Table of Content

    05 April 2019, Volume 39 Issue 4
    Chemokine receptor 2 inhibitor alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model
    2019, 39(4):  461-466. 
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    Objective To investigate the role of chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) inhibitor RS504393 in alleviating renal interstitial fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms in unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model. Methods Mice were divided into three groups randomly: sham group,model group,and administration group. The unilateral ureter separation was performed in mice of the sham group, and mice in the other two groups underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) to induce renal interstitial fibrosis. Three days before UUO, the mice in the administration group were administered with RS504393 orally twice a day at a dose of 25 mg /kg for 17 consecutive days. Masson and HE staining were used to determine the degree of renal fibrosis and the inflammatory cells infiltration. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the proportion of CCR2 and CD11b+Ly6C+ monocytes. Results Compared with sham group, the degree of renal fibrosis was significantly increased in model group (P<0.05). Renal fibrosis was alleviated in the administration group compared to model group (P<0.05);Compared with sham group, the infiltration of inflammatory cells was increased in model group (P<0.05), compared with model group, the infiltration of inflammatory cells reduced in the administration group (P<0.05); The percentage of CCR2 and CD11b+Ly6C+ monocytes was increased in model group compared to sham group. Compared with model group, CCR2 and CD11b+Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes were also reduced in the administration group (P<0.05). Conclusions CCR2 inhibitor RS504393 alleviate renal fibrosis by reducing CD11b+Ly6C+ monocyte infiltration.
    Intrathecal injection of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptors antagonist can inhibit the sensitization of incisional pain in rats
    2019, 39(4):  467-472. 
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    Objective To investigate the role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptors in central sensitization of pain with the plantar incision model of rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control group (group Ctrl), sham operation group (group Sham), incisional pain group (group P), incisional pain + intrathecal normal saline group (group I), and incisional pain + intrathecal antagonist (Pro3)GIP group (group M). Cumulative pain score (CPS) and paw-withdrawal threshold to von Frey stimuli (PWT) were measured before incision and at 3 h and day 1, 3 and 5 after incision. The expression of GIPR in spinal cord dorsal horn was determined by Western blot analysis. The location of GIPR was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Results The CPS was significantly increased at 3 h after incision (P<0.05), the PWT was significantly decreased at the same time after incision (P<0.05). The expression of GIPR was up-regulated obviously 1 d after incision (P<0.001). Antagonist (Pro3)GIP increases the PWT of rats, and the best analgesic effects occurs at 30 minutes after intrathecal injection (P<0.001). Spinal GIPR was specifically expressed on neurons, and did not locate on astroglias or microglial cells. Conclusions GIPR plays a significant role in central sensitization of pain, and it provides a potential therapeutic target for incision pain.
    Antimicrobial peptide merecidin induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells line A549
    2019, 39(4):  473-477. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of antimicrobial peptide Merecidin on human lung cancer A549 cells and its mechanism. Methods Experimental group: control group (Ctrl), cisplatin intervention group (cisplatin), merecidin intervention group (merecidin), caspase inhibitor group (z-VAD-fmk), caspase inhibitor + merecidin intervention group (z-VAD-fmk+ merecidin). Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI double staining. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, active caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax. Results The antibacterial peptide Merecidin significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells (P<0.05). The IC50 value after 24h treatment of merecidin was 34.8 μmol/L. The apoptotic rate of the merecidin 25/35 μmol/L group was significantly higher than that of the ctrl group (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of the z-VAD-fmk+merecidin 25/35 μmol/L group did not decrease than the merecidin 25/35 μmol/L group (P<0.05). The expression of active caspase-3 was detected in the merecidin 25/35 μmol/L group, but not detected in the cisplatin 40 μmol/L group. Compared with Ctrl group, the protein expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 were not increased, Bcl-2 protein expression was down-regulated (P<0.05), Bax protein expression was increased (P<0.05). Conclusion Antimicrobial peptide merecidin can inhibit the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and induce apoptosis.
    Postoperative neurocognitive disorders and the potential mechanisms in APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mice
    2019, 39(4):  478-482. 
