Table of Content

    05 November 2017, Volume 37 Issue 11
    Preparation and identification of protein chip for detecting components of peach allergen
    2017, 37(11):  1507-1512. 
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    Objective To prepare a protein chip for the detection of serum antibodies against several peach allergen components, and to provide a rapid and reliable method for clinical diagnosis of peach allergic disease. Methods The coding sequences of six key peach components Pru p 1, Pru p 2, Pru p 3, Pru p 4, Pru p 7 and Pru p G were inserted into pGAPZ?A yeast expression vector. Then the vectors were digested by endonuclease Avr II and electroporated into yeast SMD1168 for protein expression. After peach proteins were purified, the protein chip was prepared and used to detect the antibodies against peach allergen components in serum samples from 41 suspected patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the protein chip were verified by comparison with ImmunoCAP method. Results The protein chip was prepared with these proteins for detecting IgE antibodies in serum samples against these four peach allergen components. The results showed that the sensitivity of the protein chip to Pru p 1, Pru p 3 and Pru p 4 was 40 %, 100 % and 100%, , and the specificity was 78 %, 50 % and 100 %, respectively .The total sensitivity and specificity was 86 % and 96 % respectively. Six serum samples from peach allergy patients were identified Pru p7 antibody positive by the protein chip. Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of the protein chip is comparable to ImmunoCAP. It needs less serum and would be a new method for the clinical diagnosis of peach allergenic disease after optimization.
    Expression and function of long non-coding RNA AK046999 in the development of mouse cerebral cortex
    2017, 37(11):  1513-1518. 
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    Objective To detect the expression and the role of the long non-coding RNA AK046999 in the development of mouse cerebral cortex. Methods 1) The AK046999 locus was obtained from the UCSC genome browser, and the coding ability of protein was predicted by Coding Potential Calculator; 2) The expression profile of AK046999 in the development of mouse cerebral cortex was analyzed by immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization ; 3) The AK046999 knockout mouse was constructed by TALEN technique and identified at the level of DNA and RNA; 4)The phenotype of knockout mouse cerebral cortex was analyzed by immunofluorescence and TUNNEL assay. Results 1) AK046999 had weak coding ability and could be considered as non-coding RNA; 2) AK046999 was highly expressed in VZ/SVZ of the development of mouse cerebral cortex; 3) The AK046999 knockout mouse was successfully constructed; 4) Immunofluorescence results showed that there were no obvious change in the markers of PAX6, TBR2 and NEUROD2 compared with the control, and apoptotic cells also had no obvious change. Conclusions The AK046999 is expressed in the cerebral cortex of developing mouse and AK046999 knockout does not affect the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of neural progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex.
    Effect of CDC73 gene mutation on clinical phenotype of sporadic children/adolescent-onset PHPT
    2017, 37(11):  1519-1523. 
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    Objective To summarize the characteristics and molecular genetics of sporadic children/adolescent-onset primary hyperparathyroidism patients and analyze the difference of characteristics betweenpatients with and without CDC73gene mutations. Methods Germline mutation analyses of the MEN1, CDC73, RET, CDKN1B, and CaSR genes were performedin 22sporadic children/adolescent-onsetPHPT patients. Their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Results Four patients were found to carry CDC73 mutations with the mutation rate of18%(4/22).Patients with CDC73 gene mutationshad higher rates of parathyroid carcinoma and atypical adenomas than those without,and the recurrence rate postoperatively was as high as 50%.Conclusions Genetic mutation testing should be recommended in sporadic children/adolescent-onset PHPT patients, especially the CDC73 gene.
    RSUME promotes apoptosis of pituitary adenoma cell AtT-20 in mice
    2017, 37(11):  1524-1528. 
