Table of Content

    05 December 2017, Volume 37 Issue 12
    Effects of S100B, AQP4, and CX43 expression on the function of the blood brain barrier in hippocampus of diabetic rats with depression
    2017, 37(12):  1663-1667. 
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    Objective To investigate.the effect of S100B, AQP4, and CX43 on the function of the blood brain barrier in the hippocampus of diabetic rats with depression.Methods Rats were divided into the diabetic group(tow weeks of high-fat diet and injection of Streptozotocin (STZ, 38 mg/kg)), the depression group(chronic unpredictable stress for 28 days), the diabetes mellitus with depression group(combined with the above two methods to establish), and the control group.The behavior of rats were evaluated with Open-field test and Morris test. The expression of AQP4 and CX43 in rat hippocampul blood-brain barrier was detected by immunocytochemistry. S100B was detected by ELISA . Results Compared with control group , the number of autonomic activity and was the space exploration times were decreased, the escape latencies were significantly longer in the Morris water maze test(P<0.05 or P<0.01) of the diabetes group and depression group; Serum S100B levels increased significantly(P<0.01);the expression of AQP4 and CX43 was decreased(P<0.01). Compared with diabetic group , the number of autonomic activity and was the space exploration times were decreased, the escape latencies were significantly longer in the Morris water maze test(P<0.05 or P<0.01) of the diabetes group and depression group; Serum S100B levels increased significantly(P<0.05);the expression of AQP4 and CX43 was decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions S100B, AQP4, CX43 expression disorder may be one of the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus complicated with depression.
    TNF-α promotes apoptosis of rat islet β cell line
    2017, 37(12):  1668-1673. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on islet cell apoptosis and TXNIP expression. Methods INS-1 cells were cultured in vitro, treating with TNF-α (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/L). We tested the effect of TNF-α on cell viability by CCK-8. INS-1 cells were treated with TNF-α (5 mg/L, 24 h) for the proper concentration and time; mRNA expression of TXNIP and ChREBP were measured by real-time PCR; in addition, protein levels of TXNIP, ChREBP and FOXO1 were analyzed using western blot. Results TNF-α decreased the survival rate of INS-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), and induced apoptosis; protein and mRNA expression of TXNIP and ChREBP were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05) ; while the expression of protein level of FOXO1 was down-regulated. Conclusions TNF-α induces apoptosis in INS-1 cells and aggravates the cell damage.
    Effect of low pH on acid-sensing ion channel1a expression in vascular endothelial cell injury induced by serum IgA1 from Henoch-Schonlein purpura children and its mechanism
    2017, 37(12):  1674-1680. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of low pH on acid-sensing ion channel 1a(ASIC1a) expression in vascular endothelial cell injury induced by serum IgA1 from Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) children and regulatory role of ASIC1a in it. Methods Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) treated by serum IgA1 from HSP patients were incubated in different pH medium. ASIC1a, destrin and α-SM mRNA expressions in HDMECs were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The level of inflammatory cytokines release assay was detected by ELISA method. Moreover destrin and α-SM protein expression in HDMECs was evaluated by western blot. Results The results showed that extracellular acid could induce the upregulation of ASIC1a mRNA expression, stimulate IL-8, NO,TM release and decrease , destrin and α-SM mRNA expression in HDMECs of HSP patients. Furthermore, pharmacological blockade of ASICs attenuated the inflammation response and inhibited the loss of cytoskeletal protein in vascular endothelial cells of HSP patients. Conclusions These findings showed that activation of ASIC1a could involve in the vascular endothelial cell injury of HSP patients. Blocking ASIC1a may have a significant protective effect on the inflammatory injury of vascular endothelial cells.
    Changes of BDNF expression in hippocampus and spinal cord of rats after compression-induced spinal cord injury
    2017, 37(12):  1681-1685. 