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    Objective To study neurocognitive changes at different postoperative time points and the potential mechanisms in APP/PS1 transgenic mice (2xTg AD mice). Methods APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into two groups, experiment group (received laparotomy under 2.5% sevoflurane anesthesia) and control group. Fear conditioning test was introduced to assess the cognitive function at 1d and 3ds after the anesthesia/surgery. The content of alpha-synuclein in hippocampus was determined by Western blot, while the contents of Aβ42, IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha were quantified by ELISA kits at different postoperative time points (12h, 24h and 3d). Results Compared with the control group,the context-associated freezing duration was significantly decreased at 1d and 3ds after the Anesthesia/surgery; the concentration of IL-6,IL-1beta and TNF-alpha significantly increased at 24hs after the Anesthesia/surgery; the content of alpha-synuclein and Aβ42 also significantly increased at 24hs after the Anesthesia/surgery(P<0.05). Conclusion The anesthesia/surgery has effects on the short-term cognitive function of 2xTgAD mice. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the variation of alpha-synuclein and amyloid-β42, besides neuroinflammation.
    Increased prostaglandin E1 level in major depressive disorder is associated with depression-like behaviors
    2019, 39(4):  483-488. 
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    Objective To illuminate the relationship between prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and major depressive disorder (MDD) with detection of the PGE1 concentration levels and the expressional levels of key genes in PGs synthetic pathway (PLA2, PTGS1, PTGS2, PTGES) in both blood samples of patients with MDD and the brain tissue of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice. Methods High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect the levels of PGE1 in plasma and brain tissues, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA levels of PLA2, PTGS1, PTGS2, PTGES. Results The plasma PGE1 concentration and the mRNA level of PTGS1 gene were significant higher in MDD patients, and this result was well validated in the blood and amygdala of CUMS mice. Conclusion The rise of PGE1 in MDD may be related to the hyperfunction of the prostaglandin synthesis pathway.
    Introduction of exogenous HER2 fails to improve the sensitivity of HER2-negative gastric cancer cell lines to trastuzumab
    2019, 39(4):  489-494. 
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    Objective To explore the feasibility of HER2-negative gastric cancer cell lines benefiting from trastuzumab treatment after exogenous HER2 gene introduction. Methods Human HER2 eukaryotic expression vector was constructed and transfected to human gastric cancer cell lines (HGC-27 and MGC803) and normal gastric epithelial cell GES1 (as control). Immunofluorescence and Western blot were employed to detect HER2 and its downstream signaling pathways, and CCK-8 assay was used to measure the viability of cells. Results After the introduction of exogenous HER2 into HER2- negative gastric cancer cells and normal cells, HER2 was significantly upregulated rather than phosphorylated HER2 (pHER2). Also, the sensitivity of HER2-negative cells to trastuzumab wasn’t increased after the introduction of exogenous HER2. In addition, PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were not activated but significantly inhibited after the introduction of exogenous HER2. Conclusions Exogenous HER2 introduction cannot benefit HER2-negative gastric cancer from trastuzumab treatment. The main reason might be that exogenous HER2 does not activate its downstream PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways. The role of exogenous and endogenous HER2 may be different, which will be explored in further study.
    Recombinant human galectin-1 protects neuron by regulating autophagy
    2019, 39(4):  495-500. 
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    Objective To prepare recombinant human Galectin-1(rhGalectin-1) and study its role in promoting autophagy of damaged neurons. Methods Plasmid of pEGX-4T-1-Galectin-1 was constructed by PCR and then transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3). SK-N-SH cells treated with rotenone and pretreated with or without rhGalectin-1. LC3 II and p62 levels were tested by Western blot.. Results Galectin-1 reduces the toxic effects of rotenone on SK-N-SH cells. After treatment of SK-N-SH cells with rotenone , the decrease in autophagy levels was observed by a decrease in LC3 II levels and an increase in p62 levels. In the Galectin-1 pretreatment group, the autophagy level increased significantly, the level of LC3 II increased and the level of p62 decreased. When the autophagy blocker bafilomycin was used, the level of LC3 II in the Galectin-1 pretreatment group increased, indicating that Galectin-1 promoted the autophagy level of injured SK-N-SH neurons. Conclusions rhGalectin-1 can promote the autophagy response of injured neurons, which may play an important role in the toxicity resistance process of neurons.
    Establishment of adeno-associated virus-mediated gene-specific knockout system in testis
    2019, 39(4):  501-508. 
