Table of Content

    05 January 2015, Volume 35 Issue 1
    Semen cassiae extract attenuates myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in type 2 diabetic rats
    Li-bing LIU Haifeng Zhang
    2015, 35(1):  1-6. 
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    Objectives Obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by hyperglycemia, are liable to more severe myocardial infarction. Semen Cassiae is proved to reduce serum lipid levels. This study was to investigate whether the Semen Cassiae extract (SCE) reduces myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury with or without diabetes, and the underlying mechanisms. Methods The high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) rat model was created as T2DM model. Normal and DM rats received SCE treatment orally (10 mg/kg/day) for 1 week. Subsequently these animals were subjected to MI/R. Results Compared with the normal animals, DM rats showed increased plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG), and more severe MI/R injury and cardiac functional impairment. SCE treatment significantly reduced the plasma TC and TG, improved the instantaneous first derivation of left ventricle pressure and reduced infarct size, decreased plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, and apoptosis index at the end of reperfusion in diabetic rats. Moreover, SCE treatment increased the antiapoptotic protein Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels. Pretreatment with a PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or an ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 not only blocked Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation respectively, but also inhibited the cardioprotective effects of SCE. However, SCE treatment did not show any effects on the MI/R injury in the normal rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that SCE effectively improves myocardial function and reduces MI/R-induced injury in diabetic but not normal animals, which is possibly attributed to the reduced TC/TG levels and the triggered cell survival signaling Akt and ERK1/2.
    Soybean isoflavone relieving the atherosclerosis of rats induced by trans fatty acids
    2015, 35(1):  7-11. 
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    Objective To observe the effects of soybean isoflavone relieving atherosclerosis of rats induced by trans fatty acids. Methods The rats were randomly divided into normal diet group、trans fatty acids group、soybean isoflavone group、trans fatty acids+soybean isoflavone group. Research kit was used to test the amounts of TG、HDL、LDL and IL-6、TNF-ɑ in rats’ blood.Bovine aortic endothelial cells were cultured to be divided into control group、trans fatty acids group and trans fatty acids group+soybean isoflavone group.Western blot was performed to test the NF-?B phosphorylation,as well as to determine ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein contents which bovine aortic endothelial cells contained.Results Compared with normal diet group,the amounts of TG、LDL、IL-6、TNF-ɑ increased evidently(P<0.05), whereas the amounts of HDL decreased evidently (P<0.05) in the rats’blood of trans fatty acids group.After the soybean isoflavone intervened,the amounts of TG、LDL、IL-6、TNF-ɑ all decreased(P<0.01),meanwhile the amounts of HDL rose largely(P<0.01). Soybean isoflavone could lower the NF-κB phosphorylation induced by trans fatty acids(P<0.01). The high expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by trans fatty acids can be decreased by soybean isoflavone when comparing with those in the control group(P<0.01). Conclusions Soybean isoflavone has a role in relieving the rats’atherosclerosis reduced by trans fatty acids.
    miR-30a suppresses migration,invasion and vitality of human osteosarcoma cell line 143B
    2015, 35(1):  12-16. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of miR-30a on human osteosarcoma cell 143B migration,invasion and cell viability. Methods 143B cells were infected or transfected with recombinant adenovirus miR-30a (Ad-miR30a) and miR-30a inhibitor, respectively. Wound healing assay was performed to detect the cell healing ability(P<0.05). Cell migration and invasion ability were determined by Transwell assay(P<0.05).The cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay(P<0.01). Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to analyze the expression of RUNX2 mRNA level and confirmed the adenovirus miR-30a which would express in 143B cells.The expression of RUNX2 at protein level was analyzed by Western blot. miR-30a target to RUNX2 was verified by luciferase reported gene assay. Results The ability of migration and invasion was suppressed in osteosarcoma cell 143B by overexpression miR-30a,and the cell viability was also decreased .After the endogenous miR-30a was inhibited, the cell motility and invasion were enhanced, the cell viability was promoted.The RUNX2 protein was decreased after overexpression miR-30a compared with control group in 143B cell. The luciferase activity of RUNX2 was decreased by adding miR-30a.Conclusions 143B cell migration, invasion and viability were suppressed by miR-30a,and this process might be achieved via suppressing RUNX2 protein expression.
    Prodifen increased thoracic aorta artery stenosis after balloon angioplasty in rat
    2015, 35(1):  22-25. 
