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Table of Content

    05 February 2021, Volume 41 Issue 2
    Original Articles
    The anti-Candida albicans infection of mouse by extracellular polysaccharide from PH1008
    WANG Ying, BEI Ning, PEI Hua, YANG Wen, WANG Hua-min
    2021, 41(2):  155-158. 
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    Objective To evaluate the anti-infective effect of polysaccharide isolated from fungus PH1008 in vaginal Candida albicans infection model of mouse,and to provide a new and potential pathway to the development of anti-candida drugs. Methods Determination of gene expression level of transcriptome in mice vagina after yeast infection mouse model was treated by exopolysaccharide of fungus PH1008. Results The expression of hepatocyte growth factor and complement 1 receptor was increased, and the up-regulation was related to varied signal transduction pathways. Conclusions The anti-infection effect of Candida albicans can be induced by vaginal mucosal immunization with exopolysaccharide of fungus PH1008, and the relevant mechanism needs further research.
    Pathological mechanism of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease caused by the Ile122Asn mutation in the C1orf194 gene
    CHEN Shi-kai, CHEN Jiu-ming, SUN Shun-chang
    2021, 41(2):  159-164. 
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    Objective To explore the molecular mechanism of the autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease caused by the Ile122Asn mutation in the C1orf194 gene. Methods Human wild C1orf194 and Ile122Asn mutation C1orf194 genes were constructed by PCR cloning, and then expressed in SH-SY5Y cells. Candidate c1orf194-interacting proteins were screened by stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-immunoprecipitation following liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer operation. The c1orf194-interacting proteins were validated by Western blot. Results Wild c1orf194 interacts with TBA1C, AACT, and HSPA4L in SH-SY5Y cells. However, the Ile122Asn mutant c1orf194 failed to bind to them. Conclusions The results indicate that the C1orf194 gene mutation may lead to an autosomal dominant CMT by losing protein-protein interactions which are involved in different functional pathways. This conclusion may make contribution to clear understanding of the c1orf194 function.
    Plasma exosomal APE1 expression of NSCLC patients is related to the sensitivity of platinum chemotherapy
    ZHAO Xiao-long, DAI Xiao-yan, MAO Cheng-yi, XIAO Hua-liang, WANG Dong, DAI Nan
    2021, 41(2):  165-170. 
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    Objective To study the expression of apurinic aprimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) and the relationship between the expression of APE1 and the sensitivity of platinum chemotherapy for NSCLC. Methods From January 2018 to June 2019, 136 NSCLC patients with stage Ⅲ B or Ⅳ plus non driving gene mutation were selected to extract and identify the plasma exosome APE1. Western blot and ELISA were used to detect the expression of APE1 in exosomes. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of APE1 in tissues. According to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, the patients were divided into two groups: the effective group and the ineffective group. The relationship between APE1 expression and drug sensitivity was examined. Results APE1 was mainly located within exosomes in peripheral blood. The level of APE1 in the exosomes of NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls (P< 0.001). Compared with NSCLC patients with low tissue APE1 expression, patients with high tissue APE1 expression showed a significantly higher plasma APE1 level (P< 0.01). The APE1 level of exosomes in the chemotherapy ineffective group was significantly higher than that in the chemotherapy effective group (P< 0.001). Conclusions Exosomal APE1 can be used as a sensitive indicator to evaluate the response of patients to chemotherapy with platinum.
    LncRNA SNHG7 enhances the drug resistance of human acute myeloid leukemia cells through inhibiting miR-186
    ZHU Juan, ZHOU Ying, LI Ying-jia
    2021, 41(2):  171-177. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG7 on cell drug resistance through inhibiting microRNA-186(miR-186). Methods Peripheral blood was taken from newly diagnosed AML patients, recurrent/refractory AML patients and healthy controls. AML adriamycin sensitive cells (HL60) and AML adriamycin resistant cells (HL60/ADM) were used to detect the expression of SNHG7 and miR-186 in peripheral blood and cell samples by fluorescence quantitative PCR. The sensitivity of HL60 and HL60/ADM cells to adriamycin was determined by CCK8 assay and the 50% inhibitory concentration(IC50) was calculated. Sh-SNHG7 or miR-186 mimic or miR-186 inhibitor was transfected into HL60/ADM cells. The expres- sion of SNHG7 and miR-186 was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR, the dose response and IC50 of HL60/ADM to adriamycin were detected by CCK8. Double luciferase reporter gene assay was used to detect the targeted binding of SNHG7 to miR-186. Results The expression of SNHG7 in the serum of newly diagnosed AML and recurrent/refractory AML patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls, and the trend of miR-186 was contrary to that of SNHG7 (P<0.01). Compared with HL60 cells, HL60/ADM cells were treated with adriamycin at different concentrations, and the IC50 value of adriamycin on HL60/ADM (3.36±0.65) cells was significantly higher than that of HL60 cells (0.43±0.16) (P<0.001). SNHG7 expression was significantly higher(P<0.05) in HL60/ADM cells and miR-186 was significantly lower (P<0.05). Transfection with sh-SNHG7 or miR-186 mimic in HL60/ADM cells increased the sensitivity to adriamycin and decreased the IC50 value from 3.17±0.61 to 2.30±0.31 and 3.22±0.62 to 2.16±0.33, respectively (P<0.05). Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that SNHG7 could bind miR-186. Conclusions SNHG7 enhances drug resistance of AML cells during chemotherapy through inhibition of miR-186.
