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Table of Content

    05 May 2022, Volume 42 Issue 5
    Effects of carboxyamidotriazole-orotate on oncogenic phenotypes of mouse glioma-associated macrophage cell lines
    2022, 42(5):  701-707. 
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    Objective To explore the regulation mechanism of carboxyamidotriazole-orotate (CTO) on oncogenic phenotype of mouse glioma-associated macrophages. Methods Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or RAW264.7 macrophages (tumor associated macrophages, TAMs) were induced by superculture of mouse glioblastoma GL261 cells, and the mRNA levels of TAMs oncogenic mediators were detected by qPCR. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of TAMs was measured by Seahorse bioenergy method. The protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α), hypoxia-inducible factor-2 α (HIF-2α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator factor-1 β (PGC-1β) in TAMs were detected by Western blot. Results CTO decreased m1-related mediators such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α (P<0.001) and M2-related mediators such as IL-10, ARG-1 and TGF-β1 (P<0.001) in TAMs. CTO significantly down-regulated OCR in TAMs (P<0.01); The protein levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in TAMs were down-regulated by CTO (P<0.01), which was contrary to the effect of carboxycyanide-4-trifluormethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), which promoted mitochondrial oxygen consumption. CTO significantly reduced PGC-1β protein levels in TAMs (P<0.001), an effect consistent with rotenone, a mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor. Conclusions The decrease of oxidative phosphorylation level down-regulates the expression of PGC-1β and destabilizes HIF-1α and HIF-2α, thus affecting the production of several M1 and M2 phenotypes of carcinogenic mediators in TAMs, which may be one of the important mechanisms by which CTO improves the chemotherapy efficacy of glioblastoma.
    Association of ABCB1, ABCC4 and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms with high dose-MTX blood concentrations and adverse effects in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    2022, 42(5):  708-713. 
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    Objective To investigate the association between gene polymorphisms of ATP-binding cassette B1, C4 (ABCB1, ABCC4) and solute carrier organic anion transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1) with methotrexate (MTX) blood concentrations and high dose-MTX (HD-MTX)-related adverse effects in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods From June 2017 to December 2019, the blood samples were randomly collected from 275 hospitalized pediatric ALL patients in Beijing Children’s Hospital of Capital Medical University. All patients were treated with HD-MTX. Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) was used to determine the MTX blood concentrations at 45 h after infusion. Genotyping of ABCB1(rs1045642), ABCC4(rs7317112), and SLCO1B1(rs11045879 and rs10841753) were determined using MALDI-TOF MS based on MELPA technology. At the same time, chemotherapy-induced toxicity data including liver dysfunction, gastrointestinal disorder, mucositis, myelosuppression, and myocardial damage et al. were observed and recorded. The relationship between SNP polymorphism of these genes and MTX blood concentrations and adverse effects were analyzed. Results All the genotypes analyzed were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). We found a statistically significant association between the ABCC4 rs7317112 and SLCO1B1 rs11045879 genotype and 45 h MTX plasma concentration (P<0.05). The ABCC4 rs7317112 AA and AG genotypes and SLCO1B1 rs11045879 TT and TC genotypes could also be an indicator for the excretion delay of MTX (P<0.05). Conclusions ABCC4 rs7317112 and SLCO1B1 rs11045879 polymorphisms may be important genetic markers for individual MTX doses in pediatric ALL patients.
    Establishment and comparison of in vitro blood-brain barrier cell models
    2022, 42(5):  714-720. 
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    Objective To construct and evaluate the in vitro models of blood-brain barrier (BBB)by different methods and analyze their structural and functional characteristics. Methods Human microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3), Uppsala 87 malignant glioma (U87MG) and human pericytes (HBVP) were used to construct blood-brain barrier cell models. The models were divided into single- culture model, bi-culture (hCMEC/D3+ U87MG or HBVP), no-contact co-culture model, semi-contact co-culture and full-contact co-culture model according to different cell types and cell locations. The permeability and tightness of the models as well as the expression of related proteins and genes were detected, comparing and analyzing the structural and functional characteristics of different models. Results Compared with the single-culture model and the bi-culture model, the permeability and compactness of the co-culture model were decreased, and the expression of BBB-related genes and proteins were also increased(P < 0.05). In the co-culture models, full-contact co-culture model had higher compactness (P < 0.01) and higher BBB-related protein and gene expression. Semi-contact and full-contact culture model had lower permeability(P < 0.05). Conclusions Full-contact co-culture model has better BBB-related properties and is more suitable for BBB research.