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    Objective Explore the expression and influence of RWD structure small ubiquitin modified enhancer (RSUME) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) and nuclear factor kappa B-1 (NF-κB1) in pituitary adenomas of mice. Methods Through RSUME small interfering RNA transfection pituitary adenomas, the AtT-20 cells in mice, the line of real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (q-pcr) detect the level RSUME, IκB-α, NF-κB1 mRNA and WB (protein imprinting method) detect RSUME and the nucleoprotein of IκB-α, NF-κB1 changes in the level of protein, flow cytometry to detect cell apoptosis. Results In protein level, RSUME and IκB-α expression reduced(P<0.05), but NF-κB1 raised after transfection(P<0.05); The level of RSUME mRNA is obviously lower after transfection than before(P<0.05), with The level of IκB-α and NF-κB1 mRNA were no obvious change; Flow cytometry confirmed cell apoptosis rate increased significantly after transfection. Conclusions RSUME can promote apoptosis of pituitary adenoma cells in mice by NF-κB.
    SDF 1/CXCR4 axis induces apoptosis of human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells via the NF κB pathway
    2017, 37(11):  1529-1534. 
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    Objective To investigate the role of SDFI-1/CXCR4 axis on the apoptosis of human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and its potential molecular mechanism. Methods The intervertebral disces tissues from clinical discectomy were divided into normal group and intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) group according to Pfirrmann classification. The different expressions of SDF 1 and CXCR4 in human IVDs were tested by immunohistochemistry, quantify polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and Western blot. The primary degenerative NPCs were primary cultured. The generationⅢ~ⅤNPCs were treated with 10ng/ml SDF-1, in the presence of or in the absence of CXCR4 siRNA transfection and 20μM NF-κB inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocar bamate , PDTC). The transfection efficiency and target protein of signal pathway were verified by Western blot, the apoptosis of NPCs were tested by Annexin V/PI, the nucleus transferlocation of P65 from NF-κB were tested by immunofluorescent method. ResultsSDF-1and CXCR4 were both expressed in all donor tissues, however, there was a significantly increased in the degenerative IVDs. The apoptosis of degenerative NPCs were expedited by SDF-1 stimulation, which was significantly suppressed by CXCR4 silencing by siRNA (P<0.05). Furthermore, with SDF-1 stimulation, the expressions of phosphorylated P65 was significantly increased and the P65 perssad transferred to the nucleuses, which could be suppressed by the NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC(P﹤0.05). ConclusionsThe expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 were increased in degenerative NP tissue. The SDF/CXCR4 axis is considered to induce apoptotic of human degenerative NPCs via the NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Pinocembrin alleviates hypoxia reoxygenation injury in rat liver cell line BRL-3A
    2017, 37(11):  1535-1540. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective effect of pinocembrin (PIN) on hepatocytes induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R) as well as its relationship to the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Methods The cells were randomly divided into 4 groups:the control group, the PIN group, hypoxia/reoxygenation injury group and the PIN pretreatment group. The cell viability was measured with CCK-8. The apoptosis rate was determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The activity of ALT was detected. ELISA was used to evaluate the contents of TNF-α and IL-β. The mRNA and protein expression level of TLR4, IκB-α and NF-κB p65 in cells was observed by quantitative real-time PCR or Western blotting. Results The H/R stimulation decreased cell survival rate and enhanced the apoptosis. The activity of ALT was increased. The contents of TNF-α and IL-1β were enhanced significantly, and the expression level of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 were markedly increased while IκB-α decreased. After pretreatment with PIN, the cell survival rate increased while the apoptosis rate decreased. The activity of ALT was decreased. TNF-α and IL-1β were reduced significantly and the expression level of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 were decreased while IκB-α increased. Conclusions PIN has protective effects on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury, which might be mediated in part by TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Association between PD-1 genetic variants and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer
    2017, 37(11):  1541-1545. 