    Goal-directed fluid therapy optimizes hemodynamics on the elderly patients undergoing lumbar decompressive surgery and reduces postoperative complications
    XIA Di, XU Li, LI Xu, HUANG Yu-guang
    2021, 41(2):  178-183. 
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    Objective To explore the impact of goal-directed fluid therapy(GDT) management strategy on the perioperative complications of elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Methods Elderly patients undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery were selected and randomly divided into the control group with routine fluid management according to the existing anesthetic fluid treatment standards and the experimental group for intraoperative fluid management using GDT strategies. Hemodynamic indicators, perioperative fluid, gastrointestinal function indicators and the incidence of complications in the 30 days after surgery were collected. Results Cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI) of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05) at the end of operation. The two groups also showed a significant different(P<0.05) in total intraoperative fluid infusion volume, which was more significant than comoparison with experimental(GDT)group. However,the dosage of vasoactive drugs was significantly lower in the observation group (P<0.05). Compared with the observation group, the number of patients receiving medicine-assisted defecation and exhaust was significantly less than that in the experimental group (P<0.05). Compared with the observation group, the experimental group has significantly less was complication infectio (P<0.05). Conclusions GDT can reduce postoperative complications in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery, thereby improving the perfusion and prognosis.
    Ziziphi Spinosae Semen Flavonoids alleviates liver oxidative damage induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate in mice
    XIAO Feng-qin, ZHANG Hong-yin, HAN Rong-xin, ZHANG Rong-rong, YAN Ming-ming, ZHANG Shi-yang, JIA Xiu-xiu
    2021, 41(2):  184-188. 
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    Objective To study the protective effect of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen Flavonoids (ZSSF) on liver oxidative damage induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in mice. Methods Mice were divided into blank control group, model group, positive control group (vitamin C group) and high, medium and low dose ZSSF group by random number table method, with 10 mice in each group. At the same time, PFOS (10 mg/kg) was molded and administered continuously for 30 days.After 6 h after the last delivery, eyeball blood in mice, the liver to join 9 times the volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution in homogenate is made from 10% of the tissue of slurry, according to the kit instruction alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum and aspirate aminotransferase (AST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (gsh-px) and catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (T -AOC) level; The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 mrna in liver tissues was detected, and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR) was applied. Results Compared with the control group, the contents of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde increased in the model group, while the contents of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity decreased(P< 0.01, P<0.05); Compared with the model group, the drug intervention group reduced the content of AST, ALT and MDA, and increased the content of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, T-AOC, Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA in liver tissue(P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusions Ziziphi Spinosae Semen Flavonoids can improve the oxidative liver injury induced by PFOS in mice, which may be caused by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in vivo and reducing the generation of lipid peroxides by regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, so as to improve the antioxidant capacity of the body.
    Sp1 specifically regulates the transcription of congenital heart disease associated gene RCAN1 isoform 1
    LI Xiao-yong, SONG Lai-chun, TAO Chao, JIN Jing, XU Ming
    2021, 41(2):  189-192. 
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    Objective To investigate the regulatory mechanism of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), which is associated with congenital heart disease and has a tissue-specific expression pattern. Methods The transcription factor binding sites were predicted and compared in promoter of RCAN1. The site directed mutation and luciferase assay were used to detect the activity of the binding site. Then the transcriptional regulation of RCAN1 by Sp1 was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR under physiological condition (control group) or Sp1 inhibitor (experimental group). Results The Sp1 binding site-138GCCCGCCGCC-129 was predicated and identified. The RCAN1-1 mRNA was more decreased in experimental group than the control group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in RCAN1-4 mRNA between the two groups. Conclusions Sp1 specifically regulates the transcription of RCAN1-1 isoform, which demonstrates that Sp1 is a potential targete molecule for genetic testing and clinical intervention for congenital heart disease.