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    Objective To establish a system for the specific knockout genes of testis tissue in vivo. Methods The sgRNA functional elements in the CRISPR/Cas9 system were inserted into the AAV expression vector by homologous recombination technology, and the Wee1 2# sgRNA was constructed into the modified AAV-sgRNA (new version) vector for virus packaging. The efficiency of gene knockout of this vector was verified by infection with Hela-spCas9 cells stably expressing Cas9. The sgRNA target of the testis tissue-specific gene Sycp3 was screened and constructed into AAV-sgRNA (new version) vector for viral packaging. The virus was injected into the seminiferous tubule of mouse testicular tissue by microinjection technique, and the in vivo cells were analyzed by T7E1. Gene knockout effect. Results The successful construction of the AAV-sgRNA vector was able to perform viral packaging and gene editing of the human Wee1 gene at the cellular level in vitro, which was not significantly different from the vector editing efficiency in the Lentivirus-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system. At the same time, the system can genetically edit Sycp3 at the level of the body. Conclusions A system for specifically knocking out target genes in testis tissue in vivo has been successfully established, which provides a new idea and method for the study of reproductive function in vivo.
    Down -regulation of taurine up-regulated gene 1 alleviates oxidative damage induced by ox-LDL in HUVECs
    2019, 39(4):  509-513. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of lncRNA TUG1 on oxidative damage induced by ox-LDL in vascular endothelial cells(HUVEC).Methods HUVEC was divided into four groups: control group, ox-LDL group (100g/mL ox-LDL treatment), si-NC+ intervention group (negative control of transfected siRNA), si-TUG1 + intervention group (transfected TUG1 siRNA).The expression of TUG1 in vascular endothelial cells before and after ox-LDL treatment was detected by Realtime PCR. TUG1 siRNA and siRNA negative controls were transfected into vascular endothelial cells, Realtime PCR was used to detect the expression of TUG1 in vascular endothelial cells under ox-LDL. The level of ROS in the cells was detected by DCFH-DA, WST assay was used to detect the activity of SOD in cells, the content of MDA in culture medium was detected by TBA colorimetry, the activity of LDH in culture medium was detected by LD-P, NO content in the culture medium was measured by nitrate reductase, flow cytometry was used to detect the changes of cell apoptosis, Western blot was used to detect the level of c-caspase-3 protein in cells. Results The expression level of TUG1 in ox-LDL group increased compared with control group(P<0.05).Transfection of TUG1 siRNA could reduce the expression of TUG1 in vascular endothelial cells under ox-LDL condition (P<0.05).siRNA negative control had no effect on TUG1 expression in cells. The level of ROS in ox-LDL group cells increased(P<0.05), the activity of SOD reduced(P<0.05), the content of MDA in the culture medium increased(P<0.05), the activity of LDH elevated(P<0.05), the content of NO reduced(P<0.05), the rate of apoptosis increased(P<0.05), the level of c-caspase-3 protein in the cells increased(P<0.05).The si-TUG1 + intervention group significantly alleviated the above changes in ox-LDL group (P<0.05).. Conclusions Knockout of lncRNA TUG1 alleviates ox-LDL induced oxidative damage in vascular endothelial cells,decrease the apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells.
    Differential expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-associated proteins between primary colon cancer and corresponding matched liver metastases tissue
    2019, 39(4):  514-518. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin between primary colon cancer and synchronous liver metastasis tissue. Methods Examined the expression level of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin by real-time PCR, Western-blot and immunohistochemistry in colon cancer without distant metastases (n=42), primary colon cancer tissues with liver metastases (n=20) and liver metastasis tissues (n=20) respectively. Furthermore, analyzed its association with pathologic parameter clinically. Results The expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated (P <0.01), and N-cadherin and vimentin were up-regulated (P <0.05) in primary colon cancer with liver metastasis group compared with colon cancer without metastasis. The absorbance value of the E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin (0.10±0.01 vs 0.06±0.02, 0.07±0.02 vs 0.09±0.01 and 0.06±0.01 vs 0.09±0.02) was significantly different between primary colon cancer and corresponding liver metastasis (P<0.01, P <0.05 and P<0.01). There exists close correlation between the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin and TNM stage and lymphynode (P <0.05). Conclusion The differential expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin between primary colon cancer and liver metastasis is important for its prognosis.