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    Objective To observe changes of BDNF expression in hippocampus and spinal cord of rats after compression-induced spinal cord injury. Methods The CSCI model was established with a self-made device. BDNF in astrocyte, neuron, antegrade and retrograde axons were detected by immunofluorescence. The expression changes of BDNF in hippocampus, lesion centre, the superior segment and the inferior segment which were adjacent to the lesion centre were also determined by western blotting methods. Results The fluorescence intensity of BDNF+-GFAP in lesion centre were increased, while BDNF+-Tuj1 was decreased with time going after CSCI. BDNF+-NF200 in superior and inferior segment of lesion were increased. The expressions of BDNF in hippocampus, the superior segment and the inferior segment close to the lesion centre reached its peak on the 1st day and then were decreased with the duration of time after CSCI(P<0.05). The expression of BDNF in lesion centre was decreased gradually(P<0.05). Conclusion: Decreasing level of BDNF is regular and may lead to neuronal reduction with compressing time going.
    Association between PCSK9 rs2479409 SNP and cognitive impairment
    2017, 37(12):  1686-1690. 
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    Objectives To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) rs2479409 and cognitive impairment. Methods In this population-based cohort study conducted in Rugao, Jiangsu province, China, a total of 1707 participants aged 70-84 years old were included. The cognitive impairment was assessed by revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R). Their SNPs rs2479409 of PCSK9 were examined. Results According the HDS-R, there were 789 cases in cognitive impairment group and 918 cases in control group. GG and AG were major genotype of rs2479409. The distribution of allele frequency and genotype frequency of rs2479409 was significant different between Cognitive impairment group and the control group (P < 0.05). A allele was a protective factor for cognitive impairment, and risk of cognitive impairment increased 1.66 folds in GG genotype compared with AA genotype GG genotype (OR=1.66,95%CI 1.16-2.36,P<0.01), the significance remained after adjusting for confounders (P < 0.05). Conclusions SNP rs2479409 of PCSK9 gene is associated with cognitive impairment.
    miR-130b-3p may serve as a marker for human bladder cancer
    2017, 37(12):  1691-1698. 
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    Objective To further understand potential mechanism of miRNAs in bladder cancer. Methods Human microarray was used to analysis the expression of miRNAs in four pair human BC cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Then RT -qPCR was used to verified that the expression of two most up-regulated miRNAs and target genes for results of miRNA/mRNA microarray. Subsequently, it was deduced that miR-130b-3p could target PTEN through a bioinformatics approach and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Next, CCK8, EDU, flow cytometry, wound healing, transwell and cytoskeleton assay were applied to prove that miR-130b could affect proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of BC cells. The effects of PTEN regulated by miR-130b-3p on the key target protein expressions of PI3K/AKT and integrin β1/FAK signaling pathway were determined by western blot. Results miR-130b-3p was significantly up-regulated and negatively correlated with PTEN expression in clinical bladder cancer specimens compared with normal urothelial tissue. miR-130b-3p mimics could down-regulate PTEN expression, which leads to the activation of PI3K/AKT and integrinβ1/FAK signaling pathway related to cell proliferation, migration and invasion in bladder cancer EJ cells. When the cells were transfected with miR-130b-3p inhibitors, they could be surveyed with rearranging cytoskeleton. Conclusions The results show that miR-130b / PTEN could be used as a marker for bladder cancer.
    Effects of autophagy on apoptosis induced by high glucose and high lipids in cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2
    2017, 37(12):  1699-1705. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of autophagy on the apoptosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Methods H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with different concentrations of high glucose and high lipids(HGHL) at different time points. The surface area of cardiomyocytes was measured after HE staining. The cell viability and apoptotic rate were measured by flow cytometry. So we can determine the optimal concentration and time of myocardial cell hypertrophy and apoptosis. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of LC3II, p62, Beclin-1,LAMP2 and cleaved caspase-3. Results After treated with HGHL, the cells appeared hypertrophy in a concentration-and time-dependent manner, the cell hypertrophy was most obvious under the condition of HGHL(500 μmol/L,36 h)(P<0.001). Cell apoptosis was increased in a concentration-and time-dependent manner, the apoptotic rate was nearly 50 % under the condition of HGHL(500 μmol/L,36 h)(P<0.001). After treatment with HGHL for 24 h, compared with the control group, the expression of LC3II was very significantly increased(P﹤0.01), the expression of Beclin-1 and LAMP2 were significantly decreased(P﹤0.05), but the expression of p62 was significantly increased(P﹤0.01). Compared with the control group and the intervention group, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly increased (P<0.01) after 1 h of chloroquine pretreatment . Conclusions HGHL could induce H9C2 cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and promote H9C2 cardiomyocytes apoptosis in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. HGHL could inhibit autophagy formation and degradation of H9C2 cardiomyocytes at the same time, leading to abnormal autophagy accumulation of cardiomyocytes, and promote apoptosis, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may be an important reason to promote apoptosis.