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    Objective: To evaluate the effect of PD-1 gene polymorphisms on the risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and patients’ outcomes. Methods: A case–control study was performed in 620 EOC patients and 620 control women. The genotype and allele frequencies of PD-1.1 A/G and PD-1.5 C/T polymorphisms were determined using the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method using the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method. Results: There were significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution frequencies of the PD-1.1 A/G between cases and controls (P=0.028 and P=0.02, respectively). Compared with the AA genotype, AG and GG genotypes may significantly decrease the risk of developing EOC (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.54–0.94; OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.50–0.94, respectively). We did not find a significant difference in the genotype distribution frequency of the PD-1.5 C/T between cases and controls (P=0.096), but the frequency of T alleles was significantly lower in the EOC cases than that in the controls (P=0.033). Compared to the carriers with C alleles, the carriers with T alleles were at a significantly decreased risk of developing EOC (OR=0.82, 95%CI=0.69–0.98). Conclusions: PD-1.1 A/G and PD-1.5 C/T polymorphisms may be potential molecular marker for predicting the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Chinese norther women.
    Hypoxia promotes proliferation of nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells in rats
    2017, 37(11):  1546-1551. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cell (NPMSC) in vitro and explore its possible mechanism.Methods NPMSC was isolated from nucleus pulposus of Sprague-Dawley rats. Cellular morphology was observed and expression of CD11b, CD45, CD73, CD90 and CD105 was detected using flow cytometry. The third generation NPMSC was cultured under normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (2% O2) for 14 days. Cell viability was determined by the annexin-V-FITC/propidium iodide doublestaining assay and cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α), glucose transporter 1(GLUT-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), silent information regulator protein 1(SIRT1) and silent information regulator protein 6 (SIRT6) at the mRNA level were examined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR).Results NPMSC could form sunflower-like colonies and the third passage NPMSC became homogeneous and exhibited spindle-like morphology. Meanwhile, high expression levels of stem cell-related positive antigen molecules and low expression levels of negative antigen molecules. Hypoxia promoted proliferation of NPMSC and promoted gene expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, VEGF, SIRT1 and SIRT6 significantly(P<0.05). Conclusions Hypoxia had a significant impact on the proliferation of NPMSC, and the SIRT1 and SIRT6 mediated HIF-1α pathway might be involved in the mechanism.
    Conservative epitope of human papillomavirus type 31 L2 can induce broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies
    2017, 37(11):  1552-1556. 
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    Objective Detect the immunogenicity of conservative neutralizing epitope from human papillomavirus type 31 (HPV31) minor capsid protein L2, and analyze the neutralizing antibody spectrum of its immune sera. Methods Synthesize HPV31 L2 aa.17-40 peptide and conjugate with KLH by EDC. Immunize New Zealand White rabbits with HPV31 L2-KLH and Freud’s Adjuvant. Analyze the neutralizing antibody titers of immune sera against HPVs from α4,α7,α9,α10 and β1 species by pseudovirus neutralization assay. Results In rabbits, HPV31 L2-KLH induced broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies against at least 17 types of HPV, among which the neutralizing antibody titers against HPV31 are the highest, followed by that of HPV5/45/57. Conclusions In this study, we observed the broad-spectrum neutralizing activities of the immune sera of HPV31 L2 conservative neutralizing epitope for the first time. The results lay the foundation of the development of broad-spectrum HPV vaccines based on HPV31 L2 neutralizing epitope.
    Downregulation of GDF15 promotes proliferation of human glioblastoma cell line U87MG
    2017, 37(11):  1557-1561. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of growth differentiation factor 15(GDF15)downregulation on cell proliferation of human glioblastoma U87MG cells. Methods Human glioblastoma U87MG cells with stable GDF15 downregulation was used as shGDF15 group. U87MG cells with scramble knockdown was used as scramble group. Protein expression levels of GDF15 were determined by western blot analysis. Growth curve and BrdU incorporation assays were used to observe cell proliferation. Protein expression levels of ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 were determined by western blot analysis. CCK-8 assays were used to observe cell proliferation. Results Compared with scramble cells, GDF15 downregulation significantly promoted cell proliferation(P<0.05), increased DNA synthesis in S phage(P<0.01), enhanced activity of ERK pathway and cell tolerance to VM-26 (P<0.05). Moreover, ERK pathway inhibitor could rescue the increased cell proliferation with GDF15 downregulation. Conclusion GDF15 decrease DNA synthesis in S phage and cell proliferation of human glioblastoma U87MG cells through inhibiting ERK pathway. And GDF15 might be a potential target of chemotherapy sensitivity in glioblastoma clinical treatment.