    Expression of CBX7 protein in cervical cancer and its clinical significance
    2022, 42(5):  721-725. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression and clinical significance of Chomobox homolog 7 (CBX7) in cervical cancer(CC)tissues. Methods Tissue samples of 71 patients with CC who were first diagnosed with CC and underwent cervical resection in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from 2013 to 2020 were retrospectively collected. The expression of CBX7 was detected by immunohistochemistry. At the same time, clinicopathological data of the patients were collected and survival analysis was conducted after follow-up. Results CBX7 was highly expressed in 10 CC tissues, moderately low in 19 CC tissues, and negative in 42 CC tissues (P<0.05). The expression level of CBX7 was different in different clinical stages, lymphatic metastasis and vascular infiltration (P<0.05). Compared with the negative and low CBX7 expression groups, the survival rates of CC patients with high CBX7 expression were significantly improved (P<0.05), and the survival rates of patients with different CBX7 expression levels were significantly different (P<0.05). CBX7 expression in CC tissues may be an important prognostic factor affecting the survival of CC patients. Conclusion The negative expression of CBX7 protein in CC tissues may be associated with poor prognosis of CC patients.
    Polyclonal antibody preparation and identification of rabbit anti-mouse MORF4L1 isoform a
    2022, 42(5):  726-731. 
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    Objective To prepare Rabbit anti-mouse polyclonal antibody against MORF4L1 isoform a to distinguish MORF4L1 isoform a and isoform b. Methods According to the antigenicity and autoploidy analysis of different amino acid sequence of mouse MORF4L1 isoform a and isoform b,the N-terminal 52~66 amino acids peptide sequence (a 15 peptide,KSAVRPRRSEKSLKT) of mouse MORF4L1 isoform a was synthetized. Then the peptide was linked to a carrier protein KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) as immunogen to prepare the antibody against MORF4L1 isoform a. The antiserum of Rabbit 1# with good specificity was purified by antigen affinity chromatography,and the titer of antibody was detected by ELISA. In addition, the prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression plasmids of MORF4L1 isoform a and b isoform were constructed. Western blot was used to identify the specificity of the antibody by using the MORF4L1 isoform a and b which were expressed-prokaryoticly with purification and exogenously expressed in cells. Results The antiserum of Rabbit 1# could recognize polypeptide specifically. The titer of purified antibody was 1:512 000.pGEX-4T-2-M4S、pGEX-4T-2-M4L prokaryotic expression plasmids and pCMV-3Tag-6-M4S、pCMV-3Tag-6-M4L eukaryotic expression plasmids were successfully constructed and expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression system. The antibody could bind specifically to MORF4L1 isoform a. Conclusions Rabbit anti-mouse MORF4L1 a antibody with high titer and high specificity is successfully prepared, which lay the experimental foundation for further revealing the biological significance of MORF4L1 alternative splicing and the biological functions of different MORF4L1 isoforms.
    Cloning, expression and identification of human ATP11A and ATP11B
    2022, 42(5):  732-739. 
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    Objective To construct the expression vectors carrying human Type IV–P-type phospholipid transferases 11A or 11B (ATP11A or ATP11B), and to detect the up-regulation effect on ATP11A or ATP11B. Methods The primers were designed according to ATP11A or ATP11B sequence and cloned into EZ-T? Cloning Vector. The primers were identified by enzyme digestion and verified by sequencing. ATP11A and ATP11B sequences were digested and directed to expression vectors pLVX-IRES-mCherry and pLVX-IRES-RFP, respectively. Then the recombinant expression plasmids with immunofluorescence protein were transfected into HEK-293T using liposomes. Finally, the expression of the recombinant cell lines was verified by sequencing, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot. Results The construction of ATP11A and ATP11B cloning vectors was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and was endonuclease analyzing. The efficiency of transfection without cytotoxicity was observed qualitatively under microscopy, detected quantitatively by flow cytometry as 38.9%,41.9% respectively, and the tagged proteins were detected by western blot to present only in the positive group. Conclusions The expression vectors of human ATP11A and ATP11B are successfully constructed and their expression levels could be effectively upregulated, which lay a foundation for future mechanism studies involved to ATP11A or ATP11B.
