Table of Content

    05 January 2018, Volume 38 Issue 1
    Preparation of DJ-1 overexpressing cell model by using lentiviral vector
    2018, 38(1):  1-6. 
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    Objective To prepare gene overexpressing cell model of human wild-type DJ-1 and its L166P mutant, and to investigate the role of lentiviral vector in gene overexpressing cell model. Methods Wild type DJ-1 and L166P mutant DJ-1 lentiviral vector plasmids were constructed respectively. were constructed. After sequencing and comparing correctly, the plasmid was amplified and prepared and transfected into HEK293T cell line. Expression of WT DJ-1 and L166P mutant DJ-1 in cell lines were detected by fluorescence and Western blots.After determining the accurate expression of the target protein, a large amount of HEK293T cells were transfected and packaged to produce lentiviral particles. The PC12 cells were infected with the titer of virus supernatant. The fluorescence intensity of GFP and the expression of target protein were observed by fluorescence microscope and Western blots method, and the infection efficiency of the virus was determined.Results Lentiviral vectors carrying wild type DJ-1 and its mutants were successfully constructed. The virus vector can be transfected into HEK293T cells and the target protein can be correctly translated and expressed. It showed that the viral titers of LV-DJ-1 and LV-DJ-1/L166P were 2×109TU/ml and 2×108TU/ml, respectively. Virus supernatant can efficiently infect PC12 cells, and most cells can express target proteins. The protein expression levels of exogenous wild-type DJ-1 and L166P mutants were 315% and 285% of endogenous content,respectively.Conclution Lentivirus vector can infect cells efficiently, and it is a good way to prepare gene over expressing cell model. A cell model overexpressing DJ-1 or its L166P mutant was successfully prepared. The model can be used for subsequent DJ-1 function research.
    Obestatin attenuates apoptosis induced by high glucose in INS1 cells
    2018, 38(1):  7-12. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of obestatin on the apoptosis of rat pancreatic islet cell line INS1 induced by high glucose.Methods INS1 cells were cultured in different concentration of glucose.The survival rate and proliferation of INS1cells detected by MTT method;Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining was used to detect nuclear morphology. Caspase-3 method was used to study the relationship between the protective effect of obestatin and the PI3K pathway; Finally,using real time PCR detection of FOXO1and SREBP1c, Bax, PDX-1expression, to further clarify the protective effect of obestatin on cells. Results Under high glucose condition,obestatin promoted the proliferation of INS1 cells at 100nmol/L,and promoted the proliferation of INS1 cells significantly(P<0.01 compared with the control group and high glucose group).Obestatin can reduce high glucose-induced apoptosis(P<0.01).The expressions of FOXO1,SREBP1c,Bax and PDX-1 were decreased,while the expressions of FOXO1,SREBP1c,Bax and PDX-1 were increased in the high glucose group; Conclusions OB can attenuate the injury of INS1 cells induced by high glucose in rats.
    Role of Akt during Islet-1 inducing C3H10T1/2 cells to differentiate specifically into cardiomyocytes
    2018, 38(1):  13-19. 
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    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of Akt during Islet-1 inducing the mesenchymal stem cells of C3H10T1/2 cells to differentiate specifically into cardiomyocytes. Methods Constructing the model of Islet-1 over-expression cells, Lentivirus transfection efficiency of cells was detected by flow cytometry detection technology. Cell proliferation was tested by CCK-8. The protein expressions of Islet-1,cTnT and p-Akt/T-Akt were measured by Western blot. The mRNA expression of GATA4,Nkx2.5 and Mef2c were tested by real-time PCR. Results With the increasing of MK – 2206 concentration, the inhibition rate of cell proliferation increased(P<0.05), and the best inhibition concentration of Akt was 8 nmol/L; With prolongation of Islet-1 inducing time,the protein expression of p-Akt/T-Akt reduced(P<0.05);The gene expression of myocardial specific transcription factor GATA4, Nkx2.5 and Mef2c increased(P<0.05);treated with MK-2206, the gene expression of GATA4, Nkx2.5 and Mef2c increased significantly at the first week and then reduced(P<0.05). Conclusions Akt plays different effects in different differentiation stages during the Islet-1 inducing the cells into cardiac-specific differentiation process.