    Expressions of CD49f splicing isoforms in different cell lines
    2017, 37(11):  1562-1567. 
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    Abstract: Objective To compare the expression of CD49f splicing isoforms in different human stem cells and colon cancer cell lines, and construct lentiviral vectors overexpressing specific isoform. Methods The expressions of CD49f isoforms in different cells was detected by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. The lentiviral vectors overexpressing CD49f isoforms were constructed by molecular cloning method. The overexpression of CD49f in colon cancer cell line HT29 was confirmed by FCM, Western Blot and real-time PCR, the invasive ability was detected by transwell assay. Results CD49f splicing isoform B was highly expressed in H9 human embryonic stem cell line, while isoform A expressed in epithelial cells. Both isoform A and B were expressed in mesenchymal cells. CD49f isoforms A and B were also expressed in colorectal cancer cell lines, while HT29 and HCT116 showed higher expression of isoform A than isoform B, HCT8 and LoVo showed higher expression of isoform B than isoform A. Overexpression of CD49f isoform B greatly increased the invasive ability of HT29 cells, while isoform A showed no effect. Conclusions The expressions of CD49f splicing isoforms A and B in different types of cells are significantly different, which suggests CD49f isoforms play different biological functions in cells.
    Over-expression of KLF4 inhibits the cell proliferation and migration of K562 cell line
    2017, 37(11):  1574-1578. 
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    Objective To study the effect of over-expression of KLF4 on the proliferation and migration ability of K562 cells. Methods The K562 cells with KLF4 over were obtained as experimental group, and paralleled with the vector control (K562-C1 cells) and blank K562 cell control. Real-time PCR were performed to detect the relative expression quantity of KLF4 mRNA of each group cells respectively;Western blot were performed to detect the level of KLF4 protein of each group cells respectively.The cell proliferation was tested by MTS assay.The migration ability of K562 cells was detected by Transwell. Results Compared with K562-C1 cells and blank K562 cells, the relative expression quantity of KLF4 mRNA of K562-KLF4 cells was significantly increased (P<0.05). The level of KLF4 protein of K562-KLF4 cells were significantly increased, which over-expression ratio was 77.78% (P<0.05).The proliferation ability and migration ability of the K562 cells with over-expressing KLF4 was inhibited significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions The over-expression of KLF4 could inhibit the proliferation and migration ability of K562 cells.
    LPS promotes autophagy in rat hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6
    2017, 37(11):  1579-1584. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on autophagy in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) and involvement of NF-?B pathway in it. Methods 1) HSC-T6 cells were treated with LPS at the concentraction of 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h respectively, Microtubule-associated protein light chain Ⅱ (LC3Ⅱ) and Beclin1 levels were detected by Western blot; 2) HSC-T6 cells were randomized into groups of control group, LPS group, PDTC group, LPS+PDTC group, PMA group and LPS+PMA group, Western blot assay was used to measure the levels of LC3Ⅱand Beclin1, immunofluoresence was used to measure NF-?B P65 intracellular distribution. The levels of hydroxyproline (Hyp) were determined by the method of colorimetry and the levels of laminin (LN) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were determined by ELISA in the culture supernatants after corresponding processing. Results The levels of LC3Ⅱ and Beclin1 increased significantly after HSC-T6 cells were treated with LPS at the concentraction of 0.1 mg/L for 6 h and the levels of Hyp, LN, and HA in the culture supernatants increased remarkably as well (P<0.05). PDTC pretreatment increased the levels of LC3Ⅱ and Beclin1 in the LPS-treated HSC-T6 cells while decreased the levels of Hyp, LN, and HA significantly (P<0.05). PMA pretreatmen decreased the levels of LC3Ⅱ and Beclin1 in the LPS-treated HSC-T6 cells while increased the levels of Hyp, LN, and HA (P<0.05). Conclusions LPS can promote autophagy and activation of NF-?B pathway in HSC-T6 cells. Activation of NF-?B pathway may inhibit the LPS-induced autophagy of HSC-T6 cells.