    Expression of Fc-gamma receptor type I in brain cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease and the mouse model
    2022, 42(5):  740-744. 
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    Objective To explore expression changes of high affinity IgG receptor Fc-gamma I type in brain cortex under Alzheimer’s disease background. Methods Normal human brain tissue samples and brain tissue samples with neuropathological diagnosis of AD, wild type mice and APP/PS1 mice were used. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were used to define cellular localization and expression changes of FcγRI in cerebral cortex. Results FcγRI is generally expressed in neurons of human and mouse cerebral cortex. Compared with normal human brain, FcγRI expression in AD human brain cortex decreased significantly. Compared with wild type mouse brain, FcγRI expression in cerebral cortex of AD model mice also decreased significantly. Conclusions The expression of IgG high affinity receptor FcγRI in AD human brain and cerebral cortex of AD model mice decreased significantly, indicating that FcγRI may be correlated with AD neuropathological mechanism.
    Angiopoietin-like protein 8 promotes phenotypic transformation of rat aorta vascular smooth muscle cells
    2022, 42(5):  745-751. 
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    Objective To explore the role and mechanism of angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) on phenotypic transformation of rat aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods ApoE –/– male mice (8 weeks of age) were fed a western diet for 12 weeks to build the atherosclerosis model, and the expression and localization of ANGPTL8 in atherosclerotic plaques were detected by immunofluorescence staining. Stable transfections of the ANGPTL8-over-expression vector were performed. VSMCs were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group,Ad-ANGPTL8 group,ox-LDL (50mg/dL)group,ox-LDL+Ad-ANGPTL8 group and Ad-ANGPTL8+PD98059 group. And cell migration was observed by wound-healing assay. The protein expressions of α-SMA, SM22α, OPN, PCNA and Ki67 in VSMCs were detected by Western blot. Results ANGPTL8 over-expression promoted the expression of OPN, PCNA and Ki67 in VSMCs (P<0.05), decreased the expression of α-SMA and SM22α(P<0.05), facilitated the migration capability of VSMCs(P<0.05). After adding ERK pathway inhibitor PD98059, the expression of OPN, PCNA and Ki67 decreased (P<0.05), α-SMA and SM22α expression increased (P<0.05), and the migration capability of the VSMCs decreased (P<0.05). Conclusions ANGPTL8 maybe promote phenotypic transformation of VSMCs by activating ERK pathway.
    Screening and identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies against different mutant strains of SARS-CoV2
    2022, 42(5):  752-757. 
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    Objective To screen high-affinity neutralizing antibodies with broad spectrum specificity against different SARS-CoV2 mutants and verify their functions. Methods Balb/ C mice were immunized twice with SARS-CoV2 S protein mRNA vaccine coated with liposome, and the specific antibody content in serum was determined. The mice with higher antibody content were selected for shock immunization. The spleen cells of mice after shock immunization were fused with myeloma cells to prepare fusion cells, and the clones that could produce monoclonal antibodies against different parts of S protein were screened by limited dilution and ELISA. Monoclonal antibody was purified and neutralization experiments were performed to verify the neutralization activity of the antibody. Monoclonal antibodies with broad spectrum binding properties against recombinant RBD proteins of four SARS-CoV2 mutants were screened by ELISA. Results After two immunizations, the serum antibody content against S protein in high dose group 4 was the highest. After shock immunity and cell fusion, 12 hybridoma cell clones with binding activity to S protein were screened, among which 9 strains specifically bound to RBD protein. The neutralization test results showed that the antibodies 41, 46 and 47 had significant neutralization activity in vitro. Compared with the other two antibodies, antibody 46 showed broad-spectrum binding activity to the RBD proteins of four SARS-CoV2 mutants, including Omicron. Conclusion Antibody 46 is a broad-spectrum specific neutralizing antibody against four different SARS-CoV2 mutants, which can be further humanized and used for the treatment of COVID-19.
