Table of Content

    05 December 2014, Volume 34 Issue 12
    Comparison of PBL in Radiology Curriculum between Chinese and American Medical Students
    2014, 34(12):  1597-1600. 
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    Objective To analyze the implantation of problem based learning (PBL) between Chinese and American medical students who are from different cultural background. Methods The survey included 3 groups of medical students from August 2010 to March 2011. In group 1, there were 57 Chinese medical students from the 5th grade who had finished PBL implanted radiology curriculum; in group 2, there were 24 Chinese medical students from the 4th grade who hadn’t began radiology curriculum; in group 3, there were 25 American medical students from the 2nd grade. The questionnaire was to investigate the best percentage and order of 4 common teaching methods (lecture, textbook, group discussion, clerkship) in the 3 groups. Results The best percentage of 4 teaching methods was: 23%, 20%, 34% and 23%(Chinese medical students from the 5th grade);36%, 21%, 23% and 20%(Chinese medical students from the 4th grade);20%, 22%, 20% and38%(American medical students). The best order of 4 teaching methods was lecture, textbook, discussion and clerkship in 2 groups of Chinese medical students, while in American medical students, the best order was lecture, clerkship, textbook and discussion. Conclusion Although problem based learning is a hot educational method, Chinese and American students still valued and favored the traditional lecture format. The PBL was implanted well in Chinese medical students’ radiology curriculum.
    Isoliquiritigenin enhanced BKCa-mediated outward currents of basilar artery VSMC in rat
    2014, 34(12):  1601-1605. 
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    Objective To study the effect of ISL on the cerebral basilar artery in Wistar rat. Methods After perfusion with 10-5 mol/L PE、10-5 mol/L PE+10-4 mol/L ISL and 10-5 mol/L PE, pressure myograph was used to measure the diameter of the cerebral basilar artery in rat ; The whole cell patch clamp recording technique was used to investigate the effects of 10-7、10-6、10-5、10-4 and 3×10-4mol/L ISL on the membrane current of VSMC in rat cerebral basilar artery. Results 1) 10-4 mol/L ISL relaxed the cerebral basilar artery(p<0.05). 2) ISL enhanced the membrane current of VSMC in both voltage-dependent and concentration-dependent manners(p<0.05). EC50 of ISL enhanced the VSMC outward current was 9.5μmol/L. In the presence of 10-3 mol/L TEA for 3 min, the enhanced current induced by ISL in VSMCs was ablished, and the current reduced to (86±22) pA, 0.65 ± 0. 04 times compared with the control group( p<0.05). Conclusion ISL relaxed the cerebral basilar atery via the enhancement of the outward current mediated by BKCa channel in Wistar rat.
    Astragalus membranaceus alleviates angiotensin II induced vascular remodeling in mice
    2014, 34(12):  1606-1610. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of astragalus membranaceus on angiotensin II (AngII) induced vascular remodeling in mice and its underlying mechanism. Methods Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10/group) including control group, AngII group, AngII+Losartan group and AngII+Astragalus group. In control group, mice were given 0.2 ml/d normal saline by gastric gavage. In the other 3 groups, mice were given 200 ng/(kg?min) AngII by an osmotic pump embedded subcutaneously. In addition, in AngII+Losartan group, mice were given 10 mg/(kg?d) Losartan by gastric gavage; in AngII+Astragalus group, mice were given 20 g/(kg?d) by gastric gavage. All the mice were treated for 14 days. Systolic pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method every 2 days. Mice were sacrificed on day 14 and aortas were collected. HE and Masson’s staining were performed to observe vascular remodeling. RT-PCR was carried out to detect transcriptional expression of collagen I. Western Blot was performed to detect expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). Results Administration of astragalus membranaceus significantly decreased AngII induced blood pressure elevation (P<0.05), attenuated thickening and fibrosis of aorta, decreased mRNA level of collagen I (P<0.05), up-regulated ACE2 expression (P<0.05) and down-regulated AT1R expression (P<0.05). Conclusion Astragalus membranaceus alleviates vascular remodeling induced by AngII in mice, possibly through up-regulating expression of ACE2 and down-regulating AT1R.