    Silent forkhead box protein O1 inhibits H2O2-induced apoptosis of rat alveolar epithelial cells type II
    2019, 39(4):  519-523. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of FOXO1 gene silencing on the activity and apoptosis of rat alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC-II) induced by H2O2. Methods AEC-II cells were randomly divided into control group, H2O2 group, si-FOXO1 group and NC group. CCK8 assay and annexin V-FITC/PI cell apoptosis kit were used to detect cell viability and apoptosis rate, and Western blot was used to detect FOXO1, p53, Bax and p-p38 protein expression. Results H2O2 could significantly up-regulate the expression of FOXO1, p53, Bax and p-p38 protein in AEC-II cells, inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis(P<0.05). However, transfection of FOXO1 siRNA could significantly reduce the up-regulation of FOXO1, p53, Bax and p-p38 protein expression, cell viability inhibitors and the induction of apoptosis in AEC-II cells induced by H2O2(P<0.05). Conclusions Silencing FOXO1 gene can inhibit the apoptosis of AEC-II induced by H2O2, which may be related to down-regulation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway.
    Stable expression as well as its correlation with spindle formation and maintenance of novel tubulin member ε-tubulin in mouse oocyte meiosis
    2019, 39(4):  524-528. 
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    Objective To investigate the protein expression and subcelluar localization of novel tubulin member ε-tubulin, as well as its relationship with spindle in mouse oocytes during meiotic maturation. Methods ε-tubulin protein expression was evaluated with Western blot, its subcelluar localization and its involvement in spindle formation was detected using immunofluorescence in mouse oocytes at different meiotic stages. Results ε-tubulin protein was expressed stably and consistently throughout the meiotic progression. ε-tubulin was evenly distributed in germinal vesicle (GV) at meiotic prophase (GV stage), and immediately relocated upon germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), precisely colocalized with microtubule and concentrated on chromosomes until to metaphase II (MII) stage. ε-tubulin was sensitive to spindle poisons nocodazole and taxol, showing the same reaction as spindle microtubules. Conclusions Novel tubulin member ε-tubulin is stably expressed in mouse oocyte meiosis, and associates with the spindle formation and maintenance.
    Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from diabetes patients blood cells into insulin-producing cells
    2019, 39(4):  529-535. 
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    Objective To generate and identify iPSCs from T1DM patient’s blood cells and to induce it into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) to treat the T1DM mice. Methods Erythroid progenitor cells from T1DM patient were infected by episomal vectors with an oriP/Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (oriP/Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1, oriP/EBNA-1) backbone for delivering the reprogramming genes Oct4, Sox2, Lin28, L-Myc and Klf4 to generate iPSCs. The multipotency of the iPSCs were verified by karyotyping analysis, alkaline phosphatase staining, RT-PCR and teratoma test. It was induced to differentiate into IPCs by 4 stages. To identify the IPCs by determining the marker genes expression of pancreatic β cell and Glucose-stimulated C-peptide release test. The IPCs were transplanted into the capsul of left kidney in the male C57BL/6J diabetic mouse model. Blood glucose and weight were continuously monitired. The glucose tolerance test was performed. Results The obtained iPSCs carried normal karyotype and expressed the pluripotent genes Oct4, Sox2, Lin28, L-Myc and Klf4. Alkaline phosphatase were positive. In the teratoma test, three germ layer cells were found. The obtained IPCs expressed the marker genes Pdx-1, Insulin and Nkx6.1. The glucose stimulated induced the secretion of C-peptide. The blood glucose was decreased and the weight was increasd after transplantation to the diabetic mice. The ability of regulating glucose was improved. Conclusion IPSCs form T1DM patient’s blood cells may induce into IPCs. It has a therapeutic effect after transplanting to the T1DM mice.
    Klotho protein attenuates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in myocardial cell line H9C2
    2019, 39(4):  536-540. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of klotho protein on hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in H9C2 cells line. Methods H9C2 cells were cultured and divided into control group, hypoxia/reoxygenation group (cells were treated with 1% O2 for 6 h hypoxia and then reoxygenation in 5% CO2 and 95% air for 2 h) and klotho protein intervention group (10 μg/ml). Intracellular calcium level was determined indirectly by microplate reader; CCK8 and TUNEL assay was used to detect the cell viability and cell apoptosis respectively. Spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the activity of Na+/ K+ - ATPase (NKA) and the reverse mode of Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX). Results Hypoxia/reoxygenation (6h/2h) treatment of H9C2 cells in vitro could significantly reduce its cell viability (p <0.01), increase intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and apoptosis rate (p<0.01). Moreover, the activity of Na+/ K+ - ATPase (NKA) was decreased and the the activity of reverse mode of Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX) was increased in cultured H9C2 cells treating with hypoxia/reoxygenation. However, the klotho protein administration observably attenuated all these changes (p<0.01). Conclusions klotho protein administration can attenuate hypoxia/reoxygenation induced intracellular calcium overload and high apoptosis rate in cultured H9C2 cells.