    miR-29c promotes apoptosis in prostate cancer cell line PC3
    2017, 37(12):  1706-1711. 
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    Objective To study the effect of miR-29c on the apoptosis of prostate cancer cell line PC3. Methods The expression of miR-29c, VEGF and VEGFR2 in RWPE-1 and PC3 were detected to verify the different between normal and Cancer cell. The location of p-VEGFR2 was measured by immunofluorescence (IF). After PC3 cell were transfected by miR-29c overexpression adenovirus , the expression level of miR-29c, VEGF, t-VEGFR2, p-VEGFR2, BAX and Bcl-2 were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot , the cell apoptosis rate was detected by the kits of hoechst 33258 and FCM. Results The expression level of miR-29c was lower and VEGF, VEGFR2 was higher in PC3 cell compared with that in RWPE-1(p<0.001). The expression level of miR-29c and BAX were higher and VEGF, P-VEGFR2 and Bcl-2 were lower in Ad-miR-29c group compared with that in control group(p<0.001). Higher apoptosis rate was detected in Ad-miR-29c group compared with control group(p<0.001). Conclusions miR-29c can promotes apoptosis in prostate cancer cell PC3 by inhibiting VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling.
    Selenium compound induces apoptosis of cervical carcinoma cells of high risk HPV subtypes
    2017, 37(12):  1712-1719. 
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    Objective To investigate the inducing effects and related pathways of selenium dioxide (SeO2) on the apoptosis in 2 human cervical carcinoma cell lines of high risk of HPV subtypes. Methods HeLa (HPV-18-positive) and Caski (HPV-16-positive) cells were treated with different concentrations of SeO2 for 24 h respectively. Morphological changes of HeLa and Caski cells were observed under inverted optical microscope; cell proliferation and activity were examined by MTT assay; flow cytometry was employed to detect the cell apoptosis; the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and p53 in cervical carcinoma cell lines were determined by Western blot analysis; the effects of SeO2 on apoptosis-related miRNA LET-7a expression was detected by Stem-loop reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Cell morphology was changed obviously in vitro. Cells became rounded and shrunken. SeO2 markedly inhibited cell proliferation and viability in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines; In HeLa cells the inhibitory effects induced by 7.5~30 μmol/L of SeO2 were significant(P<0.05); The inhibitory effects on Caski were statistical significant(P<0.05) even in low concentrations of SeO2. The apoptosis rates induced by SeO2 increased dose-dependently in cervical carcinoma cell lines, which were higher in Caski. SeO2 could up-regulate the apoptosis-related proteins levels in cervical carcinoma cell lines. The expressions of caspase-3 and p53 in HeLa cells both significantly increased compared with control group (P<0.05), and peaked at the concentration of 7.5 μmol/L. Treated with higher concentrations(7.5~30 μmol/L) of SeO2, the expression on Caski cells increased significantly (P<0.05). SeO2 could induce the expression of apoptosis-related miRNA LET-7a both in HeLa cells and Caski cells with statistical meanings (P<0.05); the induction effects reached its climax at the concentration of 7.5 μmol/L bothly. Conclusions SeO2 shows anti-tumor properties via apoptosis pathway by up-regulating the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3,the mechanisms involve inducing effects of p53 and LET-7a in cervical cancer cell lines. The apoptosis-inducing effect of SeO2 is more sensitive in HPV16+ cell line compared with HPV18+ cell line.