    Autophagy Decreases OGD-Induced Ischemic Injury of Mouse Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons
    2014, 34(12):  1611-1615. 
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    Objective To explore the dynamic changes of autophagy and its role in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced ischemic injury in primary cultured cortical neurons of mice in vitro. Methods The primary cortical neurons that obtained from postnatal 24 h C57BL/6J mice were cultured for 7 days, and then were divided into six groups (n=6 per group), including normoxia (Nor.), 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min OGD/24 h reoxygenation. The effect of OGD treatment on autophagy-related protein levels of Beclin-1 and LC3II/I ration were determined by using Western blot analysis. The colorimetric method of thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and the leakage rate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were applied to assess OGD-induced ischemic injury. The autophagy inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, 100 nmol/L) was used to explore the effect of autophagy on OGD-induced ischemic injury of cortical neurons. Results Compared with normoxic group, the levels of autophagy-related protein Beclin-1 and LC3II/I ratio significantly increased with the exposure time of OGD treatment, and the increase of Beclin-1 and LC3II/I ratio reached their peaks at 30 min of OGD treatment (p<0.05). Both of 30 and 60 min OGD treatment could significantly affect the viability and mortality of cortical neurons (p<0.05). In addition, the autophagy inhibitor BafA1 could aggravate 60 min OGD-induced ischemic injury and enhance the LC3II/I ratio (p<0.05). Conclusions These results demonstrated that OGD treatment could induce autophagy in primary cultured cortical neurons, and autophagy may protect cortical neurons against OGD-induced ischemic injury.
    The effect of iron overload on normal and irradiational injured bone marrow-derived murine mesenchymal stem cells in vivo
    2014, 34(12):  1616-1622. 
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    Objective To establish a mouse normal and irradiational injured(IR) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) iron overload model, explore the effects of iron overload on murine bone marrow MSCs and the possible mechanism in this process. Methods Forty male mice(C57BL/6) were randomly divided into four groups:control,iron overload ,IR and IR with iron treated groups (n-10 group),Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 25mg/ml every 3 day to establish the iron overload model, while control and IR group received saline for 4 weeks. Isolation and culture of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse compact bone. The levels of labile iron pool ( LIP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured to confirm oxidative stress state in the model.Cell prolifiration was measured through population double time (DT) and cck8 assay.The osteoblastic differentiation ability was assessed by Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity ,alizarin red stain and the osteogenic gene expression. Result Compared with control and IR groups,iron deposite increased significently in Fe and IR+Fe groups, The LIP level of MSCs was also increased by iron dextran treatment(P<0.05). The level of intracellular ROS with two iron overload groups was higher than that of the control and IR groups.The prolifiration ability of Fe and IR+Fe groups was lower than control and IR group(p<0.05).The osteoblastic differentation ability of experimental group was supressed by iron overload induced by ROS. Conclusion Iron overload may impair the proliferation and differentation ability of normal and IR injured bone marrow MSCs by enhancing the generation of ROS.
    Interference of MMS2 and REV3 gene by RNA reduces the Oxaliplatin resistance of human colon -carcinoma cell line THC8307/L-OHP
    2014, 34(12):  1623-1628. 