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    Objective: To observe the effect of Prodifen (SKf525A) on rat thoracic aorta artery stenosis after balloon angioplasty and discuss the relationship between endogenous Cytochrome P450/epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (CYP2J2/EETs) system and artery stenosis after vascular injury. Methods: The 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups assigned to the following treatments: Sham group, I group (treated by ballon angioplasty for 15d). Using Sham+Skf group (administrated with SKF525A), I+Skf group (administrated with SKF525A, then treated by ballon angioplasty for 15d). Relative luminal area (RLA) and the intimal proliferation index (IPI) were observed by HE staining; The expression of Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase 2J3 (CYP2J3) mRNA was determined by semi-quatative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the level of 11,12-EET was detected by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Compared with Sham group, RLA was significantly decreased, IPI was significantly increased, CYP2J3 mRNA expression and the content of 11,12-EET were significantly increased in I group (P<0.01). Compared with I group, SKf525A treatment significantly decreased RLA, increased IPI, and decreased CYP2J3 mRNA expression and the content of 11,12-EET (P<0.01). Conclusions:CYP2J3/EETs system can inhibit stenosis after vascular injury.
    Ox-LDL inhibits endothelial differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rats
    2015, 35(1):  26-32. 
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    Objective: To investigate that Ox-LDL inhibits endothelial differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in rats and its underlying mechanism. Methods: Cultured MSCs were divided into four groups: blank groups, Ox-LDL groups (5μg/ml Ox-LDL), Ox-LDL+NAC groups (5μg/ml Ox-LDL and pre-treated NAC), and negative groups (5μg/ml nLDL). Cellular morphology, endothelial Marker and differentiation efficiency as well as signal of oxidative and pathway protein were detected after induction by Western blot, real–time PCR. Results: MSCs can differentiate into endothelial cells with expression of endothelial marker vWF,Flk-1 and CD31 at the mRNA and protein level and appearance of vascular morphology, ox-LDL obvious weaken endothelial differentiation of MSCs (P<0.05), but NAC can reverse the inhibited effect of ox-LDL, the amount of ROS in Ox-LDL groups was more higher than that in Ox-LDL+NAC groups(P<0.05), The expression of phosphorylated Akt became decreased distinctly after treatment with ox-LDL(P<0.05), NAC can restore its expression close to normal. Conclusion:ox-LDL can inhibit endothelial differentiation of MSCs via ROS, NAC restore partly or completely inhibited effect of ox-LDL,Akt signaling also played a critical role.
    Increase of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF-kB in placenta tissue and serum in patients with preeclampsia
    2015, 35(1):  33-37. 
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    Objective To evaluate the expression and discussion on high mobility group protein ( HMGB1)/toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NF-?B possible role in the signaling pathway in preeclampsia. Methods 10 cases of patients with mild preeclampsia(MP), 20 patients with severe preeclampsia(SP) and 30 cases of normal pregnancy as a research object in the same period.To navigate the qualitative expression of the HMGB1,TLR4,NF-?Bp65 protein in placenta tissue using Immunohistochemical staining.Levels of HMGB1,TLR4,NF-?Bp65 in blood serum were measured by ELISA. Result (1) Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of HMGB1,TLR4,NF-?Bp65 were stronger than that of control group in the placental of preeclampsia(P<0.05);But HMGB1,TLR4,NF-?Bp65 in placenta of patients with severe preeclampsia and mild preeclampsia comparison of the differences is no statistically significant(P>0.05).(2) Levels of HMGB1、TLR4、NF-?Bp65 in women with preeclampsia significantly higher than control group( P<0.05); Levels of HMGB1、TLR4、NF-?Bp65 in women with severe preeclampsia higher than with mild preeclampsia (P<0.05).Conclusion HMGB1,TLR4 and NF-?Bp65 were up-expressed in the placenta tissue and serum in patients with preeclampsia, which indicated that HMGB1,TLR4 and NF-?Bp65 may play an important role in the development of preeclampsia.
    RNAi-silenced Survivin and hTERT gene inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480
    2015, 35(1):  38-43. 
