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    Objective The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with renovascular hypertension caused by fibromuscular dysplasia. Methods Clinical data of 39 cases with renovascular hypertension caused by fibromuscular dysplasia treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2006 to 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The mean age of the 39 patients was 22 years old, and the ratio of males and female was about 1:3 (10 males and 29 females). All patients presented with early-onset hypertension, and 67% of them had hypokalemia. Middle and distal segmental stenosis in truck of renal artery were mostly found, and mostly involved single kidney. Compared to angiography, the gold standard for diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, the diagnostic sensitivity of plasma renin activity in upright position, renal artery ultrasound, renal blood perfusion and renal function dynamic imaging, and renal artery CTA were 74%, 84%, 72% and 95%, respectively. After the treatment of percutaneous balloon angioplasty, the rate of complete remission was 38%, the partial remission rate was 45%, and the inefficiency was 17%. Conclusion Renovascular hypertension caused by fibromuscular dysplasia commonly occurs in young women with the characteristics of early-onset moderate to severe hypertension, and involves mostly middle and distal segment in the renal artery. Percutaneous balloon angioplasty is the first choice for treatment.
    Effect of miR-5195-3p over-expression on colorectal cancer cell apoptosis
    2019, 39(3):  385-391. 
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    Objective To study the effect of miR-5195-3p on runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) and colorectal cancer cell apoptosis. Methods The mRNA expression of miR-5195-3p and protein expression of RUNX3 were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The SW480 cells were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group, miR-5195-3p mimic group, mimic control group, miR-5195-3p inhibitor group and inhibitor control group. The expression level of RUNX3 was measured by western blot. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results The expression of miR-5195-3p was significantly increased, while the protein expression of RUNX3 was dramatically decreased in colorectal cancer tissue compared with non-tumor normal tissue (P<0.05). Overexpression of miR-5195-3p significantly down-regulated RUNX3 expression and decreased cell apoptosis, while inhibition of miR-5195-3p significantly up-regulated RUNX3 expression and increased cell apoptosis in SW480 cells (P<0.05). Additionally, co-transfection with RUNX3 overexpression vector obviously elevated cell apoptosis compared with miR-5195-3p mimic group (P<0.05). Conclusions miR-5195-3p may act as a oncogene in colorectal cancer, and its function was related to the target regulation of RUNX3.
    Effect of dydrogesterone combined with letrozole on sex hormones, inflammatory factors, CA125 and VEGF in patients with endometriosis
    2019, 39(3):  392-395. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of dydrogesterone combined with letrozole on sex hormones, inflammatory factors, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with endometriosis. Methods From January 2017 to December 2017, 98 patients with endometriosis admitted in Jia Xing hospital were randomly divided into the observation group (49 cases) and the control group (49 cases). The patients in the control group were only treated with letrozole(1 tablets, 1 times a day for 6 months). The observation group was given letrozole and megestrol acetate (1 tablets, 2 times a day for 6 months). The clinical efficacy of the two groups was compared. The levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P) and CA125 were detected by radioimmunoassay before and after treatment. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected by double antibody sandwich method before and after treatment. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 93.88%, which was higher than that of the control group (75.51%) (P<0.05). Six months after treatment, the E2, P, IL-6, TNF-α, CA125 and VEGF of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment, and the E2, P, IL-6, TNF-α, CA125 and VEGF of the observation group were lower than those of the control group, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Dedrogesterone combined with letrozole can effectively relieve clinical symptom, reduce the levels of E2, P, inflammatory factors, CA125 and VEGF in patients with endometriosis.