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    Objective: To explore the effect of silencing REV3 and MMS2 gene in reversing oxaliplatin (L-OHP) resistance of human colon carcinoma THC8307/L-OHP cell line. Methods: The real - time fluorescent quantitative PCR ( qRT -PCR) was used to detect MMS2 expression in L-OHP-resistant THC8307/L-OHP cells and THC8307/L-OHP cells transfected with MMS2/REV3-RNAi plasmid vecto or empty plasmid vector. The difference in MMS2 and REV3 expression was compared among the groups. MTT assay, Rhodamine 123 assay and Flow – cytometric analysis were sequentially used to detect transfection of THC8307/L-OHP cells to L-OHP drug sensitivity, apoptosis on treatment with L-OHP.The protein expression of MMS2 and REV3 in THC8307/L-OHP cells was detected by immunofluorescence . Results: Compared to the control group, the half inhibition concentration ( IC50) and resistance index(RI) of L-OHP in experimental group cells lower (P < 0.05), apoptosis on treatment with L-OHP increased ( P < 0.05).Furthermore,the protein expression of MMS2 and REV3 was downregulated in experimental group cells than that in the control group (P<0.05) .Conclusion: Silencing REV3 and MMS2 gene from Oxaliplatin-resistant human colon cancer cells enhances the drug-sensitivity to L-OHP and induces apoptosis.
    Shh enhances BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells
    2014, 34(12):  1629-1634. 
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    Objective To analysis the effect of Shh on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells and the mechanism involved. Methods C3H10T1/2 cells were treated with adenovirus Shh or/and BMP9, then the ALP activity was detected by quantitative and staining assay, calcium deposition was detected by Alizarin Red S staining, the expressions of Shh, BMP9, OPN, OCN, Id1, Id2, Id3, CTGF and Runx2 were detected by RT-PCR, the expressions of BMP9, OPN, OCN, Runx2, Dlx5 and p-Smad1/5/8 were detected by Western blot, Luciferae reporter assay was detected by quantitative. Results Shh can not influence the expression of BMP9 but increase the ealy and later osteogenic differentiation and the expression of osteogenesis related genes of C3H10T1/2 cells induced by BMP9. Furthermore, Shh also led to luciferase activity but not the phosphorylation activity of canonical Smad pathway stimulated by BMP9. Conclusion Shh promotes BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells.
    Interferon alpha induces apoptosis of rat primary vascular smooth muscle cells via P204 and P21
    2014, 34(12):  1635-1639. 
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    Objective To study the effect of interferon alpha (IFN-α) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) apoptosis in rats. Methods Cultured VSMCs were treated with transfection IFI204 siRNA and/or IFN-αin vitro instantaneously. Nonspecific siRNA transfection group was as control group. The expression of P204 and P21 mRNA was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. P204 and P21 protein was analyzed by Western blotting. The cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin-V FITC/PI method. Results Compared with control group, in IFN-αinduction group, the expression of P204 mRNA and protein was up-regulated(P<0.01), the cell apoptosis was increased (P<0.01), and the expression of P21 mRNA and protein was up-regulated (P<0.01). In IFI204 transfection group, the expression of P204 mRNA and protein was down-regulated(P<0.01), the cell apoptosis was decreased (P<0.01), and the expression of P21 mRNA and protein was down-regulated (P<0.01). When intervention with IFN-α after transfection IFI204 siRNA, the expression of P204 mRNA and protein was down-regulated (P<0.01), but the expression of P21 mRNA and protein were not decreased correspondingly(P<0.01), and cell apoptosis was increased (P<0.01), Conclusion P204 and P21 participation in interferon-α regulation of cell apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in rats.
    KLF17 expression and clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma
    2014, 34(12):  1640-1644. 
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    Objective To detected KLF17 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and to evaluate its effect on the prognosis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of KLF17 in hepatocellular carcinoma, and analyze the relationship between KLF17 expression and disease free survival(DFS) and overall survival (OS)of patients. Comparison of the primary cultured Hep11 and Hep12 cells invasion and migration ability, as well as the difference of KLF 17 expression. SiRNA interfered KLF17 expression of Hep11,then transwell chambers were used in the in vitro migration and invison anssay. Result Of 36 patients, 19 patients were score 0-2 of KLF17, 17 patients were score 3-5. Disease free survival of patients with score 3-5 were longer, 39.3 ± 4.2 months, patients score 0-2 was 23.4 ± 4.9 months (p<0.05). The overall survival of KLF17 score 3-5 patients was 46.9 ± 3.2 months, patients score 0-2 of KLF17 was 35.2 ± 4.2 months(p<0.05). Hep12 exhibited a higher invasive and migratory potential than Hep11. There was also a significantly higher expression of KLF17in Hep11 cells than in Hep11 cells. Down-regulation of KLF17 enhanced migration and invasion of Hep11 cells. Conclusion Expression of KLF17 may be independent predict factors for prognosis of HCC patients.