    Connective tissue growth factor promotes the proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3
    DONG Ling-ling, GAO Yun, NIU Guo-yu
    2021, 41(2):  193-196. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of CTGF on proliferation and migration of SKOV3 and the underlying mechanism. Methods SKOV3 cells were treated with recombinant human CTGF (rhCTGF).The proliferation of SKOV3 was detected by CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay. The migration of SKOV3 was detected by wound healing assay.The expression of EMT-related proteins was detected by Western blot. Results After rhCTGF treatment, the proliferation rate of SKOV3 was increased, the colony formation and migzation were enhanced (P<0.05).The expression of E-cadherin was decreased and the expression of vimentin was increased, which were related proteins of EMT(P<0.05). Conclusions CTGF can promote proliferation, growth and metastasis of SKOV3, and that may contribute to the regulation of epithelium-mesenchymal transformation (EMT).
    Myocardial inflammatory response in rats with vascular calcification caused by chronic kidney disease
    YUAN Ling, NIE Wei, WANG Lei, WANG Hong, CUI Xiao-xue, LIU Lin-na
    2021, 41(2):  197-202. 
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    Objective To observe the myocardial inflammatory response and the expression of TLR4, IL-6 and TNF-α in rats with chronic kidney disease vascular calcification (CKD-VC). Methods Rats were divided into control group and CKD-VC group(adenine 200 mg/kg gavage+ high phosphorus 0.5 g/d drinking water). Blood routine and histological changes of heart, kidney and aorta were detected at 5 weeks. At 10 weeks, the serum of rats was collected to detect creatinine (Scr), urea nitrogen (BUN), serum calcium (Ca) and serum phosphorus (P); heart, kidney and aorta were taken, and histopathology change was observed by routine pathological examination; von Kossa staining to identify vascular calcification; Masson staining to detect renal fibrosis; immunohistochemistry to detect TLR4, IL-6 and TNF-α expression changes. Results As the CKD kidney disease progressed, the inflammatory lesions of the heart became more and more obvious. At 5th week, the counting of peripheral eosinophils and neutrophils in CKD-VC group was significantly higher than the control group (both P<0.01), a small amount of lymphocytes infiltrated in one animal's myocardium; No vascular calcification was observed in the aorta by von Kossa staining. At 10th week, there were multiple myocardial necrosis in the heart with inflammatory cell infiltration, and TLR4, IL-6 and TNF-α were positive in the inflammation area; the incidence rate of vascular calcification identified by von Kossa staining in the CKD-VC group was 5/7. Conclusions Adenine gavage combined with the drinking water of high phosphate level induces CKD renal damage and vascular calcification, which simultaneously activates the expression of inflammatory factors such as TLR4, TNF-α and IL-6, causing chronic inflammatory damage of myocardium.
    Effects of barley plus butter dietary on symptoms of intestinal flora in mice and dextran sodium sulfate induced ulcerative colitis
    LI Chun-mei, ZHAO Wei, XIE Xiang-hong, ZHANG Wei-hong, YANG Jia-hui, LI Jun, LIU Xiao-Jun
    2021, 41(2):  203-208. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of barley plus butter dietary on the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate induced chronic ulcerative colitis and intestinal microbial distribution in mice. Methods In customized feed(C feed), soybean oil and corn meal in standard mice breeding feed (N feed) were replaced with equal proportion of ghee and raw barley powder.28 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups(n=7,each group):NW group fed with N feed and water; ND group fed with N feed and 1.8% DSS; CW group fed with C feed and water; CD group fed with C feed and 1.8% DSS. Colitis model was established by three cycles of 10 days supply of distilled water after 7 days supply of 1.8% DSS solution. Finally, the effects were evaluated by DAI score, colon HE staining and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing of gut microbes. Results The abundance of bacteria was increased and the diversity of intestinal flora, such as allobaculum, was improved in wild type mice fed on the barley and butter dietary. However, when the mice were treated with DSS, the barley plus butter dietary group had high DAI score(P<0.05), showed obvious intestinal ulcers and disorganized intestinal glands by histopathological microscopy, and decreased intestinal flora abundance and diversity(P<0.05). But the quantity of Clostridium and Sartreella was increased in barley and butter dietary group(P<0.05). Conclusions The barley plus butter dietary increases intestinal flora Allobaculum of wild type mice and improves the composition of intestinal flora, but the dietary intervention fails to show any significant impact on the chronic ulcerative colitis symptoms induced by DSS.
    Osteogenic activity of polyetheretherketone/58S bioactive glasses bone implant
    LIU Lyu-hua, ZHENG Yan-yan, ZHANG Li-fang, XIONG Cheng-dong
    2021, 41(2):  209-213. 