    Curcumin reduces neuronal loss in the ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats
    2019, 39(4):  541-545. 
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    Objective To explore the possible mechanism of curcumin in ameliorating focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Method Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, model (tMCAO+Vehicle) and curcumin (tMCAO+Cur) group, and 15 per group. 24 h after reperfusion, Longa score was used to evaluate neurological function, and RT-qPCR was used to detect the levels of Shh, Ptc and Smo mRNA in ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex in each group. The number of NeuN positive cells and celluar distribution of Gli protein in the ischemic penumbra were assessed by immunofluorescence confocal technique. Results 24h after reperfusion, the Longa score in tMCAO+Cur group was obviously lower than that in tMCAO+Vehicle group (P<0.05). Compared with tMCAO+Vehicle group, the number of NeuN positive cells in tMCAO+Cur group (P<0.05). The levels of Shh, Ptc and Smo mRNA in tMCAO+Vehicle and tMCAO+Cur group was higher than that in Sham group (P<0.05), moreover, the content of Shh, Ptc and Smo mRNA in tMCAO+Cur group was higher than those in tMCAO+Vehicle group, respectively (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence confocal results showed that the Gli-1 protein in the Sham group mainly located in cytoplasm, and partially translocated to nucleus in tMCAO+Vehicle group. The Gli-1 protein in the tMCAO+Cur group mainly located in the nucleus. Conclusion Curcumin promoted the recovery of neurological function in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats and decreased the neuronal loss in the ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex.
    miR-216a-5p decreases proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 through targeting HMGB1
    2019, 39(4):  546-551. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of miR-216a-5p on gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and the underlying mechanism. Methods The protein expressions of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in gastric cancer tissue and non-tumor tissue were measured by Western blot, the expression of miR-216a-5p was measured by RT-qPCR. The miR-216a-5p mimic and inhibitor were synthetic and transfected into gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT method. Cell migration was detected by scratching assay. The target reaction between miR-216a-5p and HMGB1 was measured by Western blot and luciferase reporter assay. Results The expression of HMGB1 was elevated and miR-216a-5p was decreased in gastric cancer tissues compared to non-tumor tissues (P<0.05). miR-216a-5p mimic increased miR-216a-5p expression, inhibited cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. miR-216a-5p inhibitor decreased miR-216a-5p expression, promoted cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancer cells (P<0.05). MiR-216a-5p inhibited HMGB1 expression by directly binding to the 3’UTR of HMGB1. Conclusions miR-216a-5p may inhibit gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration by targeting HMGB1.
    Propofol alleviates myocardial injury induced by hydrogen peroxide in cell line H9C2
    2019, 39(4):  552-557. 
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    Objective To study the effects of propofol on myocardial injury and ROS level induced by H2O2. Methods Cardiac myocytes are treated with H2O2 and propofol,as control group, H2O2 group and 15, 30 and 60 μmol/L propofol group.MTT detection of cell viability, the leakage rate of LDH was detected by two nitrophenyl hydrazine colorimetric assay, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, Western blot was used to detect the level of cleaved caspase-3 protein in cells and the level of Cytochrome C protein in cytoplasm and mitochondria, SOD activity was detected by xanthine oxidation, CAT activity was detected by ammonium molybdate method, the activity of GSH-Px was detected by two thio two Nitrobenzoic Acid method, thiobarbituric acid method was used to detect the content of MDA, the level of ROS was detected by two chloro two fluorescein acetoacetate method, the JC-1 method was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. Results Compared with control group,the activity of myocardial cells decreased in H2O2 group, the leakage rate of LDH was increased, the rate of apoptosis increased, the level of cleaved caspase-3 protein in the cells increased, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH-Px activity reduced, the content of MDA in the cells increased and the content of ROS increased, the membrane potential of cell mitochondria decreased, the level of Cytochrome C protein in the cytoplasm increased, the levels of Cytochrome C protein in mitochondria decreased(P<0.05). Compared with H2O2 group, the activity of cardiomyocytes in propofol group improved, the leakage rate of LDH decrease , the rate of apoptosis and the level of cleaved caspase-3 protein in cells decreased, SOD activity , CAT activity and GSH-Px activity in cells increased, the content of MDA and ROS in cells decreased, mitochondrial mitochondrial membrane potential improved, the Cytochrome C protein level in the cytoplasm reduced, the level of Cytochrome C protein in mitochondria improved(P<0.05). Conclusions Propofol alleviated the injury of cardiomyocytes induced by H2O2, reduce cell apoptosis and reduce the level of ROS in cells.