    Gambogic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
    2017, 37(12):  1720-1723. 
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    Objective The present study aimed to explored the effects and mechanism of action of gambogic(GA) on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury(ALI) in Kunming mice. Methods ALI model was established by the injection of lipopolysaccharide into the tail vein of mice(4mg/kg, iv). The mice were randomly divided into control group(control), model group(model), GA group(GA), and pretreatment with GA of ALI group(GA+LPS). After six hours, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of the lung , myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung tissue, levels of total proteins and number of white blood cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Results Compared with control group, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of the lung , MPO activity in lung tissue, levels of total proteins and number of white blood cells in BALF of LPS group obviously increased, in addition the level of lung tissue TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS group were significantly higher(all P<0.01), while in GA pretreatment groups alleviated all the changes in ALI mice. Conclusions GA pre-treatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI, possibly by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines production so as to decrease the recruitment of neutrophils, reduce pulmonary edema.
    Effect of potassium iodate on the cell cycle of human thyroid cancer cells
    2017, 37(12):  1724-1728. 
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    Objective To explore the effects of potassium iodate (KIO3) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and the mRNA/protein levels of cyclin D1 and Ki67 of SW579 cells, a human thyroid squamous carcinoma cell line. Methods The effects of different doses of KIO3(0,10-6,10-5,10-4,10-3,10-2,10-1 mol/L)on SW579 cell proliferation were assessed by CCK8 method. SW579 cells were then treated with 0 (control), 10-6 or 10-2 mol/L KIO3 for 48 h. The cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein levels of cyclinD1 and Ki67 were respectively analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Results We found that 10-6 and 10-2 mol/L of KIO3 respectively exhibited the most promoting and suppressive effect on SW579 cell proliferation. Both 10-6 mol/L and 10-2 mol/L KIO3 decreased the cell population at G1 phase (P < 0.05) but increased the cell population at S phase (P < 0.05); 10-6 mol/L KIO3 produced more prominent effects than 10-2 mol/L KIO3. KIO3 at the dose of 10-6 mol/L significantly up-regulated the mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and ki67 in cells(P < 0.05) ; whereas, the mRNA and protein levels of cyclin D1 and ki67were significantly down-regulated in cells treated with 10-2 mol/L KIO3 (P < 0.05) . Conclusion Different doses of KIO3 affect the proliferation and cell cycle of SW579 cells probably via regulating the levels of cyclin D1 and ki67.
    Relevance between the occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mitochondria DNA haplogroups
    2017, 37(12):  1729-1732. 
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    Objective To explore the relevance between peripheral leukocytes mtDNA haplogroups and the occurrence of COPD. Methods 60 COPD patients and 45 healthy controls were recruited from Taihe Hospital. MtDNA HVS (hypervariable) region and 10171-10659 regions were cloned and sequenced. Mutation sites were analyzed via aligning the target gene sequence with the rCRS (revised Cambridge reference sequence) of mtDNA. Samples were divided into possible haplogroups according to mtDNA haplogroup classification tree of Han population. Results Both COPD group and control group were divided into 9 kinds of haplogroups, such as A, F and M7. A haplogroup has a higher proportion in COPD group than control group (P<0.05), while F haplogroup has a higher proportion in the control group than COPD group (P<0.05). Conclusions F haplogroup might reduce the COPD risk, while A haplogroup might be risk factor for COPD. The occurrence and development of COPD might be related to mtDNA haplotype mutation.
    Principal component determination and analysis of urine organic acid metabolism spectrum of two diseases
    2017, 37(12):  1733-1737. 
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    Objective Analysis of 22 kinds of organic acid metabolites in myasthenia gravis, mitochondrial myopathy and healthy urine was performed so to provide data and basis for clinical screening. Methods The principal component and the corresponding principal component equation were obtained, and the physical and chemical significance of the principal component was explained. Results The cumulative contribution rate of the first five principal components reached 86.89%, was identified as the main component, then established the principal component function expression, and analyzed the relationship between the principal component and the original variable. It was found that the phenyl saturated acid might be a potential biomarker of the two diseases, and the hippuric acid was an early warning component of the two diseases.Conclusion Urine organic acid metabolic profile principal component analysis is helpful to find biomarker of disease and could assisted clinical diagnosis on the scientific basis.