    Rosiglitazone alleviates vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats
    2017, 37(11):  1585-1589. 
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    Objective To observe metabolic abnormalities, histology changes and eNOS expression of aorta in type 2 diabetes rat. And to observe intervention effect of rosiglitazone. Methods 80 male Wistar rats were randomized to control group, high diet group, diabetes group, and rosiglitazone treatment group (diabetes plus rosiglitazone treatment). Type 2 diabetes models were developed and rosiglization group was treated with rosiglitazone. After 6 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment with rosiglitazone, blood glucose, endothlin and nitric oxide were tested. Histology changes of aorta in different groups were observed under the light microscope. Meanwhile, study the protein and mRNA expression of eNOS in aorta. Results 1) Compared with control group, ET in high fat diet group, diabetes group and rosiglitazone group increased significantly, and the level of NO decreased significantly at 6 week and 12 week. At 12 week, ET in diabetes group increased, and NO decreased significantly than that of high fat diet group and rosiglitazone group. 2) Different degree of histology changes were observed in high fat diet group, diabetes group and rosiglitazone group at 12 week. 3) Compared with control group, protein and mRNA expression in high fat diet group, diabetes group and rosiglitazone group were down regulated at 6 week and 12 week. And protein expression in diabetes group was down regulated than that in rosiglitazone group. Conclusion Rosiglization can ease the endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes rat.
    miR-211 inhibits the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines through targeting TFAM
    2017, 37(11):  1590-1595. 
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    Objective The present study was aimed to investigate the role of miR-211/TFAM in the regulation of proliferation of breast cancer cells. Methods In the present study, we choose miR-211 and TFAM as the research object. First we transfected breast cancer cells with miR-211 mimics or miR-211 inhibitor to achieve miR-211 overexpression or miR-211 silencing, and detected the expression of miR-211 and the expression level of TFAM proteins in response to miR-211 overexpression or miR-211 silencing; secondly luciferase reporter gene plasmid with or without a six base pairs mutation in the 3’UTR of TFAM (mut-TFAM/wt-TFAM) were conducted and co-transfected with miR-211 mimics or miR-211 inhibitor, then the changes of the luciferase activity were detected; then pcDNA3.1/TFAM plasmid was constructed and co-transfected with miR-211 mimics or miR-211 inhibitor, TFAM protein expression level changes were determined in response to miR-211 overexpression or miR-211 silencing; lastly the cell proliferation was determined in response to mimics NC/miR-211 mimics and pcDNA3.1/TFAM co-transfection. Results Overexpression of miR-211 inhibits the expression of TFAM protein, miR-211 silencing promote TFAM protein expression; miR-211 can regulate the expression of TFAM by direct targeting; TFAM overexpression was achieved by pcDNA3.1/TFAM transfection, and TFAM overexpression can restore the inhibitory effect of miR-211 on TFAM; miR-211 can inhibit the growth and proliferation of breast cancer cells, TFAM can promote the growth and proliferation of breast cancer cells; TFAM can restore the inhibitory effect of miR-211 on growth and proliferation of breast cancer cells. Conclusion miR-211 regulates the growth of breast cancer cell through targeting HMGB.
    Retrospective analysis of special type endometrial cancer cases in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2005-2010
    2017, 37(11):  1596-1600. 