    Transcription factor Kaiso down-regulates the expression of lncRNA MEG3 in human breast cancer cell lines
    2022, 42(5):  758-762. 
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    Objective To investigate whether the transcription factor Kaiso regulates the expression of human maternal gene (MEG3) and plays an important role in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Methods The expressions of Kaiso and MEG3 in normal breast cell lines MCF-10a and different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7,BT-474,MDA-MB-435,MDA-MB-231 were detected by RT-qPCR.The expression of Kaiso in cells was detected by Western blot. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Kaiso expression in 50 cases of paracancer and cancer tissues. RT-qPCR was used to detect the effect of Kaiso overexpressed on the transcription level of lncRNA MEG3. Results The transcription level of lncRNA MEG3 in MCF-10a was higher than that of Kaiso (P<0.001). Kaiso was significantly up-regulated in MCF-7, BT-474, MDA-MB-435, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, while lncRNA MEG3 was significantly down-regulated (P<0.001). Kaiso expression level was low in MCF-10a, but it was high in MDA-MB-231 highly metastatic breast cancer (P<0.05). Kaiso was low in paracancerous breast tissues (P<0.001), but highly expressed in cytoplasm and nucleus in cancer tissues.In addition, after Kaiso overexpression in McF-10a, the transcription level of lncRNA MEG3 was significantly down-regulated (P<0.01). Conclusions Kaiso regulates the expression of lncRNA MEG3 in breast cancer cells, which may play an important role in the occurrence and development of breast cancer.
    Chromatography and immunogenicity analysis of HPV-58 L1 virus-like particles expressed from insect cells
    2022, 42(5):  763-767. 
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    Objective To develop a simple chromatography purification process of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 58 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) produced by insect cells baculovirus expression vector system (IBEVS). Methods A previously constructed mutant of HPV58 L1 with a high expression level in insect baculovirus system were used to prepare the cell lysates and the L1 containing sample was used for the establishment of optimal protein purification process which consisted of an initial process of ammonium sulfate precipitation (ASP) and two polishing chromatography purifications. Purified L1 proteins were dialyzed for VLP reassembly, and the resultant VLPs were characterized physicochemically and their immunogenicity was then analyzed in mice. Results L1 proteins purified by 30% ASP showed good purity (9.34%) and recovery (72%). When bound on anion exchange resin and eluted by 300 mmol/L NaCl-contained buffer, the L1 proteins were further purified with >90% of recovery and 13.6% of purity. The resultant L1 proteins mainly flowed through the ceramichydroxyapatite column with a recovery of >80% and the purity was over 99.1% by host cell protein (HCP) and SDS-PAGE and coomassie blue stainning analysis. With the three-step purification, the total recovery of L1 was about 55.7%, and the yield was 57~65 mg/L. Purified L1 proteins self-assembled into homogenous VLPs with an average diameter of 55 nm proved by TEM and DLS, and these VLPs induced high titer of neutralizing antibodies, comparable to that of VLPs purified by ultracentrifugation. Conclusions The developed chromatography process for producing HPV58 L1VLPs with good purity, yield, and immunogenicity is shown to be time-saving, easy-performing, fully scalable, and low-cost. It may be helpful for the production of a low-cost multivalent HPV VLP vaccine by IBEVS.