    Effect of low dose ionizing radiation on liver function of staff exposed to radiation
    2017, 37(12):  1738-1740. 
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    Objective To assessment the effect of low dose ionizing radiation on liver function. Methods According to predefined inclusion, exclusion criteria, the relevant literatures were searched and qualified literatures were determined. Based on total number of liver function examination, number of abnormal liver function in radiation group and control group, the OR as the effect size, then choose the appropriate model by the heterogeneity test for the analysis. Results The combined OR is 1.59, 95%CI [1.25-2.02]. Conclusions Long term exposure to low dose-ionizing radiation has significant outcome shown by higher rate of liver function abnormality.
    Repression effect of metformin on photo-damage of human skin fibroblasts induced by UVA
    2017, 37(12):  1741-1745. 
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    Objective To determine the repression effect and mechanism of metformin on photo-damage of human skin fibroblasts induced by UVA. Methods Human skin fibroblasts were randomly divided into Control group, UVA group and UVA+MF group. The proliferation of HSF was detected by CCK-8 assay kit. SA-β-gal staining was performed to evaluate the senescence state. The level of ROS was examined by fluorescence probe DCF-DA staining using flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was used to determine mRNA expression of senescence-associated signals of MMP1 and MMP3. The protein expression of MMP1, MMP3, SOD1 and SOD2 were measured by Western blot. Results To the proliferation of HSF, 0.01mmol/L Metformin had no significant effect, but 0.1 and 1mmol/L Metformin depressed significantly(P<0.05). Compared with the Control group, it showed that UVA irradiation increased the positive rate of SA-β-gal staining(P<0.01), the level of ROS(P<0.05), mRNA and protein expression of MMP1 and MMP3 significantly(P<0.01); Also decreased the expression of SOD1 and SOD2(P<0.01). Compared with the UVA group, it showed that metformin decreased the positive rate of SA-β-gal staining(P<0.05), the level of ROS(P<0.05), mRNA and protein expression of MMP1 and MMP3 significantly(P<0.05); Also increased the expression of SOD1(P<0.01)and SOD2. Conclusion: Metfomin can repress the photo-damage of human skin fibroblasts induced by UVA via the inhibiton of ROS and metal matrix protease generation, also the improvement of cellular antioxidant capacity.
    Effects of different anesthetic methods on the patients quality of recovery score and surgical satisfaction after oblique inguinal hernia repair
    2017, 37(12):  1746-1749. 
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    Objective Through a prospective randomized controlled study, comparing the effects of three different anesthetic methods on the Patients Quality of Recovery Score (QoR) and surgical satisfaction after oblique inguinal hernia repair (OIHR). Methods Ninety patients who had underwent OIHR were divided into three groups: nerve block group(NB) , spinal anesthesia group(SA) and combination of NB and single low-dose SA group(NB+SA). The first two were treated as control groups. Each group had equally thirty cases. The primary outcome was QoR score and Surgical Satisfaction, while the secondary outcomes included intraoperatively-adjuvant intravenous administration, mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) during operation. Results The QoR score (median, interquartile range ) in NB+SA group was significantly higher than that of NB group and SA group in the first day after surgery ( P<0.05),which was NB group QoR 15(13,18),SA group QoR 16(15,17)and NB+SA group QoR 18(16,19)respectively. The second day after the surgery, the QoR score (median, interquartile range ) in NB+SA group was still higher than that of SA group(P<0.05),which was correspondingly NB+SA group QoR 20(18,20),NB group QoR 18.5(15,20)as well as SA group QoR 17(16,19). As for surgical satisfaction, surgeons are more content with the method of NB+SA than that of SA and NB(P<0.05). In terms of adjuvant intravenous administration, it was most common in NB group followed by NB+SA group and SA group(P<0.05). Conclusions Compared to NB and SA, patients with NB+SA have higher QoR and surgical satisfaction after surgery.