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    Objective To explore the osteogenic activity of polyetheretherketone/58S bioactive glasses (PEEK/58S) as a kind of bone implant. Methods MG-63 osteoblasts were cultured on PEEK and PEEK/58S surfaces for predetermined time. Then MG-63 osteoblast attachment and spreading condition were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proliferation activity of MG-63 osteoblast was evaluated by CCK-8 (cell counting kit). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured to determine the osteogenic differentiation of MG-63 osteoblast. The mRNA expression levels of osteogenesis-related genes ALP, BMP-2, COL-I, OCN and OPN were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Osseointegration of PEEK and PEEK/58S bone implant was evaluated by histological analysis and biomechanical pull-out tests after implantation in a rat tibia model for 12 weeks. Results Compared with the PEEK, the adhesion and spreading of MG-63 osteoblast was more favorable. The proliferation activity and ALP activity of MG-63 osteoblast was significantly promoted (P<0.05). Also, the mRNA expression of ALP, BMP-2, COL-I, OCN and OPN was significantly up-regulated (P<0.05). In vivo experiments showed that PEEK/58S exhibited better osseointegration than pure PEEK. Conclusions PEEK/58S bone implant significantly improves the attachment, spreading, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast and enhances the peri-implant osseointegration, so it is a potential novel orthopedic material for clinical use.
    Audiologic profile of patients with ankylosing spondylitis
    WANG Yi, SU Jin-mei, WANG Su-ju, LUAN Lan, GAO Zhi-qiang
    2021, 41(2):  214-218. 
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    Objective To describ the audiologic profile of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Methods This comparative cross-sectional study on the auditory evaluations was carried out with 24 patients and 25 controls including the pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) to identify the prevalence, type of hearing loss in diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis patients. Results The prevalence of hearing loss in patient group was 29%, sensorineural hearing loss was 21%, and conductive hearing loss was 8%, which were all significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05). Tympanic pressure curve type“As” was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). The cochlea was mainly involved in sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing loss affected female more often. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss is high, especially in female patients. Hearing loss may be an extra-articular feature of ankylosing spondylitis. Conductive hearing loss may be resulted from the arthritis of the ossicular chain.
    Silenced CXCL12 inhibits ox-LDL-induced foaming and apoptosis in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7
    ZHUANG Hong, ZHANG Su-chuan, LIU Hui-di, XU Ya-ning, HUANG Lu, DAI Tian, JIANG Pin
    2021, 41(2):  219-224. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) on oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced foaming and apoptosis of macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 was incubated with 60 mg/L of ox-LDL to induce foaming of macrophages, which was recorded as ox-LDL group, and to compare with the control without ox-LDL; si-con and si-CXCL12 were transfected to RAW264.7 cells and thenincubated with ox-LDL at 60 mg/L as ox-LDL+si-con group and ox-LDL+si-CXCL12 group, respectively. Oil Red O staining was used to detect cellular foaming; Western blot was used to detect ABCA-1, SRB-1, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, CXCL12, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), and phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) protein expression; flow cytometry is used to detect apoptosis; CXCL12 mRNA expression was measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR). Results The size of ox-LDL-treated macrophages increased, the shape became round, and a large number of red lipid droplets were found in the cytoplasm; the expression of ABCA-1 and SRB-1 and cleaved caspase-3 as well as cleaved caspase-9 were all significantly increased; the apoptosis rate and the expression of CXCL12 and p-p38MAPK were significantly increased(P<0.05). Silencing CXCL12, no red-stained lipid droplets were found in most cells, only a few cells had partial lipid droplets, the expressions of ABCA-1 and SRB-1 were significantly reduced, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, apoptosis rate and the expression of p-p38MAPK significantly reduced(P<0.05). Conclusions Silencing CXCL12 inhibits ox-LDL-induced foaming and apoptosis of mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7, which may be related to the p38MAPK signaling pathway.
    Long non-coding RNA MCM3AP-AS1 targeted miR-876-5p promotes the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cell lines
    ZHOU Di-xia, LYU Hai-dong
    2021, 41(2):  225-232. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of long non-coding RNA MCM3AP antisense transcript 1 and miR-876-5p on the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer(CRC) cells in vitro. Methods The expressions of MCM3AP-AS1 in CRC tissue and cells were detected by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The proliferation and migration of CRC cells were detected by MTT, scratch test and Transwell assay; and the targeting relationship between MCM3AP-AS1 and miR-876-5p was verified by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay and RT-qPCR. Results Compared with normal adjacent tissues and normal CRC epithelial cell lines, the expression of MCM3AP-AS1 was up-regulated. Down-regulation of MCM3AP-AS1 decreased the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells. MCM3AP-AS1 targeted at miR-876-5p and down-regulated its expression. miR-876-5p inhibited the promotion of malignant phenotype of colon cancer. Conclusions MCM3AP-AS1 may promote the proliferation and migration of CRC cancer cells by absorbing of miR-876-5p.
    miR-491-5p regulates the sensitivity of human bladder cancer cell line EJ to 5-fluorouracil
    YANG Feng, XU Jia, QIU Guo-hui, YANG Zhi-ling
    2021, 41(2):  233-239. 