    Research progress of pyroptosis and its related diseases
    2019, 39(4):  560-563. 
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    Pyroptosis is a programmed inflammatory cell necrosis medicated by gasdermin protein, including caspase-1-mediated canonical pathway and caspase-4/5/11-mediated noncanonical pathway. Inflammasome activation plays an important role in this process. Pyroptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of renal diseases, atherosclerosis, nervous system diseases, infectious diseases, etc. The study on the mechanism of pyroptosis and related diseases provides new ideas for the prevention and treatment of clinical diseases.
    Advances for NLRC4 inflammasomes
    2019, 39(4):  564-568. 
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    Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that can regulate the activation of caspase-1, promote the maturation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18,and lead to inflammation ,meanwhile initiate pyroptosis. The classic illustration of the NLRC4 inflammasome paradigm is: trigger (e.g. cytosolic flagellin), sensor (NAIP), nucleator (NLRC4), adaptor (ASC), and effector (caspase-1). The main regulatory mechanisms of NLRC4 activation are ligand binding and phosphorylation. NLRC4 is a critical component of intestinal immune system and defense against different pathogens. In addition,NLRC4 related to a variety of human diseases: such as autoinflammatory diseases, diabetic nephropathy, thymic cancer.
    Effect of serum 5-hydroxytryptamine on the homeostasis of bile acid
    2019, 39(4):  569-572. 
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    5-Hydroxytryptamine is an important neurotransmitter and gastrointestinal hormone in the body. There are two independent 5-hydroxytryptamine systems, one in the central nervous system and one in the periphery. Peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine of serum mainly comes from gastrointestinal tract. Regulatory effect of serum 5-hydroxytryptamine on hepatic bile acids synthesis and efflux transport have been identified, and also the effect on bile acids transporters in ileum and kidney, which resulted in the bile acids alteration in enterohepatic circulation and renal excretion, indicating the important role of serum 5-hydroxytryptamine on the homeostasis of bile acids. To investigate and clarify the effect and underlying mechanism of serum 5-hydroxytryptamine on the homeostasis of bile acids will provide clues for the pathogenesis discovery of bile acids disorder-related diseases, and also provide evidences for the therapeutic strategy development.
    Research progress of long non-coding RNA in autoimmune diseases
    2019, 39(4):  573-576. 
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    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with a length of more than 200 nt. Studies have shown that lncRNAs participate in chromatin modification and pre/post-transcriptional regulation to regulate the expression of multiple genes. In recent years, studies have revealed that lncRNAs have critical roles inthe development of autoimmune diseases by regulating the differentiation and function of immune cells.
    Research progress of circular RNA in tumorigenesis and development of leukemia
    2019, 39(4):  577-580. 
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    Circular RNA (circRNA) is a unique endogenous non-coding RNA. Most circRNAs are conserved within the organism and often show specific expression at the stage of tissue development. Circular RNA plays a key role in the regulation of tumorigenesis and development. Therefore, circRNA is one of the hot spots for the study of digestive system, gynecological and other cancer diseases, and it is found that it can be used as a new tumor marker and may become a new target for clinical treatment.
    Research progress in correlation between PTEN and new targeted drug resistance to hepatocellular carcinoma
    2019, 39(4):  581-584. 
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    PTEN is the second most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene following the discovery of p53. PTEN mutation or loss has a close relationship with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA. It is a first-line targeted treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, but it is vulnerable to lead to drug resistance in the long term. The study shows that sorafenib resistance to hepatocellular carcinoma relates to PTEN regulation, through the down-regulation of PTEN expression, activation of PI3K/Akt pathway, or decreased expression of PTEN modulated by microRNAs; extraction from chinese herbal and Akt inhibitors indirectly increase the expression of PTEN reversing sorafenib resistance, so to recover sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma to sorafenib.
    Advances of proline-rich protein tyrosine kinase 2 in tumors
    WANG Zhan
    2019, 39(4):  585-588. 