    Ang II induces up-expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 5 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy of rats
    2018, 38(1):  20-25. 
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    Objective To investigate the mechanism of secreted frizzled-related Protein 5 (sFRP5) expression in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods In vivo experiment, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were exposed to Ang II(10-6mmol/L, 48h). Telmisartan, Y27632, PD98059,SB203580 and SP600125 were used to block angiotensin type 1 receptor(AT1R), Rho/ROCK, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK pathway, respectively. Western blot was to determine the expressions of sFRP5, ROCK1, ROCK2, total MYPT1, p-MYPT1, total JNK and p-JNK. RT-PCR was used to determine sFRP5 expression. Results Our experiment confirmed that there were significant inhibition of sFRP5 expression when treated with Y37632 and SP699125, but less with SB203580 and PD98059 in Ang II-induced cardiomyocytes. Moreover, telmisartan down-regulated the expression of ROCK1, but had no effect on the expression of ROCK2. Conclusions The expression of sFRP5 was up-regulated mainly by Rho/ROCK1/JNK pathway in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by Ang II.
    Three cases of novel SRY mutations causing 46,XY disorder of sex development
    2018, 38(1):  26-31. 
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    Objective To detect SRY mutation in 46,XY disorder of sex development (46,XY DSD), to analyze SRY mutation frequency, and to summarize the clinical features of the patients with the mutation. Methods A total of 63 46,XY DSD patients admitted to department of endocrinology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2009 to 2014 were enrolled and detailed clinical data were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and SRY was amplified and sequenced. The mutation was identified by comparing with the online database, and the clinical features were analyzed. Results Three novel mutations of SRY gene were detected in 3 of 63 patients (5%). The 3 patients’ social gender were all female and their karyotypes are 46, XY. Vaginal and uterine structures were present. Sex hormone profiles were consistent with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The 3 novel mutations were Pro131His, R76C and L35Afs*25. The former two were mutations in the nuclear localization signal regions of HMG box and highly-conservative amino acids were affected. The latter one was a frameshift mutation resulting in deletion of the entire HMG box. All These were presumably affecting the functional domain of SRY protein severely. Conclusions This study identified three novel mutations of SRY gene causing 46,XY DSD. The detection rate of SRY gene mutation was about 5%. For all the 46, XY DSD patients, it is recommended that SRY gene testing be performed to identify the etiology of the disease.
    Correlation of KRAS gene mutations and clinicopathological parameters in colorectal carcinoma
    2018, 38(1):  32-36. 
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    Objective To investigate mutation rate and types of KRAS gene in colorectal carcinoma, and to analysis the relationship between KRAS gene mutation and clinicopathological parameters in patients with colorectal carcinoma(CRC). Methods Scorpions Amplification Refractory Mutation System(ARMS) fluorescence quantitative PCR was performed to detect the mutations in codons 12 and 13 of KRAS gene and to correlate between clinicopathological characteristics and the presence of various KRAS gene mutations of colorectal carcinoma. Results KRAS mutations were identified in 518 patients(42.92%),including G12D(197cases, 16.32%),G12V(125cases, 10.36%),G12C(40cases, 3.31%),G12S(29cases, 2.40%),G12A(21cases, 1.74%),G12R(7cases, 0.58%),13D(117cases, 9.69%). Female patients had a higher KRAS gene mutation rate than male (46.21%, 238/515vs.40.46%, 280/692, P<0.05). KRAS mutation was significantly higher in right colon cancer(46.45%,131/282)and in rectal cancer(44.50%,255/573)than that in left colon cancer(37.50%,132/352)(P<0.05,P<0.05). Conclusion There are many types of KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer, and many mutation types exist simultaneously.The detection rate of KRAS mutation is higher in female CRC patients than the males. The detection rate of KRAS mutation was significantly higher in right colon cancer and in rectal cancer than that in left colon cancer.