    miR-196a-5p suppresses self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells
    2014, 34(12):  1645-1649. 
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    Objective To study the role of miR-196a-5p in regulating self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). Methods Q-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-196a-5p during mESC early differentiation. miR-196a-5p mimics were overexpressed in mESCs, and the then colony formation ability, cell proliferation, Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) activity and Oct4 staining of mESC were detected. Results miR-196a-5p increased during RA-induced differentiation and EB differentiation of mESC. Overexpression of miR-196a-5p in mESC could inhibit the colony formation and cell proliferation of mESCs. Meanwhile, miR-196a-5p decreased the AP activity and Oct4 expression in mESCs. Conclusions miR-196a-5p suppresses self-renewal of mESCs and increases during mESC early differentiation which suggests that miR-196a-5p might play important roles in promoting mESC differentiation.
    Recombinant adiponectin regulates hepatocyte L02 matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activity
    2014, 34(12):  1650-1654. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of the expression and activity on the hepatocyte L02 matrix metalloproteinase-9 by the recombinant adiponectin, and investigate the effect of adiponectin in liver fibrogenesis liver. Methods The cells were divided into control groups, pEGFP-C1/L02 groups and adi-pEGFP-C1/L02 groups.The full-length of human adiponectin mRNA was amplified by reversal transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in vitro. Eukaryotic expression vector of adiponectin (adi-pEGFP-C1) was constructed by double enzyme, insertion, connection and gene cloning method and so on. The adi-pEGFP-C1 vector was transfected into the liver cell line L02 cells by the gene transfection method with lipofatmine2000. The stable cell lines of adi-pEGFP-C1/L02 were screened by G418. The protein, mRNA and activity of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were detected by Western-blotting, RT-PCR and gel zymography .Results The recombinant vectors adi-pEGFP-C1 was constructed and the stable cell lines of adi-pEGFP-C1/L02 were screened successfully. The mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9 were increased by RT-PCR (P <0.01) and Western-blotting(P<0.05)compared with the control groups; The activity of MMP-9 was increased by gel zymography (P <0.05) compared with the control groups. Conclusions Activation of adiponectin may probably affect the process of liver fibrosis by up-regulated the expression and activity of MMP-9.
    Fibronectin(FN) in treatment of mouth ulcer
    2014, 34(12):  1655-1657. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of FN in the treatment of mouth ulcer.Methods The patients(n=150) were randomly divided into FN group and control group.Results The reduction of ulce and congestion area of FN group were significantly greater than that of the control group(P<0.05). The degree of pain relief of spontaneous pain,burning pain and bowel pain were significantly greater than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusions FN treatment for mouth ulcer is effective and safe,and has great clinical value.