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    Objective To investigate the Influence of Survivin and hTERT gene on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480 and to provide experiment evidence for gene therapy of colorectal carcinoma. Methods Plasmids carrying shRNAs targeting survivin and hTERT were designed, constructed and transfected into SW480 cells. SW480 cells were divided into blank group, blank Plasmid control group, survivin RNAi group, hTERT RNAi group and Survivin-hTERT RNAi group. The telomerase activity was examined by TRAP-PCR-ELISA analysis 48h after hTERT-shRNA transfection.Survivin and hTERT mRNA and protein expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell apoptosis, proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, cck-8 assay. Results Telomerase activity in SW480 cells of Survivin-hTERT RNAi groups were significantly decreased compared with the blank group(P<0.01). The expression of survivin and hTERT mRNA, proteins in the Survivin-hTERT RNAi group was reduced by 82.8% and 73.6%(P<0.01),79.2% and 66.7% (P<0.01)respectively. The inhibitory rate of cell proliferation of Survivin-hTERT RNAi group was 43.6%±0.1%(P<0.01). The apoptosis rate was 39.2%±2.3%(P<0.01) in the Survivin-hTERT RNAi group. Conclusion the Survivin-hTERT RNAi group could significantly reduce the protein expression of survivin and hTERT mRNA, inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480.
    Different expression of miRNA-449a in lung cancer and precancerous tissue
    2015, 35(1):  44-47. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression and biological function of miRNA-449a in lung cancer. Methods A case-control study was conducted in 58 patients diagnosed with lung cancer(carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and normal tissue closely adjacent to tumor. MiRNA-449a simulation was designed and synthesized, was dissolved into two different concentrations as 10 and 20 mg/mL. The expression of miRNA-449a in lung cancer tissues and matched normal tissues were detected by Real time PCR. The expression of luciferase gene was detected by chemiluminescence technique. MiRNA-449a mimics on cell apoptosis was evaluated by MTT assay. Results The mean tissues expression levels of miRNA-449a in squamous carcinoma group and adenocarcinoma group were 1.48±1.63 and 1.52±1.54 respectively, and were significantly lower than in control group(2.74±1.55)(P<0.01). The average intensity of fluorescent protein in 10 mg/mL group and 20 mg/mL group were 2115±168 and 1352±159 respectively, and were significantly lower than that in control group(4975±115)(P<0.01). Conclusion MiRNA-449a was down-regulated expression in lung cancer and induced apoptosis.
    Up-regulation of miR-200a attenuates TGF-β1-induced activation and collagen synthesis in rat pancreatic stellate cells
    2015, 35(1):  48-53. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of miR-200a mimic on transforming growth factor β1-mediated activation and collagen secretion of rat pancreatic stellate cells. Methods PSCs were isolated and cultured from pancreatic tissue and identified by desmin, GFAP and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining. PSCs of 2nd generation were divided into control group, TGF-β1 group, TGF-β1+miR-NC group and TGF-β1+miR-200a mimic group. The levels of a-SMA and collagen I protein were measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The mRNA levels of a-SMA and collagenⅠ and the expression of miR-200a were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Results TGF-β1 can stimulate the activation of PSCs and promote collagen synthesis in time-dependment manner (P<0.05). After transfection of the mimic, treating with the same concentration of TGF-β1, the expressions of protein and mRNA of both a-SMA and collagen I decreased significantly (P<0.01). Conclusion Over-expression of miR-200a significantly attenuates a-SMA activity and further affects the collagen synthesis of TGF-β1-dependent activation of PSCs. The mechanisms may inhibit the biological effects of TGF-β1.
    The reverse effect of Gli2 gene Silencing on epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721
    2015, 35(1):  54-59. 
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    Objective To explore the effect and mechanism of Gli2 on EMT and invasion in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721. Methods shRNA of Gli2 and Negative control (NC) shRNA were constructed and transfected into SMMC-7721 cells. shRNA-Gli2 group,shRNA-NC group and blank group were set up.Transwell chambers assay、adhesion experiments were used to detect the ability of invasion、homogeneous and heterogeneous cells intercellular adhesion of each group. Meanwhile,the qRT-PCR、Western blot were used to examine Gli2、E-cadherin、N-cadherin and Vimentin mRNA and protein expression. Results In different hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and be along with the increasing ability of the invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, Gli2 expression was higher. Compared with the shRNA-NC group and blank control group,the interfered group extensive cells invasion ability was weaken (P <0.05), homogeneous cells intercellular adhesion was increased and heterogeneous cells intercellular was opposite(P<0.05),meanwhile,the expression of E-cadherin was declined significantly (P<0.05),the expression of N-cadherin、Vimentin raised significantly(P<0.05). Conclusion Silencing Gli2 gene can reverse the EMT of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 and inhibit cell invasion,its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of E-cadherin and the down-regulation of N-cadherin、Vimentin.