    Diagnosis and treatment of small-for-gestational-age infants based on clinical practice guideline and expert consensus
    2017, 37(12):  1756-1760. 
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    Infants born small-for-gestational-age have high rates of mortality and morbidity in perinatal period, high risk of metabolic syndrome in adult. However, there is a lack of consensus about the diagnosis and treatment of small-for-gestational age in China. We make a literature review of the definition, risk factors, growth hormone therapy, evaluation before and after growth hormone therapy, short-time and long-time complications of small-for-gestational-age in all the clinical practice guideline and expert consensus available all over the world, aiming at providing useful information in clinical practice.
    Research progresses on exosomes in glioma
    Zi-Hao WANG Xiao-peng GUO 兵 幸
    2017, 37(12):  1761-1764. 
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    Exosome is a kind of functional vesicles secreted to the extracellular matrix. The role of glioma exosomes in the development, diagnosis and treatment of glioma is increasingly recognized. This review aims to summarize the most common biomarkers of glioma exosomes and the applications of exosomes in treatments, which mainly includes mediating immune therapy, anti-tumor therapeutic vehicles, and intervention of intercellular communications between tumor cells.
    Research progress of the correlation of Sox5 and tumor
    2017, 37(12):  1765-1769. 
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    Sox5 gene is located on 12p12.1, containing 29 exons, it can transcript 5 variants, thus produce 5 isoforms. L-SOX5A is an isoform relative extensive studied, its functions include regulate embryonic development, and determine cell differentiation. Sox5 was implicated in prostate cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
    Progress on role of galectin-3 in ventricular remodeling and heart failure after acute myocardial infarction
    2017, 37(12):  1770-1773. 
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    Heart failure as a common cause of a variety of cardiovascular disease and the main cause of death, early diagnosis and effective intervention is to improve the prognosis of patients and an important means of outcome. Galectin-3 is a new biomarker of myocardial fibrosis and heart failure in recent years. It plays a certain role in the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure.Galectin-3 plays a key role in ventricular remodeling and heart failure, which can be used as a new target for treatment of heart failure.
    Observing and understanding of clinical medical education in the department of cardiology of Yale New Haven Hospital in the United States
    2017, 37(12):  1774-1777. 
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    Clinical teaching plays a vital role in medical education,it helps to improve the medical students’ comprehensive ability in their analyzing and solving problems with their knowledge independently, and serves as a close link between the past and the future.It is a difficult and key point on how to let the medical students grasp the knowledge of cardiovascular diseases well in clinical teaching. This aricle shows the cardiologists’ methods of training the medical students in Yale New Haven Hospital from the auther’s point of view, and compares with the auther’s related experience in China in order to exchange opinions with other doctors and explore the cardiovascular diseases’ training methods .
    Evaluation of OSCE in the first phase skill examination of standarlized training of Beijing radiological residents
    2017, 37(12):  1778-1781. 
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    This study evaluated the application of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the first-stage skills examination of the standardized training of radiology residents in Beijing. The subjects were selected from the radiology residents who took the first phase of the skill examination in 2014 to 2016. The composition of the candidates and the average score and pass rate of the candidates were evaluated. The subjective evaluation was questionnaire feedback. The results show that the proportion of undergraduate education in the composition of the candidates gradually increased, the doctoral and master's pass rate is higher than the undergraduate students, the average score of the overall score for the doctoral examination average higher than the master's degree and undergraduates; survey results show that the concept of OSCE were more and more familiar in the candidates through the 3 years, the candidates also agree with the popular form of this examination, but the concept of competency in the training process remains to be further promoted, in particular, to strengthen the communication skills training; For the examination process organization , the candidates generally reflects good. According to the analysis of the OSCE examinations and questionnaires from 2014 to 2016, it is found that the future training of radiology residents should combine the training content with the academic qualifications. Candidates are highly receptive to OSCE in the form of daily training, especially focus on competency and communication skills training.