    Calcium release-activated calcium channel modulator 1 promotes the proliferation of SW480 colon cancer cell line
    2014, 34(12):  1658-1664. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of calcium release-activated calcium channel modulator 1(ORAI1) on the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480 and its mechanism. Methods The SW480 cells were infected with ORAI1 interference lentivirus . The expressions of ORAI1 mRNA and protein were confirmed by fluorescence quantitative PCR(FQ-PCR) and Western blotting. MTT、colony-forming test and doubling time were used to examined the proliferation of SW480.Flow cytometry was used to detect the periodic variation of SW480 . Confocal microscopy was used to detect the difference of SOCE (store-operated Ca2 + entry, SOCE) in each group. Meanwhile,Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and CyclinD1 protein. Results After infected SW480 with ORAI1 interference lentivirus for 72h,significant fluorescence expression can be seen.Compared with the empty vector group and the control group,the expression of ORAI1 was lower (P<0.01),the cells grew slower(P<0.05),the colony-forming ability was decreased (P<0.01), the doubling time was delay(P<0.01),the proportion of cells in G1 phase was higher(P<0.05) , the Internal flow peak of SOCE was lower(P<0.05), and the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and CyclinD1 proteins were deseased(P<0.01). Conclusion ORAI1 may regulate the intracellular calcium concentration by SOCE, and further promote the proliferation of SW480 through MAPK signaling pathways.
    The inhibition of nanog gene transfer on the inflammatory reaction induced by microglial cell in Parkinson disease rats
    2014, 34(12):  1665-1670. 
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    Objective To observe the effects of nanog on the activation of microglial cells and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson disease (PD) rats induced by 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Methods Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group, 6-OHDA+PBS, 6-OHDA+PNL and 6-OHDA+nanog group. 6-OHDA was injected into the left striatum of brain in experimental model groups, and meanwhile each model group rat received a brain injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), lentiviral vector PNL-IRES.EGFP (PNL) or nanog gene vector respectively. On the 14th day after injection, the apomorphine (APO) was injected to induce the rotational behavior, and the APO-induced rotational behavior was observed. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was counted with immunohistochemical staining method, the microglial cell amount and TNF-α expressional level were detected by immunofluorescent staining. Results On the postinjection 14th day, APO induced rotation frequency in 6-OHDA+nanog group was lower than those in 6-OHDA+PNL and 6-OHDA+PBS groups (P<0.05). The numbers of dopaminergic neurons in experimental groups were significantly reduced than control group(P<0.05), but in 6-OHDA+nanog group was significantly higher than those in 6-OHDA+PNL and 6-OHDA+PBS groups (P<0.05). The number of microglial cells and the expression of TNF-α in the left substantia nigra of model rats increased than control group(P<0.05), but those in 6-OHDA+nanog group were less than those in 6-OHDA+PNL and 6-OHDA+PBS groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Nanog gene transfer can protect dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting the microglial cell activation and proceeding inflammatory reaction.
    Screening for mutations in the hotspot mutation regions of PIK3CA gene in gastric cancer and clinical value
    2014, 34(12):  1671-1675. 
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    Objective To detect the PIK3CA gene mutation in Chinese gastric cancer, and analysis the clinical value . Methods Fluorescence PCR was used to screen the positive case of gastric cancer PIK3CA genes mutated and Sanger DNA sequencing method was used to detect the hotspot mutation regions of PIK3CA, Analysis the relationship between the gene mutation and clinicopathological character. Results PIK3CA gene mutations were detected in 7.5% (30/400) of tumor samples, and the gene mutation position mainly focused on exon 9(E542K,E545K) and exon 20(H1047R, H1047L), the gene mutation of PIK3CA seemed to be closely related with the prognosis(P<0.05),but not with the size of tumor, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and the age of patient. Conclusion The rate and the hotspot mutation regions of PIK3CA in gastric cancer among Chinese is unique, PIK3CA gene mutation might be an important indicator to evaluate gastric cancer prognosis and a new target for tumor gene therapy.
    Dysfunction of cutaneous and pancreatic microcirculation in diabetic mice
    2014, 34(12):  1676-1681. 
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    Objective To investigate changes of microcirculation function in diabetic mice. Methods 30 BALB/c mice were divided into two groups randomly, control group (n = 10) and diabetic group (n = 20). Diabetic mice were induced by STZ. HE and immunohistochemistry staining were employed to observe morphological and pathological of pancreas, islet and islet endothelia cell. The expression of insulin and PECAM-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Cutaneous blood perfusion was evaluated by Moor LDLS, while pancreatic blood perfusion and pancreatic micro-vessels vasomotion were detected by Moor VMS. Results Compared with control group, diabetic mice had irregular shaped islets, discontinuous expression of PECAM-1, lower insulin positive area per islet (P < 0.05), decreased cutaneous blood perfusion and total flux (P < 0.01), decreased frequency of vasomotion of pancreatic micro-vessels and amplification (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Microcirculatory function was impaired in STZ induced BALB/c diabetic mice.