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    Objective To estimate outcome and prognostic risk factors of special type endometrial cancer. Methods Clinic data was collected in PUMCH during 2005-2010. SPSS software was used to analyze data. Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze prognostic risk factors respectively. Results Medium follow up time of total 48 endometrial serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and carcinosarcoma patients was 70.5 months. Most of patients could be diagnosed at early time(FIGO I stage and II stage were 66.7% among all patients). The main treatment was operation and followed by chemo-therapy and radio-therapy. 66.7% of patients accepted chemo-therapy after operation, and 41.7% of patients accepted radio-therapy. The outcome of advanced patients was poor. 30.8% stage III relapsed and died in 3 years. The recurrence rate and mortality were all 100%. The recurrence rate of advance endometrial serous carcinoma was 80%, which was much higher than the other two. FIGO stage and lymphatic metastasis were the main prognostic risk factors. Conclusions The outcome of special type endometrial cancer is poor. Lymphatic metastasis affects prognosis.
    Clinical character and genetic mutation of 64 patients with Gitelman syndrome
    2017, 37(11):  1601-1606. 
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    Objective To study the clinical and genetic profile of the patients with Gitelman syndrome (GS). Method We retrospectively analyzed the genotype and phenotype of 64 GS patients diagnosed in Peking Union Medical Hospital from 2012 to 2016. Results The age at diagnosis of these 64 patients (39 male,25 female) were 35±14 years. At admission, the serum potassium level of the patients was 2.86±0.44mmol/L, serum magnesium level was 0.62±0.14mmol/L, 24-hour urine potassium was 82.27 ± 39.73mmol/d, 24-hour urine calcium was 0.94±0.83mmol/d and their average blood pressure was 110/69mmHg. The genotype was divided into four groups including homozygous (N=5), compound heterozygous (N=40), multiple mutations (N=9) and single heterozygous mutation (N=10) group. The compound heterozygous group had higher serum potassium concentration (P<0.05) and the homozygous group had a relatively higher serum magnesium concentration but without significance. A total of 74 distinctly different mutation alleles were identified, of which 24 were new mutation alleles. p.Asp486Asn was a hotspot in our series which was found in 16 patients (25.0%). Conclusions There exists great heterogeneity of genotype and phenotype in Gitelman syndrome. Patients with compound heterozygous have a relatively milder phenotype. p.Asp486Asn mutation is a hotspot in Chinese patients.
    Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis
    2017, 37(11):  1607-1610. 
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    Objective To improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment, a study was carried out to summarize the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of experience of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Methods This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of all the patients diagnosed with AIP from January 1998 to December 2016 in the ward of Peking union medical college hospital. Results 194 type 1 AIP patients were enrolled in this study. The M/F ratio of the disease was 3.51:1, with an average age of 57 + 15 years. The most common symptom is jaundice, abdominal pain and weight loss. The most common diseases of the pancreas are sclerosing cholangitis, salivary glands, IgG4 nephropathy. There are 36.68 percent of AIP patients with diabetes mellitus. IgG4, ANA, ESR, c-reactive protein and CA199 are all contribute to disease diagnosis and follow-up. Pathology, pet - CT and hormone therapy response all contribute to the diagnosis of AIP. Conclusions The incidence of AIP in China is increasing gradually. As a systemic disease, the type 1 AIP has special clinical features and laboratory examination features. The diagnosis of AIP can be applied in many ways.
    Analysis of pathogens and antibacterial spectrum of meningtis and/or bacteremia after trans-sphenoidal pituitary adenomectomies
    2017, 37(11):  1611-1614. 
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    Objective The study aims to evaluate the incidence and microbiology of infectious complications (namely meningitis and/or bacteremia) after trans-sphenoidal pituitary adenomectomies (TSPA). Methods All hospitalized patients undergoing TSPA in Dept. Neurosurgery of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMC) between January 2012 and December 2016 were retrospective recorded. Results The overall incidence of postoperative meningitis and/or bacteremia was 1.2% (59/5 098). 27 cases of meningitis were documented for a total of 41 isolates, 26 cases of bacteremia for 34 isolates , and 6 cases of coinfection. Gram-positive organisms predominated (27 cases , 65.9%) in meningitis, among which Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the main isolates (14 cases). The most common organisms causing bacteremia were Gram-negative organisms (25case,73.5%), including Klebsiella pneumonia (9 cases), Enterobacter aerogenes (7 cases) and Escherichia coli (5 cases), all of which were sensitive to amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. Fifty-two patients were cured after antibiotic treatment, whereas 7 died. The morality in patients with meningitis was relatively lower than those with bacteremia (21.2% vs. 3.1%,P<0.001). Conclusions Postoperative meningitis and/or bacteremia can occur after TSPA. They differ in microbiology and prognosis, and should be treated with proper antibiotics according to the drug resistance.