    The Physical States of HPV DNA and expression of human papillomavirus late capsid protein 1 in Hep G2 cells
    2015, 35(1):  60-64. 
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    Objective To find out the physical state of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome in hepatoma cell line Hep G2 cells and the regularity of HPV late capsid protein 1 (L1) expression and to explore the nature of the cytoryctes in Hep G2 cells. Methods: E2 and E6 in HPV18 were detected by PCR to evaluate the physical state of HPV18 genome. Hep G2 L1 expression was detected by ELISA, light microscrope and electron microscrope immunohistochemistry assays, Western blot assay using HPV L1 mice monoclonal antibody. L1 mRNA in Hep G2 cells was detected by reverse transcriptional PCR (RT-PCR). Results: PCR assay displayed that HPV DNA was integrated with Hep G2 genome. ELISA assay showed that HPV L1 was present in lysate of Hep G2 cells. Light microscrope demonstrated strong positive reaction in Hep G2 cells. Observed under electron microscopy, in the cytoplasm of partial Hep G2 cells, there were lumpish cytorrhyctes materials which were composition by very small and uniform particles and these particles could be marked by HPV L1 antibody which was labeled by colloidal gold. Western blot analysis showed a band at 56ku district and it was L1 specific strap which demonstrated HPV18 L1 was present in Hep G2 cells. RT-PCR assay demonstrated the presentation of L1mRNA in Hep G2 cells. Conclusion: Hep G2 cells are HPV18-positive cells, HPV DNA genome is integrated with Hep G2 cells. Hep G2 cells can express L1. The cytorrhyctes in Hep G2 cells are composed of HPV18 L1 indicating that L1 can be expressed in Hep G2.
    Celecoxib inhibits proliferation, invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 in vitro
    2015, 35(1):  65-68. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib on proliferation, invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and then determine the optimal concentration of celecoxib and the most suitable application time. Methods Human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 was treated with diverse concentrations of celecoxib (20、60、100μmol/L) for different durations (24、48、72h). Cell proliferation, invasion and migration capabilities were measured by MTT colorimetry, Transwell invasion assay, and scratch assay respectively. Results The proliferation capability of PANC-1 cell was reduced by celecoxib in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). In addition, the invasion and migration capabilities were decreased by celecoxib in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.01). Conclusions Celecoxib attenuates the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Celecoxib attenuates the invasion and migration in a concentration-dependent manner.
    MDA accelerate the glomerular mesangial cell apoptosis via inhibition of Nrf2/ARE
    2015, 35(1):  69-73. 
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    Objective To explore the function of MDA on diabetic nephropathy. Methods Glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) were pretreated with MDA at a final concentrations of 0 μmol/L, 1 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L. MTT assay was used to observe the viability of GMC) . AnnexinV-FITC was used to evaluate effect of MDA on cell apoptosis. RT-PCR and western blot were used to analyze the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and γGCL. Results MDA treatment inhibited GMC viability in a dose-dependent manner. MDA at the concentration of more than 5 μM induced mass production of ROS in GMC (P<0.05). In addition, antioxygen of tBHQ could relieve MDA-induced decreased of cell viability. MDA inhibited the expression of HO-1, γGCLand Nrf2 (P<0.05). Conclusions This study confirmed that MDA inhibited the GMC viability and promotes the cell apoptosis by ROS production through inhibiting Nrf2/HO-1-γGCL.
    Effects of sodium nitroprusside and free radical scavengers on the expression of DNA-PKcs and Ku70/80 of rats cardiomyocytes
    2015, 35(1):  74-78. 