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    Proline-rich protein tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) is a member of the focal adhesion kinase family. Pyk2 is involved in the occurrence, invasion and metastasis of various tumors, including breast and hepatic cancer. It’s also closely related to the prognosis of tumors. To clarify the role of Pyk2 in tumorigenesis and development can provide a theoretical basis for the creation of new anti-cancer targeted drugs.
    Research progress of microRNA in cardiac remodeling
    2019, 39(4):  589-593. 
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    microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in embryonic development, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis through post-transcriptional regulation of their target genes, and are closely related to the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac remodeling currently lacks effective therapeutic targets and effective diagnostic markers, and the mechanism of cardiac remodeling is not deep enough. It has been found that miRNAs can regulate myocardial fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and energy metabolism regulation and remodeling through different molecular mechanisms.
    A survey of cognition and teaching satisfaction of hygiene course among clinical medicine students
    2019, 39(4):  594-598. 
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    Objective To understand the status of clinical professional preventive medicine teaching and provide the basis for the teaching reform of hygiene for clinical specialty. Methods We randomly selected the students in clinical medicine, general medicine, stomatology, anesthesiology, and imaging medicine of the University of South China to conduct surveys, including students’cognition of hygiene, evaluation of teaching settings and teaching effectiveness. Results 84.8% of students consider it necessary to study the Hygiene course. 85.8% of students believed to contribute to the future of learning and work. 90.4% of students believe that it helps deepen the concept of prevention.57.1% of the students think that the integration of the course with the clinical level is not close enough.Students in theoretical courses have the lowest awareness of the importance of preventive health strategies and measures. The experimental content that students are most interested in is drinking water disinfection. Conclusions At present, students have a high degree of awareness of the teaching of hygiene, and student's learning initiative needs to be improved. Therefore, universities should be combined with student’ learning needs, and actively carry out teaching reform, training of qualified personnel for the medical community.
    An exploration of simulation teaching in resident standardized training at department of internal medicine
    2019, 39(4):  599-603. 
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    Objective Resident standardized training is required by the ministry of health in China. A new method of simulation teaching is being tested in department of internal medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out in the trainee. Simulation teaching was used in some of the residents. Results Most of the trainee didn’t have enough exposure to critical patients care, and they wanted more training to improve their clinical capability. A protocol of simulation teaching has been well established. Conclusion Simulation teaching should be helpful to improve the resident standardized training in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.
    Practice and experience of medical scientific research management system based on e-learning in the field of academic communication
    2019, 39(4):  604-607. 
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    Online academic exchanges, such as e-learning, can effectively improve the efficiency of academic exchanges by overcoming the constraints of subject areas, funds, space and time in traditional academic exchanges. At present, more and more scientific and technological workers are using e-learning and other online academic communication platforms to share scientific and technological information, exchange academic views, and track the latest scientific research trends to form an efficient academic exchange model. This paper summarizes the current practice and application status and experience of medical research managers in assisting scientific and technological workers to conduct efficient and Shared academic exchanges by using methods such as e-learning, and provides constructive inspiration for the expanded use of e-learning in the field of academic exchanges in the future.
    Different perspectives from medical students and attending physicians about clinical teaching in nephrology division at Peking Union Medical College Hospital
    2019, 39(4):  608-612. 
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    Objective To understand the current status of clinical teaching in Nephrology Division at PUMCH. Method On-line survey were conducted in all medical students who had their rotations in Nephrology ward between May. 2016 and April 2018 as well as every attending physician in Nephrology Division. Questions were mainly about teaching objectives, forms of teaching and obstacles in clinical teaching. Result Learning objectives were not clear and organized teaching activities were lacking. Although medical students and attending physicians had different thoughts in learning objectives, the basic content of education had been carried out properly. Heavy clinical work and lack of incentive system were the main difficulties affecting clinical teaching. Conclusions Teaching objectives should be clarified before the rotation. The modes of clinical teaching should be modified. Multiple educational methods should be used to improve the education.
    Current issues of oncology education and reform proposals in radiation oncology standardized training base
    2019, 39(4):  613-616. 
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    Oncology has established relatively late in China, and as a consequence, Radiation Oncology, the third discipline, got extremely encumbered. The inadequacies of courses, the shortage of Radiation talents and absence of Psycho Oncology education are problems right now. Combined with the Resident Standardization Training in China, Radiation Oncology base must act the preceding and the following as an crucial part. This article raises analysis and reform suggestion, based on textbook and curriculum construction, psycho interpersonal communication, training mode and something else, for aiming a promising future on progression of Radiation Oncology base.