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    Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of miR-491-5p on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity in human bladder cancer cell line EJ. Methods The expressions of miR-491-5p in chemotherapy-sensitive and resistant tissues were detected by RT-qPCR. The 5-FU resistant EJ/5-FU cell line was constructed, the miR-491-5p expression and phosphorylation of AKT and STAT3 were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. After miR-491-5p inhibitor was transfected into EJ cells or miR-491-5p mimic was transfected into EJ/5-FU cells, the cell viability, apoptosis, wound healing, migration, invasion, AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation levels were detected by CCK-8 assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, scratch assay and Transwell assay and Western blot under the condition of 5-FU, respectively. Results The expression of miR-491-5p was significantly decreased in chemotherapy-resistant tissues and EJ/5-FU cell line(P<0.01). After down-regulation of miR-491-5p in EJ cells, the inhibition of 5-FU on cell viability, wound healing, migration and invasion, and the promotion of apoptosis were significantly reduced (P<0.01). After up-regulation of miR-491-5p in EJ/5-FU cell line, the inhibition of 5-FU on cell viability, wound healing, migration and invasion, and the promotion of apoptosis were significantly increased(P<0.01). The phosphorylation of AKT and STAT3 was significantly increased in EJ/5-FU cell line(P<0.01); the phosphorylation of AKT and STAT3 in cell line EJ was significantly increased after the down-regulation of miR-491-5p (P<0.01), and the phosphorylation of AKT and STAT3 in EJ/5-FU cell line was significantly decreased after the up-regulation of miR-491-5p (P<0.01). Conclusions Down-regulation of miR-491-5p reduces the sensitivity of cell line EJ to 5-FU, while up-regulation of miR-491-5p inhibits 5-FU resistance in EJ/5-FU cell line. miR-491-5p in regulation of 5-FU resistance of cell line EJ is accompanied by changes of AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation.
    Therapeutic effect and mechanism of celecoxib on bladder cancer cell implanted mice
    LIANG Bing, LUO Hou-zhou
    2021, 41(2):  240-244. 
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    Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of celecoxib on mice implanted with bladder cancer cells and its related mechanism. Methods Sixty male BALB/c nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, model group and observation group. The model group and the observation group were implanted with human bladder cancer cell line 5637 to establish a mouse bladder cancer model. The mice in the observation group were treated with celecoxib, while the mice in the control group and the model group were injected with the same dose of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. After 4 weeks of treatment, the tumor tissue of model group and experimental group and normal tissue of control group were taken to detect the expression of CD4+, CD8+, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in the tissues of three groups. Western blot was performed to test the positive expression of COX-2, VEGF and cPLA2.TUNEL method was used to test the apoptotic rate of bladder cancer cells in model group and observation group. Results The mice in the control group grew normally without tumor under the skin. The tumorigenesis rate of model group and observation group was 100%. The tumor mass of the model group and the observation group were (2.08±0.36)g and (1.18±0.21)g. Compared with the model group, the tumor mass of mice in the observation group decreased significantly (P<0.05). The tumor inhibition rate of mice in the observation group was 43.33%. The levels of CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ in tissue of model group and observation group was significantly lower than that of control group, and the level of CD8+ was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). The levels of CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ in tumor tissue of mice in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the model group, and the level of CD8+ was significantly lower than that in the model group (P<0.05). COX-2 and cPLA2 protein levels were not expressed in tissues of mice in control group, the expression of VEGF protein was positive in all three groups. The expression levels of COX-2, VEGF and cPLA2 in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the model group, and the apoptotic index was significantly higher than that in the model group (P<0.05). Conclusions Celecoxib has a certain inhibitory effect on implanted bladder cancer in mice. Its mechanism may be related to improving the immune system level of bladder cancer mice, alleviating inflammatory reaction and inducing cancer cell apoptosis.
    Clinical Sciences
    Changes in erythrocyte deformability in patients with T2DM are associated with RBC energy metabolism
    SUN Ming-yue, LI Xu-yan, SA Ru-la, LI Jing-jing, LIANG Hao, YAN Zhao-li, SU Yan
    2021, 41(2):  245-249. 