    LncRNA FGD5-AS1 reduces ox-LDL-induced damage of HUVECs by targeting miR-106a-5p
    2022, 42(5):  768-775. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of lncRNA FGD5-AS1 on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced vascular endothelial cell damage and its regulatory effect on miR-106a-5p. Methods ox-LDL induces human umbilical vein endothelial cells to establish a cellular HUVECs injury model. pcDNA-FGD5-AS1, anti-miR-106a-5p and its negative control were transfected into HUVECs and then added to ox-LDL-treated cells. pcDNA-FGD5-AS1 was co-transfected with miR-NC and miR-106a-5p mimics To HUVECs, then add ox-LDL to treat cells. RT-qPCR method was used to detect the expression of FGD5-AS1 and miR-106a-5p. The levels of MDA, SOD, and CAT are tested according to the kit. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate. The dual luciferase reporter gene experiment was used to detect the targeting relationship between FGD5-AS1 and miR-106a-5p. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of cleaved-caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-9. Results The expression of FGD5-AS1 mRNA in HUVECs induced by ox-LDL was decreased (P<0.05), while the expression of miR-106a-5p mRNA was increased (P<0.05). Transfection of pcDNA-FGD5-AS1 could reduce the level of MDA, apoptosis rate and protein levels of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9 in HUVECs induced by ox-LDL (P<0.05), and could enhance the activities of SOD and CAT (P<0.05). FGD5-AS1 could target miR-106a-5p. Transfection of anti-miR-106a-5p could reduce the level of MDA, apoptosis rate and protein levels of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9 in HUVECs induced by ox-LDL (P<0.05), and could enhance the activities of SOD and CAT (P<0.05). Co-transfection of pcDNA-FGD5-AS1 and miR-106a-5p mimics could reverse the effect of pcDNA-FGD5-AS1 on ox-LDL-induced HUVECs apoptosis and oxidative stress. Conclusion Over-expression of FGD5-AS1 could inhibit oxidative stress and apoptosis through targeted regulation of miR-106a-5p, thereby reducing ox-LDL-induced vascular endothelial cell damage.
    Single-cell RNA-sequencing based analysis depicts the development map of human early embryonic erythrocytes
    Ja -YU
    2022, 42(5):  776-781. 
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    Objective Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) was used to systematically delineate the cell atlas and molecular tracks of human early erythroid development at the single-cell level. Methods The dataset of scRNA-seq of human embryo yolk sac at CS15 stage was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and pseudostime analysis to observe the expression of marker genes in different cell clusters, and to predict the occurrence time and development path of erythroid. Results In different cell clusters of yolk sac at CS15 stage, marker genes of erythrocytes and progenitor cells were differentially expressed. The occurrence time of various cells was different, and there was some heterogeneity in erythrocytes in the yolk sac. There were abundant types of cells in the yolk sac at CS15 stage, which may include vascular endothelial cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells, granulocytes, different status of red blood cells and monocytes. Conclusion It is speculated that early development path of human erythroid is as follows: vascular endothelial cells differentiate into hematopoietic progenitor cells, further differentiate into red myeloid progenitor cells, and finally produce megakaryocytes and erythrocytes.
    Establishment and optimization of air-liquid interface method cultured mouse-derived tumor organoids
    2022, 42(5):  782-787. 
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    Objective To construct a mouse-derived tumor organoid that can retain various types of immune cells in the immune microenvironment without artificial reconstruction. Methods The mouse-derived tumor organoids were cultured and constructed by air-liquid interface method. The histological morphology of the tumor organoids was analyzed by H&E. The proportion of various types of immune cells in the tumor organoids was analyzed by flow cytometry. The interleukin -2 (IL-2) was used to maintain the number of T lymphocytes in tumor organoids. Results The tumor organoids of the three tumor types of mouse CT26 colon cancer, Lewis lung cancer and MC38 colon cancer respectively retained the histomorphology of the original tumor. Compared with mouse CT26 colon cancer tumor tissues, the proportion of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells in tumor organoids remained basically unchanged, the proportion of macrophages decreased from 66.7% to 44.3%, and the proportion of dendritic cells decreased from 66.5% to 7.25%. Compared with mouse Lewis lung cancer tumor tissue, the proportion of CD4+ T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells in tumor organoids remained basically unchanged, and the proportion of CD8+ T cells decreased from 5.6% to 1.95%. Compared with mouse MC38 colon cancer tumor tissue, the proportion of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells in tumor organoids remained basically unchanged, the proportion of macrophages decreased from 33.5% to 17%, and the proportion of dendritic cells decreased from 46.8% to 1.2%. IL-2 could increase the number of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes in tumor organoids derived from three tumor types. Conclusions Mouse tumor organoids retain the histological morphology of the original tumor and the various types of immune cells are retained in a certain extent, and IL-2 can increase the number of T lymphocytes.