    Diagnosis and treatment of micro-paragangliomas in urinary bladde
    2017, 37(11):  1615-1619. 
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    Objective To explore the diagnostic criteria and surgical methods in treating micro-paraganagliomas(<1cm) of urinary bladder(PUB), we now report a case series study including 5 single cases. The present study was performed to generate a comparatively novel algorithm to treat micro-paraganagliomas of urinary bladder. Methods Clinical data of 5 patients with micro-PUBs who underwent surgical treatment were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Two male patients and three female patients were included in our study with a mean age of 51 (range from 41 to 65 years). 4 patients were reported symptomatic due to hypercatecholaminemia, while the other was free of symptoms. 24-hour urine catecholamine (CA) examination was utilized to qualitatively diagnose PUB, positive in 75% patients. Ultrasonography(USG), CT, MRI, 111In-DTPA-Octreotide scintigraphy (OctreoScan) and 1311-MIBG scintigraphy were used to locate the tumor, positive in 80%, 20%, 75%, 25% and 33% patients respectively. What’s more, all 5 patients underwent transurethral resection of tumor. Overfilling of bladder and puncture following ultrasonography guidance were performed to locate the tumors, when tumors were absent in surgical vision. Results All tumors were located and resected completely with no open conversions. It took 0.5 to 26 minutes to locate the tumor and another 3 to 10 minutes to resect the tumors. All lesions were diagnosed by histopathological confirmation, especially by immunohistochemical staining. Blood pressure return to normal level after the procedures. No local recurrence or distal metastasis were observed by performing 24-hour urine CA test, USG, cystoscopy and MRI within adequate follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 38.6 months, ranging from 6 to 120 months.Conclusions USG and MRI examination were considered better in detecting micro PUB than CT-scan. Overfilling of bladder and puncture following USG guidance can accomplish more accurate tumor location intraoperatively if the tumors were not observed in transurethral resection procedures.
    Role of cyclophilinD in induction of the regulated necrosis
    2017, 37(11):  1625-1628. 
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    CyclophilinD(CypD) , a member of the cyclophilins family, displays a variety of biological function. CypD locates in the mitochondrial matrix. As an component of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), CypD plays an important role in the regulating of mPTP opening, which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and CypD-dependent regulated necrosis. Elucidation of the mechanisms of CypD in regulating mPTP and the regulated necrosis will provide novel insights in injury-relevant diseases, such as cardiac or cerebral ischemia.
    Research progress of sodium-dependent phosphate transporter in gout / hyperuricemia
    2017, 37(11):  1629-1633. 
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    Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter is encoded by the solute carrier family 17 gene. The gene is located on chromosome 6 and is an important transporter of the organic anion as the substrate and is expressed in kidney and other tissues.Among them, the sodium-dependent phosphate transporter type 1, 3, and 4 have the function of transferring uric acid, and abnormal function can lead to the decrease of uric acid excretion, which can cause hyperuricemia and even induce gout.
    Progress in the research of acquired heterotopic ossification
    2017, 37(11):  1634-1639. 
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    Acquired heterotopic ossification is the abnormal bone formation outside of the normal skeletal system .The origin trauma and disease of aHO is plentiful. In this review, we focus on BMP,hedgehog,wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling pathway, understanding of the pathogenesis of aHO.
    Research progress in molecular connection between autophagy and inflammation
    2017, 37(11):  1640-1643. 