    High-fat diet suppresses hepatic autophagy via p-AMPK/mTOR signal channel in mice
    2018, 38(1):  37-41. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of high fat diet on hepatic autophagy in mice and analyze the possible mechanism. Methods C57BL male mice were fed with either normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 ,12 or 16 weeks.The mice were sacrificed after measuring the body weight. The mesentery and epididymal fat tissue weight,the liver weight and the hepatic lipid accumulation were tested. The expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein and autophagic markers including LC3Ⅱ, P62 protein were measured by western blot. Results HFD-fed mice displayed significantly heavier body weight at 16 weeks and significantly heavier intra abdominal fat weight and lipid overaccumulation in liver at 8,12,16weeks(all P<0.01). Western blot showed hepatic LC3Ⅱexpression were up-regulated mildly in HFD fed mice at 8 weeks(P<0.05), but the change dramatically was reversed, hepatic LC3-II were significantly lower in HFD fed mice at 12,16weeks, as well as P62 were increased in HFD fed animals(all P<0.05). HFD suppressed phosphorylation of AMPK and increased phosphorylation of mTOR levels in liver at 8,12,16 weeks, compared to the normal-diet fed mice. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that hepatic autophagy was in dynamic change in high-fat diet mice, long term high-fat diet severely suppressed hepatic autophagy, which was associated with decreased p- AMPK and increased p-mTOR.
    Mitochondrial damage in early stage of pressure ulcer in rats
    2018, 38(1):  42-46. 
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    Objective To investigate the mitochondrial damage and its effect in early stage of pressure ulcer in a rat. Methods 40 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups(n=8), control group(Con group) rats without stress, the experimental group was treated with a special pressure equipment compress (170 mmHg) 2 h and relax 0.5 h is one cycle(1C), experimental group was divided into 3C , 6C , 9C and 12C group. The pathological changes of the compressed muscle tissue of the rats in each group were observed by HE staining, Western blot methods to detect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in the compressed tissue, and the ultrastructure of muscle fibers and mitochondria were observed by transmission electron microscope. Results There are pathological damage and gradually increased in the experimental groups, with the increase of compression cycle; the expression of Bcl-2 in each experimental group was significantly increased compared with the control group(P<0.05), in the 3C group reached the peak, and then decreased; the expression of Bax was increased gradually with the increase of compression cycle(P<0.05), and in the 12C group reached the peak; with the increase of the compression cycle the muscle fibers of each experimental group appeared gradually increased pathological damage: disorder, dissolution and fracture, the ridge of the mitochondria disappeared, vacuolar degeneration, et al. Conclusions In the early stage of pressure ulcer in a rat occurred mitochondrial damage and induced apoptosis.
    Decreased expression of surfactant protein C in lung tissue of COPD rats
    2018, 38(1):  47-50. 
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    Objective To study the role of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in rat lung of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Forty healthy conventional Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups, normal control group (control group), smoke exposure group (smoking group), lipopolysaccharide group (LPS group), smoke exposure + Lipopolysaccharide group (COPD group). The arterialpartialpressureofoxygen (PaO2)andarterialpartialpressureofcarbondioxide pathological (PaCO2) were detected. The ultrastructure of lung tissue were observed by transmission electron microscope. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to determine protein expression of SP-C in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). RT-qPCR were performed to determine mRNA expression of SP-C in lung. Results Compared with control group, smoking group and LPS group, the PaO2 of COPD group was obviously lower, the PaCO2 of COPD group was obviously higher; the ultrastructure and histological analysis of lung tissues showed chronic inflammatory injury; Compared with control group, the expression of SP-C protein in was reduced, as well as SP-C mRNA expression. Conclusions The expression of SP-C in lung of rats COPD model down-regulated. SP-C may be involved in COPD.
    miR-489 inhibits the stem cell phenotype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colon cancer by regulating TWIST1
    2018, 38(1):  51-56. 