    Effect of obesity and obesity trajectories on the risk of cardiovascular diseases in adult male with incident NAFLD in Northern China
    2022, 42(5):  788-794. 
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    Objective To investigate baseline and trajectories in obesity measures on the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) development for incident non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) male patients. Methods Adult men with newly diagnosed NAFLD and without CVDs in the Kailuan cohort in 2006~2013 were enrolled. The subjects were divided into the nonobese group and obese group according to the definition of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC), and further divided by the obesity trajectories at the first follow-up (1~4 years). Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the incidence rate of CVDs for each subgroup. In addition, the Fine and Gray competing risk Cox regression model was used to compare CVDs risk in NAFLD with different baseline or trajectories in obesity measures after 1-4 years of NAFLD diagnosis. Results A total of 8 591 incident NAFLD patients were included. During a median follow-up of 9.41 years, 349 cases were found with CVDs. The 10-year cumulative incidence rates of CVDs were 3.3% and 4.3% in the nonobese and obese groups according to the definition of waist circumference, respectively (log-rank test, P<0.05). However, the significance disappeared after adjusting the competing risk of death and other covariates. Similar results were observed based on the definition of BMI. Also, further analysis was conducted for the association trajectories in obesity measures and CVDs. The 8-year cumulative incidence rates of CVDs were 2.8%, 3.6%, 4.2%, and 3.3% in the constantly nonobese group, nonobese-obese, obese-nonobese, and constantly obese group, respectively (log-rank test, P>0.05). Compared to the subjects with constantly nonobese defined by BMI, those who transition from nonobese to obese increased the CVDs risk by 57% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95%CI, 1.03~2.38; P<0.05). The conclusion remained even after adjusting baseline BMI (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02~2.37; P<0.05). Conclusion Short-term weight gain in men with incident NAFLD had a higher CVDs risk, suggesting the importance of weight control in preventing CVDs once NAFLD occurrence.
    Analysis of related factors influencing the selection of intubation methods under general anesthesia for patients with ankylosing spondylitis
    2022, 42(5):  795-798. 
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    To investigate the degree of difficult intubation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to predict the related factors influencing the selection of intubation methods. Methods A total of 347 patients, 276 males, 71 females, aged 15-77 years, ASA I-III with AS underwent surgical procedure from January 2008 to January 2017 were included. During anesthesia induction, patients were divided into two groups according to the application of non-visual devices (179 cases) and visual devices (168 cases). Patient data were collected, including gender, age, kyphosis, degree of mouth opening, Mallampatti classification, neck mobility, and the duration of the AS. Multivariate regression analysis of variables was conducted to find the relevant predictors of intubation method selection in AS patients with difficult endotracheal airway. Results The older patients, kyphosis, limited mouth opening, limited neck range of motion, and longer duration of AS, the utilization rate of the visual group was significantly higher than that of the non-visual group (P < 0.05). Multi-factor Logistic regression analysis suggested that moderate limitation of neck range of motion(OR = 5.41,95%CI 2.32-13.10,P < 0.001)and severe limitation of neck range of motion (OR=9.22,95%CI 4.37-20.25,P < 0.001) were related factors for tracheal intubation with visual devices in patients with difficult airway. Conclusion Neck mobility has a great influence on whether or not to use visual intubation tools. When neck mobility decreases, anesthesiologists are more likely to use visual devices such as video laryngoscope, visual McCoy laryngoscope and fiberoptic bronchoscope.
    Advances in research on relationship of circadian disruption with cardiac dysfunction
    2022, 42(5):  799-803. 
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    Accumulating evidence has shown that disruption of the circadian timing system, from either endogenous genetic variants or exogenous environmental factors, is highly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death and so on. It is of great significance to understanding the relationship between circadian disruption and cardiovascular function and disease.
    Application of anti-HBc quantitative examination in clinical management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection
    2022, 42(5):  804-808. 