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    Objective To determine the effects of Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) on the expression of catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and Ku70/80 heterodimer in cardiomycyte H9C2, as well as their expression in the myocardial tissues of SD rats. Methods H9C2 cells were co-cultured with SNP at concentreation of 10, 20 and 40mmol/L for 6 hours, SD rats were injected with normal saline, SNP, SNP+SOD, SNP+CAT or SNP+SOD+CAT. Western blot and immunohistochemistry assay were used to estimate DNA-PKcs and Ku 70/80 protein expression respectively. Results The expression of DNA-PKcs and Ku70/80 were increased in H9C2 cells co-cultured with SNP when compared with control group, but they would be decreased when treated with SOD or/and CAT. The expression of DNA-Pkcs and Ku70/80 in myocardial tissues of experimental groups were higher than the control. Conclusion Radical scavengers may role as a protective effect for sodium nitroprusside related injury in cardiac myocytes.
    Screen the tumor-related regions of sporadic pheochromacytoma
    2015, 35(1):  79-85. 
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    Obiective Narrow down the candidate regions of sporadic pheochromacytoma(PCC). Methods Total of 42 patients who were clinically diagnosed as sporadic PCC from 2011-9 to 2013-5 in PUMCH were enrolled. Extract whole genome DNA from their tumors as well as peripheral blood leukocytes. Then exclude inherited cases by Sanger sequence mutation. Within 14 verified cases of sporadic PCC, apply single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip to detect whole genome DNA copy number variations (CNV) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) to initially locate the hot regions. Finally Apply Q-PCR to confirm the hot regions in left cases. Results In this study 38 cases were identified as sporadic PCC, and 4 as inherited cases. CNV were detected in 14/14 tumors, of which deletions were more common. Missing regions occurred in 1p、3q、17p、22q、11p. On the other hand, of the 3 inherited cases, deletion was also detected. The loss of parts of arm 1p is the most common, including chr1:74,957,006~86, 132,879, chr1:58,096,424~67,700,471, and chr1:98,902,091~107,622,430. The result of Q-PCR confirmed the above-mentioned three regions, and the three segments are final candidate regions. Conclusion Part deletions of 1p in most cases are the most striking phenomenon, which indicating part deletions of 1p may occur with PCC development, and there may be some tumor suppressor gene(s) within these areas.
    Topical anesthetic effects of Compound Lidocaine Cream coated endotracheal tube to prevent cough and agitation during extubation in thyroidectomy under general anesthesia
    2015, 35(1):  86-89. 
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    Objective To evaluate the topical anesthetic effects of Compound Lidocaine Cream (CLC) coated endotracheal tube on the prevention of cough/agitation during extubation in thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. Methods 42 patients scheduled for thyroidectomy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were continuously enrolled in this prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized into two groups. Group L were intubated with endotracheal tube coated with CLC, while the control group, Group C with liquid paraffin. The end point of study was spontaneous or induced cough/agitation during extubation. Hemodynamic parameters and the consumption of opioids were recorded. Patients were followed for major complications during their stay in hospital. Results Spontaneous cough/agitation rate was lower in Group L than Group C (15% vs. 65%, p<0.01) ;so was induced cough/agitation (35% vs. 90%, p<0.001) ;the value of SBP×HR was lower in Group L at 1 min after extubation (p<0.05). Conclusion The topical anesthetic effects of CLC coated endotracheal tube could prevent cough and agitation during extubation in thyroidectomy under general anesthesia.
    Analysis of clinical and pathological features of 12 cases with Fabry Disease
    2015, 35(1):  90-94. 
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    Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological features of Fabry disease in Chinese patients.Methods This retrospective study included all in-patients Fabry disease patients at PUMC Hospital from 2004 to 2014.Results The 12 patients included 10 males and 2 females.The middle age at onset was 10. The most frequent symptoms in our group were pain attacks( 10/12), angiokeratoma( 9/12), renal abnormalities ( 7/12), hearing loss ( 6/12), hypohidrosis ( 5/12), cardiac abnormalities ( 5/12), cerebrovascular abnormalities ( 3/12), ophthalmological abnormalities ( 3/12).The severity of clinical manifestations was higher in males. Electron microscopy plays a very important role in pathological diagnosis of Fabry disease.7 patients suspected to have family history. 5 patients were examined regularly, 4 cases were stable , and 1 patient started hemodialysis after 3 years’ follow-up. Conclusion Onset of Fabry disease is early, many organs could be involved and patients present with different clinical manifestations. There are great differences in clinical features between male and female patients.
    Progress in the mechanism of annexin A5 in the related diseases
    2015, 35(1):  104-107. 