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    Objective To explore the effects and regulation mechanism of microRNA-489 (miR-489) on the stem cell phenotype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colon cancer cells in vitro. Methods The miR-489 expression of colon cancer cell lines (HT29, SW480 and SW620, HCT116) and normal intestinal epithelial cells HIEC were detected by RT-qPCR, the miR-489 expression in colon cancer cells was raised by gene transfection technology, the colon cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, EpCAM, ALDH1 and epithelial marker E-cadherin, mesenchymal cells markers Vimentin and N-cadherin were detected by Western blot. The expression of TWIST1 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. Results The miR-489 relative expression in four kinds of colon cancer cells (HT29, SW480 and SW620, HCT116) were significantly lower than that of normal HIEC intestinal epithelial cells, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Up-regulation of miR-489 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells leaded to lower expression of colon cancer stem cell marker CD133, CD44, EpCAM ALDH1 and mesenchymal cells markers Vimentin, N-cadherin, higher expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin (P<0.05). Also, up-regulation of miR-489 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells leaded to lower expression of TWIST1 mRNA and protein (P<0.05). Conclusion MiR-489 is down-regulated in colon cancer cells and up-regulation of miR-489 expression inhibits stem cell phenotype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through targeting TWIST1 in colon cancer.
    Influence of targeted gene VEGF silencing of bladder cancer cell line T24 on dendritic cells’ differentiation, maturation and immunity
    2018, 38(1):  57-62. 
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    Objective To observe the influence of VEGF targeted gene silencing of bladder cancer cell line T24 on dendritic cells’ differentiation, maturation and immunity. Methods A lentiviral vector named LV-VEGFA-RNAi(experimental group) for gene silencing targeting VEGF and a lentiviral vector named LV-CON(negative control group) without any valid sequences were constructed. And the blank control group will accept no intervention measures. The expression of VEGF’s mRNA and protein of T24 cells from each group were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Then the immature DCs were co-cultured respectively with the supernatant of all the groups mentioned above. CD1a, CD83 as the maturation marker and CD86 as the immunity marker of the DCs were detected by flow cytometry. Results The expression of VEGF’s mRNA and protein of T24 cells in the experimental group was inhibited obviously (P<0.05) compared with that in the negative control group and the blank control group. DCs of the experimental group had an obviously increased(P<0.05) expression of CD1a, CD83 and CD86 compared with the negative control group and the blank control group. Conclusions VEGF targeted gene silencing by RNAi has advantages to the growth and immunity of DCs, which may strengthen the anti-tumor capacity of the DCs by repairing their damaged immune monitoring function.
    miR-202 promotes the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte via inhibiting PGC1β expression
    2018, 38(1):  63-68. 
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    Objective: To explore the effect and molecular mechanism of miR-202 on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte.Method:Through lentivirus infected with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we set up the AMO-miR-202 group and the random control group, then, these cells were induced to differentiate, nine days later, differentiation was assessed by oil red O staining and we examined the mRNA expression of PPARγ2 and aP2 by RT-PCR method.We examined the mRNA expression of PPARγ2、ap2 and PGC1β by Western-blot method. Results:After packaging lentivirus with AMO-miR-202 and random sequence control miRNA through 293T cell line, we can see about 80%-90% cells with fluorescence under fluorescence microscope; After these two lentivirus respectively infected with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we can see about 70%-80% cells with fluorescence under fluorescence microscope.Oil red O staining test showed that these cells with oil red O stained bright red fat droplets of AMO-miR-202 group and PPARγ2 and aP2 mRNA expression in the AMO-miR-202 group significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05).Western-blot assay showed that the protein expression of PGC1β in the AMO-miRNA-202 group was significantly increased(P<0.05), but the protein expression of aP2 and PPARγ2 was significantly decreased (P<0.01), however, the random control group and the adipocyte group had no significant effect on the above indexes. Conclusion:miR-202 can promote the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte by inhibiting the protein expression of PGC1β and improving the protein expression of PPARγ2 and aP2.