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    The quantification of hepatitis B virus core antibody (anti-HBC) is related to the body's immunity and can be detected in the serum of both present and past hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. It plays an important role in the inflammatory activity in the liver, the judgment of natural history and the treatment strategy.Chronic HBV infection is closely related to active transcription and persistence ?of covalently closed circular DNA(cccDNA) in the liver.The anti-HBC quantification has a good correlation with cccDNA level, which can be used as an index for comprehensive evaluation of HBV infectious diseases.
    Research progress on the inflammatory mechanisms of cholestatic liver injury
    2022, 42(5):  809-813. 
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    Cholestatic liver injury (CLI) is a liver disease with high incidence in the clinic. Accumulation of bile acids in the liver is thought to be a major driver of liver injury during cholestasis. The disease can develop to be liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. This review focused on the molecular mechanism of CLI in the perspective of inflammatory response. The roles of neutrophils, kupffer cells, bile duct cells, and the signaling pathways involved in CLI were introduced respectively, attempting to provide clues for research of new therapeutic targets and treatment strategies.
    Progress on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    2022, 42(5):  814-817. 
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    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) easily suffer from multiple cardiovascular complications, such as coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertension, heart failure. The causes and mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are complicated. The mechanisms involved include persistent hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis, small vessel disease, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy.
    Iron metabolism in human body and its regulatory factors
    2022, 42(5):  818-823. 
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    This article expounds the molecular mechanism of iron metabolism from four aspects:absorption,transportation,utilization and storage, and focus on the key protein of the iron metabolism and elaborate regulation factors as well as the effect on the above protein. By clearing the mechanism, authors expect new ideas could be provided to the discovery of biomarkers of iron metabolism which is earlier and more precise. What`s more, a clear mechanism also provides a breakthrough point for the future targeted treatment.
    Application of anti-thrombotic drugs and the safety of prostate biopsy
    2022, 42(5):  824-827. 
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    Incidence rate of prostate cancer has become the first in male malignant tumor. Prostate biopsy is the golden standard for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Evidence-based recommendations of perioperative anti-thrombotic medication management are lacking. After review of previous studies, we found that prostate biopsy is relatively safe with oral anti-thrombotic drugs. For patients with high risk of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, we suggested continuing of anti-thrombotic drugs during perioperative period.
    Exploration of case-based teaching in endocrinology and metabolism continuing medical education
    2022, 42(5):  828-831. 
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    As an efficient teaching model, the case teaching method takes the case as the center, and the teacher introduces the classic case in the teaching process and explains it in combination with the theory, which is conducive to deepening the students’ understanding of the pathological knowledge, and at the same time, it is conducive to mobilizing their learning initiative and enthusiasm. Endocrinology & Metabolism is an important branch of clinical medicine. With the rapid development of knowledge in the field of Endocrinology & Metabolism, the demand of basic doctors for continuing medical education is growing. The traditional course of continuing medical education is based on the one-way teaching mode. The application of case teaching methods can be inspired and guided by teachers. Through classroom discussions and other forms, it helps the student better understanding and mastering the medical knowledge they have learned. At the same time, it also helps to broaden students’ knowledge, improve analysis and problem executing ability, cultivate innovative thinking, stimulate learning enthusiasm and improve self-learning ability. The application of case teaching method in Endocrinology & Metabolism continuing teaching can improve the quality of teaching obviously, and also enrich the teaching content, thus ensuring the teaching effect and the learning effect of students.
    Impact of trainer experience and student category on quantitative evaluation for surgical teaching in the department of breast surgery
    2022, 42(5):  832-835. 
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    Objective To investigate the impact of trainer experience and student category on quantitative teaching score for surgical education. Methods The present study adopted two-way repeated measures design. The quantitative teaching scores were collected between September 2018 and January 2020. The impact factors were trainer experience and student category. Repeated measure was performed by recording teaching score each month. Results The overall teaching score was 0.98±1.58/Teacher/Month. Both teacher experience (p < 0.001) and student category (p < 0.001) had significant impact on teaching score, and these two factors had interaction effect. Teacher experience had remarkable influence on resident and graduate subgroup compared to the other student category. In resident and graduate subgroup, trainer experience had a positive correlation with teaching score (All the between-subgroup comparisons had p < 0.001). However, this effect diminished in the other student category. Conclusions The present teaching system put in great effort to surgical education for resident and graduate students. And trainer experience was positively correlated with teaching score.