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between erythrocyte (RBC) deformability and RBC energy metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Totally 80 T2DM and 50 controls with age of 40 to 70 years were selected. Rough hematology laboratory test, ATP content, Hexokinase (HK) and Pyruvate kinase (PK) activity were detected.Results BMI, DBP and SBP of patients with T2DM were higher than those of control group (P<0.05). T2DM of RBC deformation index (TK), rigidity index(IR), RBC distribution width (RDW) and average RBC volume (MCV) were higher than that of control group (P<0.05); The content of ATP and PK activity in RBC of T2DM group were higher than that of control group (P<0.05), while the activity of HK was lower than that of control group(P<0.05). In the T2DM, TK was negatively correlated with ATP content and HK activity, and positively correlated with HbA1c. IR was negatively correlated with HK and PK values, and positively correlated with HbA1c (P<0.05). Compared with Group A, the TK value of Group C increased (P<0.05) in the HbA1c group. Compared with Group A, Group C had higher ATP, PK and HK (P<0.05). Compared with Group A, ROS in Group C increased (P<0.05). Results RCD damage in diabetic patients is closely related to HbA1c, and RBC energy metabolism plays an important role in maintaining RCD. In diabetic patients, ATP production in RBC increased, PK activity increased, and energy metabolism was vigorous, but this did not improve the reduced RCD status caused by high glucose. Conclusions The energy metabolism of erythrocytes in diabetic patients was more vigorous and is closely related to the decrease of RCD. RCD reduction is a risk factor for diabetic microangiopathy, so monitoring erythrocytes energy metabolism may provide a new basis for monitoring the progress of clinical diabetes patients and support clinical diagnosis and treatment.
    Predictive care helps to stabilize the mood and reduce complications in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice after PTCD
    CAO Wei, SHEN Yue, MA Chuan-rong
    2021, 41(2):  250-253. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of predictive care in preventing complications after percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Methods Eighty patients with malignant obstructive jaundice who underwent PTCD treatment were admitted to the Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Center of Xuzhou Central Hospital from January 2018 to October 2019. They were randomly divided into 2 groups with 40 cases in each group: regular nursing group and the experimental group, the latter was implemented predictive nursing strategies on the basis of the former, then compared the anxiety(SAS) scores and depression (SDS) scores of the two groups before and after intervention, and observed the monitoring time, hospitalization time, nursing satisfaction and postoperative complications of the two groups. Results After the intervention, the SAS score and SDS score of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05); the monitoring time and hospitalization of the experimental group were significantly shorter than those of the control group (P<0.05); the experimental group was generally satisfied with the nursing care. The rate was 100% and the control group was 97.5%. The total incidence of postoperative complications in the experimental group was 10%, which was significantly lower than the control group (30%) (P<0.05). Conclusions Predictive care for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice who underwent PTCD therapy can effectively alleviate their anxiety and depression, reduce the risk of postoperative complications, and speed up recovery.
    Investigation on current situation and analysis of influencing factors of stress injury risk in diabetic foot patients
    CHEN Ying, YUAN Li, LI Rao, YANG Xiao-ling
    2021, 41(2):  254-256. 
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    Objective To understand the skin condition of the feet of diabetic patients, and to analyze the influencing factors of the risk degree of the patients after stress injury. Clinical practice provides guidance. Methods The researchers used a retrospective analysis and survey method to select diabetic foot patients admitted to a tertiary hospital as the research object. At the same time, the data were investigated and analyzed through the Braden pressure ulcer risk assessment form. Results The risk of pressure injury in diabetic foot patients was related to hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, serum albumin, pain, and lower limb vascular stenosis (P<0.05). Conclusions Hospital workers can provide targeted interventions to patients according to the risk factors of related diseases, and at the same time, prevent the occurrence of stress injuries and improve the quality of life of patients.
    Mini Reviews
    Advances in the application of zebrafish in the study of acute kidney injury
    MA Tian-tian, SHI Xiao-xiao, CHEN Li-meng
    2021, 41(2):  257-261. 
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    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common critical illness in clinic, characterized by a sudden and continuous decline in kidney function. zebrafish, as a vertebrate model organism, is highly similar to human being in terms of kidney morphology, physiology and function, and is an ideal animal model for the study of kidney disease, which makes up for the deficiency of mammalian model. This review briefly described the structure and function of zebrafish kidney, the modeling methods and its application in AKI research.
    Regulatory effects and mechanisms of HOTAIRM1 in malignant tumors
    ZHAO Yu-qiao, SU Zhi-lei, CUI Yun-fu, GUAN Cang-hai, JIANG Xing-ming
    2021, 41(2):  262-266. 
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    HOTAIRM1, a newly found long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is abnormally expressed in diverse malignant tumors, regulated mRNA, miRNA, relevant target gene or protein through specific signal transduction pathways to function in mechanisms of proliferation, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. HOTAIRM1 is closely related to the clinicopathology or molecular pathology and have shown great potential in therapy and predicting prognosis of patients.