    Isocorydine inhibits the growth of human cervical carcinoma (Siha) cells xenografts in nude mice
    2018, 38(1):  69-73. 
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    Objective Study on the effect of isocorydine in human cervical cancer Siha cells xenografts in nude mice, to explore the inhibition mechanism of isocorydine in cervical carcinoma. Methods Establishment of human cervical cancer Siha cells subcutaneous xenografts model in BALB/c (nu/nu) nude mice. When the average diameter of the transplanted tumor≥0.5cm, mice were randomly assigned into control group and experimental group. In experimental group, the model was administered by intraperitoneal injection different doses of isocorydaline. After 4 weeks, the tumor tissues were removed, the histopathological changes of the tumor were observed by HE staining, and the expression of proteins in the tumor tissue were observed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Results Compared with the control group, the tumor volume of experimental group was significantly decreased (P <0.05); the cell morphology can be transformed from stem cells to epithelioid cells, and the expression of E-cadherin was significantly increased while the expression of HPV16E6 and vimentin was decreased. Conclusions Isocorydine may inhibit the development of cervical cancer by inhibiting the expression of E6 protein, and EMT-related signaling pathway.
    RNA interference targeting RNF2 inhibits proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1
    2018, 38(1):  74-79. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of siRNA-mediated silencing of RNF2 gene on cell proliferation, migration, cell cycle and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells and its possible mechanism. Methods The siRNA interference was used to down-regulate RNF2 expression. Meanwhile, there were also empty transfection group whose cells were transfected with the control siRNA and mock group without any treatment. The result of transfection was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of RNF2 mRNA was detected by RT-qPCR. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of RNF2 and p53. Cell proliferation and migration were analyzed by MTS assay and cell scratch assay, respectively. The transient transfection efficiency, apoptosis rate and cell cycle were measured by flow cytometry. Results Compared to the normalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells, RNF2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells were higher (P<0.05). The expression of RNF2 mRNA and protein was decreased in PANC-1 cells by siRNA-RNF2 at 48 h post-transfection. Transfection with siRNA-RNF2 inhibited the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells (P<0.05), induced cell apoptosis (P<0.05), increased cell counts in phase G0/G1 and decreased in S and G2/M phase (P<0.05). What’s more, after siRNA-RNF2 transfection, the expression of p53 protein was decreased. Conclusions siRNA-RNF2 can specifically knockdown the expression of RNF2 gene and inhibit the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells. These results indicate RNF2 may thus become a new target of gene therapy for pancreatic cancer.
    Amlodipine decreases myocardial endoplasmic reticulum stress in rats with abdominal aortic banding hypertension
    2018, 38(1):  80-86. 
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    Objective To study the expression of protein 94 (GRP94) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) in myocardial tissue of hypertensive rats, and investigate the effects of amlodipine on endoplasm retieulum stress(ERS) and ventricular hypertrophy in abdominal aortic banded rats. Methods 120 adult male SD rats with criteria were divided randomly into three groups:sham-operated group, abdominal aortic banding(AAB) and AAB treated with amlodipine (AAB+Aml)groups(n=40). In sham-operated rats, the abdominal aorta was isolated but not constricted, while the abdominal aorta were constricted in AAB rats. The AAB+Aml group were underwent abdominal aortic constriction and treated with amlodipine (10 mg/(kg?d)). According to the time of surgery,each group was further divided into 2, 4 and 8-week postoperative subgroups (n=6). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), the 1eft ventricular mass (LVM) and body mass (BM) were measured and (LVM/BM) was calculated. The morphology of cardiomyocytes was observed by HE staining. The protein levels of GRP94 and CHOP were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results 1)With time after surgery, MAP and LVM/BW of AAB group increased gradually, and they were obviously higher than the sham operation group〔MAP: 2 weeks (144 ± 10)vs(118 ± 9), 4 weeks (163 ± 8)vs(120 ± 7), 8周(177 ± 10)vs(120 ± 6) mmHg; LVW/BW: 2 weeks (2.21±0.17) vs (1.91±0.12), 4 weeks (2.45±0.16) vs (2.01±0.14), 8 weeks (2.68±0.15) vs (2.05±0.09) mm Hg;(P<0.05)〕.The cardiomyocytes in AAB group were hypertrophic compared to the sham group. The expression of GRP94 in AAB group increased significantly at 2 weeks post-operation, and reached peak level at 4 weeks after the surgery and was on the decline thereafter. The expression of CHOP and GRP94 in AAB rats were significantly higher than sham group, and reached the peak at the 8 weeks after surgery. 2)Treatment with amlodipine significantly reduced MAP and LVM/BW in AAB rats〔(MAP: 2 weeks (126±6) vs (144±10), 4 weeks (125±8) vs (163±8), 8 weeks (128±5) vs (177±10)mmHg;LVM/BW: 2 weeks (1.94±0.15) vs (2.21±0.17), 4 weeks (2.13±0.08) vs (2.45±0.16), 8 weeks (2.18±0.10) vs (2.68±0.15)mg/g; (P<0.05)〕.The myocardial hypertrophic was alleviated in AAB+Aml group. The levels of GRP94 and CHOP in AAB+Aml group were lower than those in AAB rats(all P<0.05). Conclusion Our results suggested that endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the ventricular remodeling caused by hypertension, and use of amlodipine can reduce ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension models possibly by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress via down-regulation of GRP94 and CHOP.
    Vinorelbine induces apotosis and decreases telomerase activity in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells line SKOV3
    2018, 38(1):  87-90. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of different concentration of vinorelbine on apoptosis、telomerase activity and expression of human telomerase-reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT) in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells SKOV3. Methods Ovarian cancer cells SKOV3 were treated with vinorelbine under different concentrations. The cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and the cell apoptosis assay was detected by flow cytometry. The telomerase activity of SKOV3 cells was determined by TRAP-PAGE-silver staining; The mRNA expression of hTERT was performed by RT-PCR assay; Results: Vinorelbine could significantly inhibited the proliferation of SKOV3 cells、induce cell apoptosis(P<0.01),reduce the telomerase activity and expression of hTERT mRNA(P<0.01), in dependen of a concentration-time manner. Conclusion:The detection of telomerase activity and the mRNA expression of hTERT might be vital for predicting the prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
    Advances in molecular mechanism of Sestrin function
    2018, 38(1):  98-102. 
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    Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Chronic activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) result associated pathologies.Sestrin is a versatile anti-aging protein.Sestrin as a Prx Reductase or as a Peroxidase,which reduce ROS.Sestrin can upregulate autophagy and upregulate Nrf2 and its antioxidant targets,which inhibit ROS. Sestrin bind to GATOR2, On the one hand liberating GATOR1, and thereby promote the RagA/B-inhibiting activity.On the another hand activating AMPK which promote phosphorylation of TSC2,and thereby inhibit Rheb.Sestrin inhibit mTORC1 through its inhibition of RagA/B and Rheb.Concentration of leucine can change conformation of Sestrin,and thereby change its regulation of mTORC1.
    Research progress on the role of SIRT in intestinal barrier
    2018, 38(1):  103-106. 
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    SIRT are a family of highly conserved nicotine adenine dinucleotide(NAD+)-dependent protein deacetylase, regulating several processes including cell gene stability, metabolism, aging and apoptosis. Studies have shown that SIRT has protective effects on intestinal barrier, which influences the structure and function of intestinal barrier by controlling the release of inflammatory cytokines, regu-lating the expression of tight junction protein in intestinal epithelial, and changing the number of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine.
    Progress on clinical application of RGD tripeptide
    2018, 38(1):  107-111. 
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    The integrin is a family of membrane receptor proteins,which is composed of heterologous dimer,and can identify the sequence RGD.Integrin excessive expressed in tumor cells and angiogenesis.Using their special relationship among them,the RGD as the carrier,combined with the radioactive tracer, antineoplastic drugs and other substances,which has tumoraffin imaging,targeted anticancer therapy,anti-inflammatory,anti depression effect and bone and nerve repair, and so on.