    Application of electronic prescription for narcotic drugs in quality control
    2022, 42(5):  836-839. 
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    Objective To investigate the significance of electronic prescription in the management of narcotic drugs, so as to constantly optimize the management of narcotic drugs. Methods Continuous random checks were conducted on the prescriptions of narcotic drugs in the operating room of the department of anesthesiology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from March 2019 to December 2021. The changes of the error rate of narcotic drugs prescriptions before and after the electronic prescriptions of narcotic drugs were officially put into use were compared. Results The error rate of narcotic drugs prescriptions before and after electronic prescriptions were 31.5% and 8.0%, odds ratio (OR): 0.188, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.164-0.215, P<0.001. Conclusion Electronic prescription of narcotic drugs may help to reduce the occurrence of human errors, and has potential significance in optimizing the management of narcotic drugs.
    Investigation on the gynecological endocrinology teaching methods for eight-year program of clinical medicine
    2022, 42(5):  840-843. 
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    Objective To investigate the teaching demands and practical effects of rotation for eight-year medical students at Peking Union Medical College(PUMC). On this basis, according to the feedback of the students and the characteristics of gynecological endocrine diseases, the teaching characteristics and the best way of gynecological endocrine were discussed. Methods The questionnaire survey was issued to the eight-year medical students from September 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020, which investigated the demands of the gynecological endocrine study, the difficulty in learning and the degree of mastery. Results A total of 80 valid questionnaires were received, which showed that the eight-year medical students had a most eager to learn content of the top 3 diseases in turn was polycystic ovary syndrome, abnormal uterine bleeding, menopausal syndrome. The top 3 gynecological endocrine diseases with the great difficulty in clinical learning were in turn abnormal sexual development, abnormal uterine bleeding, recurrent abortion. Both the outpatient and ward teaching were demanded. The most desirable mode of study was outpatient visits. Conclusion Gynecological endocrine teaching is a unique teaching content of gynecology and obstetrics. The outpatient teaching should be pay more attention. Reasonable arrangement of class hours should be combined with social needs and the difficulty of learning content. In teaching of gynecological endocrine, standardized patients(SP) combining case method of instruction should be effectively achieve ideal teaching results.
    Evaluation of the Jigsaw method in the training of prostate targeted biopsy
    2022, 42(5):  844-847. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of Jigsaw teaching method in training of prostate targeted biopsy. Methods Thirty urologists who participated in the prostate biopsy training course in Peking Union Medical College Hospital in December 2020 were selected as the objects of study. They were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was given traditional teaching method, and the observation group was given Jigsaw teaching method. Both groups of members were assessed on the same theory and operation and surveyed by the teaching satisfaction questionnaires. Results The results of examination of theory and operation in the observation group were significantly better than those in the control group(P<0.05). The questionnaire survey showed that the teaching satisfaction of members in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions Jigsaw teaching method applied to prostate targeted biopsy training can stimulate students' learning enthusiasm, and get remarkable teaching results, which is worthy to be popularized in clinical work.
    Establishment of Huang Jiasi Memorial Hall using of alumni resources is a new mode of innovation and exploration of alumni work
    2022, 42(5):  848-851. 
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    As the"brand image"and "talent product" , alumni are the business card of the school's development and core competitiveness. They play an irreplaceable role in improving reputation, enhancing cohesion, inheriting network and accelerating development. Taking the establishment of Huang Jiasi Memorial Hall launched by the alumni of Peking Union Medical College as an example,this paper is of positive significance to the innovative work of the Alumni Association of Peking Union Medical College and to explore the new mode, effective ways and effects of alumni work.
    Management of collection and characteristics of scientific data generated from basic medicine
    2022, 42(5):  852-856. 
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    The article summarizes the scientific data collection and management work as well as provides introduction to specific situation of the collection work. Analysis covers the general characteristics of 29 projects from studies of basic medicine in 2020, which will shed light to overall understanding of the scientific data collection process and its implementation. Apart from that, this study substantially facilitates gathering, processing and managing of scientific data while promoting open sharing. circulation, utilization of data and yielding added-value.