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    Annexin A5 is a member of Ca2+-dependent Phospholipid Binding Proteins Family. It exists in histocytes. And because of its unique structure, Annexin A5 plays an important role in many critical functions such as cell inside/outside anticoagulation and pro-apoptosis. Moreover, Annexin A5 has certain relevance with many diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus ,tumour and other diseases.
    TGR5 is a novel regulative factor in metabolism
    2015, 35(1):  108-111. 
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    G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1(TGR5) is a specific membrane receptor of bile acids, playing an important role in the bile acid signaling network. Its activation has been proved to increase the glycemic control, regulate of blood lipid balance, enhance energy expenditure, exert anti-inflammatory actions and so on. It suggests that TGR5 may play an important role in metabolic diseases.
    Research progress and trend for miRNA-205 regulated targets
    2015, 35(1):  112-116. 
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    Traditional research ideas of miRNA-target gene-biological function have ignored the contact between the target genes and signaling pathways they are involved, making the integrity and relevance of miRNA regulatory mechanisms not be fully elucidated. Integrated with systematic and relevant way of thinking, summarization and analysis for the luciferase reporter assay validated miR-205 target genes and their related signaling pathways will pave the way for new research area for miR-205, and, it will be helpful for breaking through the status quo and exploring the novel research areas for miRNA.
    Research advances in NLRP3 inflammasome
    2015, 35(1):  117-121. 
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    Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that can recognize pathogenic microorganisms and stress-associated endogenous molecules and play an important role in innate immune system.Inflammasomes cause inflammatory response by inducing maturation of inflammatory cytokines interleukin(IL)-1β and IL-18 through activation of caspase-1,and involve in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome、ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerosis.
    Research progress of TRAIL network against tumor under the guidance of systems biology
    2015, 35(1):  122-125. 
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    Tumor is a systems biology disease. Treating this intractable disease by single targeted drugs has not been realistic. In this review, we analyze the anti-tumor network of Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand(TRAIL) by a systems biology perspective, and look forward to providing individualized treatment theory in hospital based on TRAIL.
    Progress on GSK-3β in Cardioprotection Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
    2015, 35(1):  126-129. 
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    Glycogen synthase kinase-3βis a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, and its activity has been associated with many cell processes. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is primed by ischemia to open upon reperfusion, leading to reperfusion induced cell necrosis. Phosphorylated GSK-3β inhibits mPTP opening presumably by multiple mechanisms, including preservation of hexokinase II in mPTP complex, prevention of interaction of cyclophilin-D with adenine nucleotide translocase, inhibition of P53 activation and attenuation of ATP hydrolysis during ischemia.
    Progress of the pathological study of dry eye
    2015, 35(1):  130-133. 
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    Dry eye is one of the common clinically chronic disease of ocular surface, mainly characterized by the stability of tear film decreased and the ocular surface tissue lesions. The changes of tear film, the inflammatory reaction which based on immune and the neural regulation abnormality are the important factors in the occurrence, development of dry eye. Alterations in gene structure has become a new research direction, also computer image processing techniques and detection techniques of molecular biology gradually used in research and diagnosis of dry eye.
    Research progress of targeted drugs in breast cancer treatment
    2015, 35(1):  134-137. 
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    Because of its specificity, significant effect, low side effect, molecular targeted therapy has been applied in the treatment of breast cancer. Recently, various molecular targeted drugs have been exploited including targeted HER family, VEGF, multi-targeted therapeutic drugs, and drugs combination.
    Excellent course construction in surgery
    2015, 35(1):  138-140. 
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    Chinese higher medical education has undergone a series of education reform project. College excellent courses construction is an important component of the project. To enable medical students to master the basic surgical theory and skills, and to develop high-quality, high-level medical personnel, the surgery department in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University has scored some achievements in constructing excellent courses. Some ideas and methods are summarized in the construction of excellent courses.
    The related factors of the application of Standardized Patients in the clinical skills examination of medical practitioners
    2015, 35(1):  141-144. 
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    There are several special advantages of the application of Standardized Patients (SPs) in the assessments of clinical skills examination of medical practitioners. However, this application in China be restricted by some limit factors, such as the shortage of SP trainers and SPs, the huge funds needed and the imbalance of regional development. The suggestion to overcome those limitation and to promote SPs be applied to the clinical skills examination of medical practitioners are as follow: the preparatory of regional university union of SPs, the introduction of social capital to participate in and the adoption of the mode of scale operation.