    Scientific research ability cultivation’s status quo and reform suggestion of eight-year clinical medical education program
    2017, 37(12):  1782-1784. 
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    Scientific research ability Cultivation is an important part of 8-year clinical medical education program. Research skills has increasingly become one of the important factors to evaluate medical school and hospital. We summarized cultivation characters of the accredited schools, which has experimented 8-year clinical medical education program. And put forward suggestions for scientific research ability cultivation,in order to provided reference for reformation of 8-year clinical medical education.
    Application of formative assessment in teaching histology
    2017, 37(12):  1785-1788. 
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    Objective Investigate the effects of formative assessment in teaching histology. Methods Multiple methods were used, including homework, self-test and quiz, questionnaire survey and so on, to evaluated teaching process. Collected data were analyzed statistically. Result Autonomous homework was welcomed by students: 89.8% of the students believed that homework was necessary, and nearly half of them thought they got profit from this. Students who completed the self- tests more got higher score in the final exam than those who completed less. Questions with high error rate in quiz got higher accuracy in the final exam. Students thought their ability, especially the autonomous learning ability, improved during the learning process. Conclusion Both teachers and students got profit at the aspects of knowledge, ability and emotion from introducing formative assessment into teaching and learning process. Quality of teaching histology would improve through better assessment methods and means.
    Application of “three-step teaching model”for minimally invasive simulation training in urologic clinical teaching
    2017, 37(12):  1789-1791. 
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    Objective To explore the effectiveness of applying minimally invasive simulation training in urologic clinical teaching.MethodsInterns, training clinicians and junior doctors in our hospital, each group of six people, participating in the newthree-step teaching model of “theory learning + simulation training + clinical practice”. The score before and after training on their theoretical knowledge, simulation training skills and clinical practice were assessed and the results were analyzed. Results The test scores of minimally invasive techniques theoretical knowledge and clinical practice assessment were significantly elevated between before training and after training(p<0.05). We have established standardized minimally invasive simulation training in urologic clinical teaching. ConclusionsMinimally invasive simulation training provides an effective and safe learning cultivation method for clinician and medical students, which could improve the clinical practice skills of young doctors in minimally invasive surgery as well as shorten the learning curve.
    Comparison of the standardized neurology residency training between the United States and China
    2017, 37(12):  1792-1795. 
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    Objective In order to further improve China’s neurology residency training system, we investigated the differences of standardized residency training system between China and the United States. Methods The differences of the training goal, plan, program operation and performance evaluation between China and the United States’ residency training program were analyzed. Results The neurology residency training system in the United States has been well established and standardized. Standardized residency training in China has been implemented and systematized in recent years. Although tremendous improvement has been made to China’s postgraduate education, many aspects of the training system still need to be optimized. Conclusion In line with experiences of USA and suitable for China's national conditions, reform of neurology residency training system will further improve the medical care of Neurology in China.
    Competency based progressive evaluation and feedback system in internal medicine standard resident training in Peking Union Medical College Hospital
    2017, 37(12):  1796-1802. 
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    Objective To established a new competency based evaluation and feedback system, which can real-time evaluate how the residents perform and to give them feedbacks for improvement. Methods: Based on the situation and requirements of standard resident training in China, and learn from experiences of other countries, we designed a new progressive evaluation and feedback system, and use the system to evaluation 6 clinic post-doctors in internal medicine department who graduate in 2016. Results: This evaluation and feedback system not only reflect a total score of each resident evaluated, but also reflect their advantages and disadvantages in each competency. Conclusions: To implement this progressive evaluation and feedback system into the process of standard resident training can provide a feasible way to formatively and progressively evaluation residents and help them to improve, which is of critical importance.
    Application of mind mapping in neurology teaching
    2017, 37(12):  1803-1806. 
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    We introduce the application of mind mapping in neurology teaching, including the concept and function of mind mapping,mapping methods,teaching application and example. We summarize our teaching experience and attention based on the mind mapping. In our opinion,teaching method based on the mind mapping not only can effectively improve the medical students' learning efficiency,also can develop their clinical thinking and team-work ability.