    Comparison of the effects between sodium hyaluronate and rb-bFGF in corneal epithelium repair and corneal sensitivity recovery after LASEK surgery
    2019, 39(3):  396-399. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effects of 0.3% sodium hyaluronate eye drops and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rb-bFGF) after LASEK surgery in corneal epithelium repair and corneal sensitivity recovery. Methods Prospective control study was carried out. A total of 60 patients (120 eyes) were divided into sodium hyaluronate group and rb-bFGF group, each group was administrated with 0.3% sodium hyaluronate or rb-bFGF after the surgery for 3 months, respectively. The examination of Schirmer Ⅰ Test (SⅠT), tear film break-up time(BUT), corneal epithelium integrity evaluation and Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer were performed in 1 week, 1 month and 3 months, respectively. Results After the surgery, the SⅠT and the BUT test were gradually recovered with treatment time and both returned to normal level approximately in 3 months. After 1 month, the corneal epithelium totally recovered cases in rb-bFGF group (53eyes, 88.3%) were significant higher than that in the sodium hyaluronate group (45eyes, 75.0%)(P<0.05). After 3 months, the corneal sensitivity in all the examination positions in the rb-bFGF group was significantly higher than the sodium hyaluronate group(P<0.05). Conclusions Both sodium hyaluronate and rb-bFGF have the effects to release the dry eye syndrome after LASEK surgery, however,rb-bFGF is more effective in corneal epithelium repair and corneal sensitivity recovery.
    Research progress of long non-coding RNA UCA1 in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Li SHI
    2019, 39(3):  404-408. 
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    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common malignant tumor in the world with the third highest mortality rate, which seriously endangers human health. Long non-coding RNA(lncRNA) urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) plays an important role in the proliferation, differentiation , metastasis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma onset and progression. In recent years, an abundance of studies and researches have shown that the up-regulated expression of UCA1 makes a significance to enrich the development of HCC and provide a new way of thinking for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC .
    Research progress of circular RNA in tumors
    2019, 39(3):  409-413. 
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    Circular RNAs are a naturally occurring type of universal and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs.They are usually stable, abundant, conserved RNA molecules and exhibit tissue specific expression. Functional circRNAs have been identified to act as microRNA sponges and RNA-binding protein sequestering agents as well as transcriptional regulators.There is a lot of evidence that circular RNA can participate in the transcription and translation of key genes and regulate the occurrence, progression and prognosis of tumors. The detection of specific circular RNAs in saliva, exosomes, and clinically standard blood samples will make them potential diagnostic or predictive biomarkers of tumors.
    Cell metabolomics research technology and applications
    Xin-Peng LIU
    2019, 39(3):  414-418. 
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    Cell metabolism is directly or indirectly involved in all aspects of cellular activity, and metabolomics technology can detect and identify endogenous biochemical reaction products and accurately reveal intracellular information about metabolic pathways and processes. Cell metabonomics is a new direction of metabonomics research and has been applied in many fields such as disease diagnosis, toxicology research, pharmacological mechanism and cell culture microenvironment and so on.
    Progress on the role of intestinal smooth muscle cells in gut inflammatory diseases
    2019, 39(3):  419-422. 
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    Intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC), as an important part of the gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in intestinal peristalsis, colonic transport, and intestinal homeostasis. Structural and functional changes of ISMC are involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammatory diseases, which always accompanied by symptoms such as intestinal hyperfunction and intestinal stenosis. It can provide a hypothesis about intestinal inflammatory diseases clinical treatment to illustrate the role of ISMC in intestinal inflammatory diseases.
    Role of autophagy and neurotrophic factors in exercise intervention in Alzheimer's disease
    2019, 39(3):  423-427. 
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    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory impairment as the main clinical manifestation. In the current situation of clinical medicine cannot be cured, the positive effect by exercise intervention brings guides the new direction of treatment. It has been found that exercise either accelerates the beta amyloid, tau protein elimination, or diminishes their production by inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway, stimulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, accelerated mitochondrial damage and other regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. At the same time, exercise also plays a role in regulating the apoptosis of neurons. It improves the neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and NGF, activates the pathway of PI3-k/Akt and inhibits the activity of apoptosis factors such as caspase-3 and COX-2, thus slows down neuronal apoptosis and slows down the progression of AD.
    Research progresses on the roles of thyroid hormones in follicle genesis
    2019, 39(3):  428-433. 
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    Thyroid dysfunction can affect metabolism, growth and development, even affect animal reproduction seriously, including disturbance of follicle formation, ovulating, fertilisation, premature birth, abortion and so on, and, in serious cases ovarian failure, so thyroid hormones (THs) play a very important role in the process of follicle development.
    Research progress of Notch signaling pathway in intestinal mucosal barrier
    2019, 39(3):  434-438. 