    Repairing larynx cartilage defects with MSCs cell sheets transfected by CDMP1
    2014, 34(12):  1682-1688. 
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    Objective To detect the repair capacity in rabbit cartilage defects by BMSCs cell sheets transfected by CDMP. Methods Rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were Isolated and cultured in vitro; the passage 4 cells were tansfected with exogenous recombinant human cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein 1 by adenovirus vector; the transgenosis cell sheets were harvested by means of temperature-responsive culture dish after 7-14 days. After detecting the express of CDMP1 in transgenic cell sheet using Real Time PCR and Western blot, then the sheets were implanted into the rabbit thyroid cartilage defects .After 4 or 8 weeks, the culturing systems were analyzed at the gross level as well as at the histological level to observe the repair ability.The experiment was divide into three groups: (A)transfected by Ad-CMV-hCDMP1-IRES-eGFP BMSCs cell sheets;(B)transfected by Ad-CMV -eGFP BMSCs cell sheets;(C)BMSCs cell sheets . Results The express of CDMP1 in transgenosis cell sheets can be detected by Real Time PCR and Western blot; The detection of immunohistochemistry and Alcian Blue staining showed the expression of collagen II and GAG in group A,while negative expression in group B and group C. There was statistical difference between group A, group B and C (P<0.05). Conclusion CDMP transgenosis cell sheets had superior chondrogenic capacity ,which can effectively repair rabbit thyroid cartilage defects.
    Effects of sumoylation on IκB/NF-κB signaling in the cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells induced by hyperglycomia
    2014, 34(12):  1689-1693. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of SUMOylation on IκB/NF-κB signaling in cultured rat mesangial cells under high glucose. Methods Cultured HBZY-1 rat GMCs were divided into normal glucose group, high glucose groups, and osmotic control group. Interaction between SUMO1,SUMO2/3 and IκBα was detected by co-immunoprecipitation. The expression of IκBα,NF-κB p65 was measured by Western blot. Results The interaction between SUMO2/3 and IκBα in high glucose groups was significantly decreased as compared with normal glucose group(P﹤0.05). Compared with normal glucose, IκBα in high glucose groups was degradated by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in a dose and time-dependent manner(P﹤0.05), but the expression of NF-κB p65 was increased (P﹤0.05). Conclusion High glucose obviously changes the interaction between SUMO2/3 and IκBα in cultured rat GMCs, which may be involved in the activation of NF-κB by specifically impacting SUMOylation of IκBα.
    Research progress of the role of glyoxalase I in liver regeneration
    2014, 34(12):  1702-1705. 
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    The glyoxalase system catalyses the conversion of deleterious methylglyoxal(MG), mainly produced by glycolysis, to non-toxic d-lactate. Increased glyoxalase I(GLO1) expression or enzymatic activity levels have been observed either in proliferating normal tissues such as regenerating liver, or in some proliferative disorders, including hepatocellular carcinoma, which can improve the ability of liver to detoxify and stress reaction, and promote hepatocyte survival and proliferation, and protect liver cells from apoptosis.
    Emerging roles of pyruvate kinase M2 in cancer metabolism and progression
    2014, 34(12):  1706-1709. 
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    Unlike normal cells, cancer cells can generate energy through rapid glycolysis even in the presence of ample oxygen,which is known as aerobic glycolysis. Pyruvate kinase (PK) regulates the final rate-limiting step of glycolysis and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to produce pyruvate and ATP. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), one of the PK isoenzymes, is specially expressed in cancer cells. PKM2 play a central role not only in metabolic reprogramming but also in direct regulation of gene expression and subsequent cell cycle progression.