    Functions of ceramide and its role in pulmonary arterial hypertension
    LI Fa-mei, YU Zai-xin
    2021, 41(2):  267-271. 
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    Ceramide is a kind of sphingomyelin molecule,as a second messenger in cells,regulates cell proliferation,differentiation,senescence,apoptosis and other life activities.Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a disease characterized by pulmonary arterioles remodeling and increased increased vascular resistance. Ceramide is involved in the occurrence and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension by mediating pulmonary vascular remodeling,inflammatory response and lipotoxicity. Understanding the biological functions of ceramide and its mechanism involved in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension may provide new idea for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
    Research progress on the effects of tight junction on lung permeability
    WU Xie, YAN Fu-xia
    2021, 41(2):  272-276. 
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    The alveolar epithelial barrier and the pulmonary microvascular endothelial barrier will be destroyed when the lung tissue is damaged, thus affecting the permeability of the lung and causing serious pulmonary edema. Tight junctions (TJs) are protein complex with “fences and barriers” function that exists in epithelial cells and endothelial cells, and are crucial to the regulation of lung permeability. This paper mainly reviews the research progress on the effects of tight junction proteins on lung permeability, which can deepen the understanding of this problem and provides new ideas for clinical treatment.
    Research progress of microglia causing and promoting Alzheimer's disease
    WANG Zi-han, LUO Jin-ding, TIAN Ying-ru, FENG Shui-dong, LING Hong-yan
    2021, 41(2):  277-281. 
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    Microglia is a kind of immune cell in nervous system and has dual regulatory function. It not only streng then phagocytosis, release anti-inflammatory factors to maintain the homeostasis of brain tissues and protect neurons, but also increase the inflammatory response and reduce the scavenging ability of harmful proteins to damage neurons. Under the influence of aging, the expression of CD33 in microglia increased while the expression of TREM2 decreased. In terms of activated phenotype, microglia in the aged population are more inclined to be activated into a pro-inflammatory phenotype, thus promoting the occurrence and progression of AD. In this paper, the mechanisms of microglia inducing and promoting AD were reviewed from the aspects of microglia gene expression, proinflammatory phenotype and immune regulation, in order to provide new strategy for the treatment of AD through microglia.
    Research progress on the role of Salusin-β in cardiovascular diseases
    SHI Ying, GUO Yong-fang, DENG Yu-ting, DAI Hong-yan, GUAN Jun
    2021, 41(2):  282-286. 
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    Salusin-β is a biologically active peptide, which plays an important role in promoting atherosclerosis, raising blood pressure, promoting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, participating in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and anti-inflammatory response. Salusin-β has certain predictive value for the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases, it is expected to find targets and thus support the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
    Medical Education
    Training on diagnostic resoning for rare disease: dwarfism case based clinical teaching
    CHEN Shi, BAI Xi, WANG Shi-rui, PAN Hui, ZHU Hui-juan
    2021, 41(2):  287-289. 
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    Establishing correct clinical thinking is the core and foundation of improving doctors' clinical ability as well as the key and difficult point of medical education. Different from common diseases, the clinical thinking of rare diseases has its unique characteristics. Taking dwarfism as an example, this paper summarizes the characteristics of diagnosis reasoning for rare diseases in the aspects of data collection, logical reasoning, evidence-based teaching, multiple disciplinary team, molecular biology research and artificial intelligence, which is conducive to improving the efficiency of physicians and providing experience for clinical thinking training of rare diseases.
    Application of ‘diagnosis-initiated mode’ in clinical teaching of dermatovenereology
    LI Li, LIU Yang-chun, JIN Hong-zhong
    2021, 41(2):  290-293. 
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    Skin is the largest organ of human, which can reflect host's health condition. Dermatovenereology is an important clinical discipline which focus on the profile of morphology. The challenge of learning is too much content but limited teaching hours. As to medical students, they may often feel dull and lose learning interest. How to arouse the enthusiasm and autonomy of medical students, and improve teaching effectiveness is one of difficulties in clinical teaching of dermatovenereology so draw attention by faculty as a potential orientation of education remodeling This paper aims for exploring a new teaching method, ‘diagnosis-initiated mode’, which may stimulate their interest in the learning of dermatovenereology.
    Exploration on the training mode of new registered nurses in critical medicine department getting independent duty qualification
    LI Zun-zhu, LI Zhen, LI Qi, LUO Hong-bo, SUN Jian-hua, HE Huai-wu
    2021, 41(2):  294-296. 