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    Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway that directly mediates the signal cascade between cells and cells. It has a regulatory effect on differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of a variety of cells. It has been found that activation or inactivation of Notch signaling pathway plays a very important role in the intestinal mucosal barrier. Provides new insights and ideas for the treatment of intestinal mucosal barrier damage caused by various diseases.
    Role of SIRT1 in the development of diabetic kidney disease
    peng-yu tao
    2019, 39(3):  439-443. 
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    SIRT1 is a highly conserved class III NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases that is widely expressed in the fetal and human tissues. It plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism, aging, oxidative stress, response,apoptosis, inflammation and autophagy through deacetylation.The development of diabetic kidney disease is closely associated with inflammation,oxidative strss response, ischem- ia,hypoxia and senescence, SIRT1 may be the unpstream regulator of the disease’s progression.
    Thinking on the cultivation of academic medical postgraduates
    2019, 39(3):  444-446. 
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    With the rapid development of medical science and the application of clinical technologies, medical postgraduate education,the highest level of medical education system, undertakes the important task of training medical innovation talents. Academic Degrees Medical postgraduate students, the main force of academic scientific research, are important reserve forces for the construction of innovative countries. The cultivation and management of academic degree medical postgraduates has become the most important task for the training of innovative medical talents in China. As to new thinkings upon cultivation of academic medical postgraduates, focusing on role transformation, strengthening clinic and basic theories and intensifying abilities of scientific innovation were discussed.
    Assessment of diagnostic test training of clinical epidemiology in eight-year clinical medical undergraduate students
    2019, 39(3):  447-450. 
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    Objective To investigate the key issues and puzzling points in the field of diagnosis test teaching. Methods 89 sixth grade students of eight-year clinical medicine program of the Chinese academy of medical sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) attended the clinical epidemiology course in January 2017, who were asked to read and evaluate a published diagnostic paper in eight key points of diagnostic test according textbook and given the writing answers, which has been scored. Results 51.7% ~ 100.0% of the students provided a clear answer to the questions and provided the evidences; For eight key points being evaluated, the proportions of right answers were 36.4% ~ 75.3%, the wrong answers were 12.4% ~ 50.0% and the uncertainty were 4.6% ~ 25.8%. The average score of 89 students was 44.04?15.07, and the average score of male and female students were 40.48?14.10, 45.96?15.35, respectively. Conclusions The comprehension of diagnostic test is not enough and precise for eight-year clinical medicine program students, and such training should be strengthened.
    Investigation and optimization of curriculum integration in normal human morphology
    2019, 39(3):  451-454. 
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    Objective To investigate and analyze the effect of normal human morphology curriculum integration and optimize its structure. Methods The 2016 classes (Chinese medicine class and the Chinese and Western medicine class) were used as the teaching reform classes to carry out and the two classes were investigated by questionnaire. The teaching content, the teaching effect and the students' achievements were analyzed. Results The teaching reform group 93.75% students are familiar with the teaching content, the ordinary group 66.98% students are familiar with; the teaching reform group 79.46% students understand the course of learning methods, the ordinary group only 31.13% of the students know how to learn; the average score of the teaching reform group:77.97 points, higher than the ordinary group: 74.38 points. Conclusions According to the results of the investigation, the teaching content, teaching effect, teaching material and so on are analyzed. The teaching is carried out in the way of curriculum integration, which lays the foundation for the improvement of the quality of teaching and the cultivation of the comprehensive ability of the students.
    Construction of MOOCs about women’s health management for primary general practitioners from Peking Union Medical College Hospital
    2019, 39(3):  455-457. 
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    In order to respond to the call of the national policy and the needs of training primary general practitioners, Peking Union Medical College Hospital introduced MOOCs, the new teaching model, into women’s health management of primary general practitioners, making a daringly try. Through the analyzing of the program’s background, process, advantages, outlooks and so on, we expect the model can be gradually generalized after this program on a small scale. Ultimately, we also expect the level of women’s health management of primary general practitioners to improve step by step.
    Application of debriefing in simulation-based medical education
    2019, 39(3):  458-460. 
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    Debriefing is a kind of feedback used in simulation-based medical education. The article would analysis the characteristics of debriefing, which are different from the conventional feedback approach. Types and models of debriefing are introduced, and the influence of social psychological factors is emphasized. As a crucial part of simulation-based medical education, debriefing will promote teaching effects.