    Research progress of glucose regulated protein78 and liver stress
    2014, 34(12):  1710-1713. 
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    Glucose regulated protein78,GRP78,called immunoglobulin binding protein, is a highly conserved stress protein which is produced by the organism in the stressor stimulation. GRP-78 protein appears to play a role in helping in the assembly of multimeric proteincomplexes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).The expression of GRP78/Bip plays a particularly vital role of dealing with the stress response in the liver which is important organ of the body metabolismand biochemical processing factory of various enzyme.
    The progress in the study of SIRT1 effect on the bone repair of mesenchymal stem cells
    Na WANG
    2014, 34(12):  1714-1717. 
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    The activation of SIRT1 can extend the lifetime of cells, postpone the appearance of senium. SIRT1 also plays an important role in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction. In the process of tissue repair based-mesenchymal stem cells, cell aging and inflammation have an critical influence on the repair ability. Therefore, it is hopeful to change MSCs repair ability by modulating the activity of SIRT1.
    The biological functions of ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis and its downstream signaling pathways
    2014, 34(12):  1718-1722. 
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    ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis antagonistics ACE-AngⅡ-AT1R classic axis in many internal physiological responses ,which plays an important protective role in circulation ,urinary,digestive systems and inflammation response. The biological functions of ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis is closely related to its signaling pathways. Exploring the biological function of this adjustment axis and its signaling transduction pathways will provide new ideas for related diseases.
    Research progress in the effect of interleukin in peripheral nerve injury and regeneration
    Wei LIU LIANG Xiao-chun
    2014, 34(12):  1723-1727. 
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    Immune cell activation plays an important role in the occurrence and development of peripheral neural injury,repair and regeneration. As an important product of immune cell activation,IL can also be secreted by some neurons and glial cells, which may make it play dual roles of inducing pain and analgesia, stimulating damage and regeneration during the development of peripheral neuropathy.
    The research progress of FBI-1 gene in prostate cancer
    2014, 34(12):  1728-1731. 
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    The proto-oncogene FBI-1 is also called ZBTB7, LRF and Pokemon. Its encoding product belongs to the members of the family of POK protein and it has functions of transcriptional suppression. The overexpression of FBI-1 can repress the expression of Rb gene and ARF gene through its special protein structure. And it has played an important role in cancer’s occurrence, development and outcome. In recent years, many medical institutions have done researches about FBI-1gene in prostate cancer. The proto-oncogene FBI-1 might be a new target in cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic evaluation.
    The application of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in severe neurological patients
    Jun-ji WEI, Ren-zhi WANG, Jian-chun YU
    2014, 34(12):  1732-1736. 
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    A good and proper pathway which gives a nutrition support to postoperative severe neurological patients plays an important role in prognosis. Enteral nutrition is the best choice which is world-recognized for severe neurological patients. Nasogastric tube which is an traditional pathway provides enteral nutrition with a serious of complications, such like aspiration, catheter malposition, and infection. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has been more and more widely used in clinical work in recent years, and it can give post-operative patients of severe neurological diseases nutrition support with fewer complications and biliousness. PEG has been an ideal pathway to support nutrition to the post-operative of severe neurological patients who need a long-term nutritional support.
    The analysis of medical education research hotspots in the past five years
    2014, 34(12):  1737-1740. 
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    Objective In the recent decades, more attention has been paid to Medical education research. This paper is designed to find the hotspots of medical education research, and try to provide evidence for educators and decision-makers. Methods High-frequency MeSH major terms are identified and clustered by bibliometrics. Results Medical curriculum reform, educational models, medical education administration and standards, medical students clinical competence and evaluation, and medical students professional competence are hotspots in the research field of medical education. Conclusion To promote medical education, educators should attach high importance to the quality and innovative concept of medical education.