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    Autophagy is a so important metabolism mechanism that involved in various stress responses of cells such as inflammation. A close molecular connection between autophagy and inflammation. One side, some inflammatory mediators can regulate autophagy and its translation; The other side, autophagy is able to suppress the excessive inflammation in various manners. Therefore, deficient autophagy may associate with inflammatory diseases such as Crohn’s Disease (CD).
    Advances in diagnosis and treatment of thymic carcinoid
    2017, 37(11):  1644-1648. 
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    Thymic carcinoid is a rare neoplasm with unclear risk factors and controversial classifications. Clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic to many nonspecific symptoms, among which endocrinopathy seems to be associated with poor prognosis. Image studies show no specificity both in CT and PET/CT, but are of great value in clinical staging. Ki67 has been found to be a powerful tool for grading neuroendocrine tumors and further studies should be made. The diagnosis of thymic carcinoid mainly depends on pathology and immunohistochemistry plays a role in differential diagnosis. Radical resection is the first choice in treatment, and target therapy becomes possible with the development in molecular pathology.
    A new model in the teaching of medical microbiology in clinical medicine
    2017, 37(11):  1649-1653. 
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    Objective To develop an appropriate new model on the basis of current teaching and researches in the teaching of Medical Microbiology. Methods Totally 457 third grade students in Peking Union Medical College were enrolled in the project of learning Medical Microbiology. Anonymous questionnaires were used to investigate the subjective feelings of students for frame-work based learning(FBL), performance of students during FBL presentation were evaluated using concerned tables, the distribution of different topics involved in FBL self-oriented(ORL) learning was also analyzed. And simultaneously, students’ subjective feeling and suggestion were collected. And additionally, the effects of three different teaching/learning methods underlying FBL were investigated by objective tests. With that we developed a preliminary design of teaching model in Medical Microbiology. Results Scores of anonymous evaluation of FBL ranged from (2.54±0.74)to(3.43±0.56), and scores in the evaluation of FBL presentation ranged from (4.22±0.32)to(4.77±0.22).Percentages of topics involved in non-Medical Microbiology curriculums were respectively 21.43%, 7.14%, 38.89%, 57.14%, 33.33% and 38.89% in 6 grades from 2008 to 2013. Conclusions In the teaching of Medical Microbiology, FBL exhibited good effects for students performance in presentation and a potential populization in the learning of other medical courses besides Medical Microbiology. Recent studies indicated that blended teaching model including traditional methods, peer education, ORL based on FBL may exert better influence on students’ learning.
    Double tutorial system in eight-academic-year medical students training: role of young teachers
    2017, 37(11):  1654-1657. 
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    Objective To explore the characteristics and problem of young teacher in basic medicine science during implementing double tutorial system in the process of eight-academic-year medical students training. Methods To further understanding the role and characteristics of young teacher, two questionnaires were designed for investigating the state of the double tutorial mode in the process of eight-academic-year medical students training. Results The young teachers play an important role in implementation of double tutorial system. They met some problems in student selection and research tutoring. Meanwhile, they hope that the double tutorial system can be improved, including increasing the scientific foundation support, salary and so on. Conclusion The young teachers are the main force in implementation of double tutorial system for eight-academic-year medical students, and the related policy and rules are needed for stimulating the young teachers to further efforts.
    Application of mouse model of schistosomiasis in the curriculum of human parasitology
    2017, 37(11):  1658-1662. 
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    To strengthen the understanding of schistosomiasis in the curriculum of human parasitology, an effective and feasible method will benefit to the improvement of teaching quality. In this study, by constructing mouse model of schistosomiasis infected with Schitosoma japonicum, designing standard teaching contents, and fully exploring the resources of this animal model in the practice classes, we displayed and interpreted the morphology of key stages of Schitosoma in its life cycle, its parasitic features, the symptoms of schistosomiasis in mouse model, the pathological changes of affected organs for the students. The mouse model of schistosomiasis applied in the practice classes would make up for the shortages left in the theory classes, push the students to form a comprehensive understanding to schistosomiasis, to enhance their operation ability, and therefore, would significantly elevate the teaching quality of human parasitology course and contribute to the promotion of basic medical education.