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    Objective To explore the systematic training mode and assessment system for new registered nurses in intensive care unit. Methods From 2014 to 2018, three stages of training were carried out for new registered nurses in the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. After the first two stages of training, the training system was assessed. Results A total of 132 new registered nurses participated in standardized training during their study, and the passing rate of the entrance examination was 28%. Two weeks later, the passing rate of the first stage was 95.2%, which was significantly improved (P<0.05). Six weeks later, the pass rate of the second stage was 72.0% (P<0.05). The qualified rate after 24 weeks was 96.2%. Conclusions The basic theoretical knowledge, clinical skills and the capacity of critical thinking of new registered nurses in ICU are relatively weak, which can be improved after systematic training. “theoretical assessment + operational assessment plus clinical reasoning evaluation” is helpful to evaluate and improve the nursing ability of new registered nurses.
    Application of team-based learning in internal medicine teaching
    SUN Yuan-yuan, WANG Li, LI Xiao-qing, YANG Ming, LI Hang, ZHANG Feng-chun
    2021, 41(2):  297-300. 
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    Objective To explore the effectiveness of team-based learning(TBL) methods in internal medicine. Methods The study enrolled volunteer medical students of grade 2014 from Peking Union Medical College who were in internal medicine clerkship and had a TBL course every week. After four-month teaching, anonymous questionnaires were used to investigate students' feedback on the learning method, and then statistics and evaluation were conducted. Results A total of 30 valid questionnaires were received, and more than 50% of the students believed that TBL teaching could help them grasp the professional knowledge and improve clinical abilities. Through the students' feedback, TBL in promoting independent thinking, ability to communicate with patients’ families, medical skills, professional knowledge learning, etc., the proportion of definite agreement and agreement were 100%; In team cooperation, expression ability and independent learning ability, etc., the proportion of definite agreement and agreement were 90.0%-96.7%. In addition, the stimulating interest in learning, easy to master the knowledge and skills, totally proportion of definite agreement and agreement were less than 90%, which need to beimproved in the future. Conclusions TBL teaching may not only improve the students' learning enthusiasm and learning outcomes, but also strengthen the students' interpersonal communication capacity and team spirit. This method may be shared by other education institutions.
    Application of follow-up theory course CBL and practice course PBL teaching method in clinical gynecological oncology
    TAN Shu-fen, YAN Zhi-ling, CHEN Jing, YANG Lin-lin, ZHANG Shao, YANG Hong-ying
    2021, 41(2):  301-303. 
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    Objective To explore the methods suitable for clinical teaching in the field of gynecological oncology and the pathway of talent cultivation. Methods Based on the modeling of “1+2+3” teaching system, the follow-up teaching method along with practical PBL and theoretical CBL is adopted to integrate case analysis with rhetorical questions used by Department of Obsterics and Gynecology in the 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Kunming Medical University. Results Compared with the traditional teaching method, the follow-up group showed higher learning interest and satisfaction (P<0.05). The questionair servey showed that 86.21% of students want to continue similar teaching reforms (P<0.05). Conclusions This comprehensive teaching strategy not only benefits the training of clinical reasonin of medical students, but also enhances faculty's enthusiasm for teaching reformation.
    Application value of mind mapping with clinical symptom as theme in emergency ultrasound teaching
    FU Shuai, CHEN Wen, CUI Li-gang, WANG Shu-min, XING Liang, JIANG Ling
    2021, 41(2):  304-307. 
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    Objective To evaluate learning outcomes of mind mapping with clinical symptom as theme in emergency ultrasound training. Methods The residents who were participated in standardized training were randomly divided into exprtiment group and control group. The control group received traditional emergency ultrasound training, while the experiment group received additional training about mind mapping with clinical symptom as theme on the basis of the control group. Before and after the training, Objective examination questions and film reading ability were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was conducted after the training, including comprehensive course evaluation and satisfaction with personal ability improvement. Results After the training, the score of experiment group was significantly higher than that of control group on Objectiveexamination questions and film reading ability (P<0.05). The comprehensive course evaluation and satisfaction with personal capacity improvement of experiment group was higher than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions The teaching method of mind mapping with clinical symptom as the theme improves diagnostic level by emergency ultrasound scanning as compared with which traditional emergency ultrasound training.
    Cultivation of thesis writing ability of clinical postgraduates majoring in neurospine
    GUAN Jian, YUAN Cheng-hua, JIAN Feng-zeng
    2021, 41(2):  308-310. 
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    With the rapid development of the neurospine subspecialty in China, the graduate training issues involved in the sub-specialty are becoming increasingly prominent. We should not only focus on improving the clinical capacity of neurospine graduates, but also pay attention to the capacity building of clinical research, so as to support trainees'professional development as potential talents of neurosurgery. This article reviewed the types of papers commonly used in clinical practice, in order to cultivate high-level clinicians who can independently complete scientific research and promote the rapid development of neurospine.