    Application of blood purification in renal impairment of multiple myeloma
    2018, 38(1):  112-117. 
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    Renal impairment is common in multiple myeloma. Besides effective chemotherapy, direct removal of serum free light chain through plasmapheresis or high cut-off hemodialysis is also important in the treatment of renal impairment in multiple myeloma. Based on results of the randomized controlled trials, the role of plasmapheresis in treating renal disease of multiple myeloma is debated. On the other side, high cut-off hemodialysis is novel and recently developed. Many studies have observed its ability to further increase renal response rate when combined with chemotherapy.
    Bedside ultrasound measurement of gastric content and volume
    2018, 38(1):  118-122. 
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    Perioperative pulmonary aspiration is a serious complication during general anesthesia. For the patients with unknown gastric condition, there is no effective method for the noninvasive evaluation of gastric content and volume preoperatively. Because of the portable and real-time detection, bedside ultrasound can significantly reduce the risk of perioperative reflux and pulmonary aspiration, which makes preoperative gastric contents visualized and accurate.
    Investigation of elite post-graduation medical education
    2018, 38(1):  123-127. 
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    The clinical medical post-doctoral project is an elite post-graduation national project supported by Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security and Health and Family Planning Commission. It is a new investigation for elite medical education in new era. During the first academic year of launching this project in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), the department of internal medicine has continuously modified and developed the implementation of this project, including the setting of courses, teaching process, evaluation and feedback, basing on the feedback collecting from multiple dimensions during the process. These actions have boosted this project to be outstanding on the basis of the regular training program of residents, which has been established in the internal medicine department of PUMCH, and made it become an elite post-graduation medical education project which can develop spirally-up. The process and experience of this project could provide reference for the implementation of similar projects in other teaching hospitals.
    Self-directed learning training and direct to learning (D2L) internet support in physiology teaching
    2018, 38(1):  128-131. 
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    Self-directed learning (SDL) skill is one of the necessary capabilities to be an excellent doctor. SDL training has become the important content in the top creative talents training. SDL training has been carried out for 6 years since 2011 by Physiology department Tongji university. Feedback from medical students had been collected, which was used to make modifications and supplementary including direct to learning (D2L) platform to improve SDL. SDL training is proved to be widely accepted in medical students and receive good learning effect. D2L platform is helpful in progressing SDL training.
    Laparoscopic camera navigation training for medical students
    2018, 38(1):  132-135. 
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    Objective To investigate the performance of laparoscopic camera navigation training for medical students using the virtual reality simulator. Methods Ten medical clerks (group A), 10 medical interns (group B) and 10 first year surgical residents (group C) are randomly enrolled in this study, and 10 surgical attendings (group D) are enrolled as control group. The performance of pre-training and post-training is analyzed. Results The performance of pre-training and post-training in the same group was significant improved (P <0.05) and there was significant difference among group A, B and C, but there was significant difference between the training group and the surgical attendings (control group) (P <0.05), respectively. Conclusions The laparoscopic camera navigation skills could be improved by laparoscopic virtual reality simulator especially for the medical interns and surgical residents.
    History and future of neuroanatomy education reform in Peking Union Medical College
    2018, 38(1):  136-140. 
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    Regional anatomy and neuroanatomy are two key courses provided by the Department of Human Anatomy in basic medicine since the founding of Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) about 100 years ago. The history of PUMC includes three major periods: the Old PUMC (1917-1949), the New PUMC (1950-1965), and the Current PUMC (1979-now). The teaching of neuroanatomy has changed significantly during the time. The neuroanatomy coursein Old PUMC had rich contents, long curriculum and a strong foundation of basic knowledge, while the same course in New PUMC was highly condensed, and was further reformed to the integration of basic and clinical medicine in the Current PUMC. Nowadays neuroanatomy has become a popular course among the medical students in PUMC, featured by a unique combination of classical and rejuvenated contents, traditional and innovative ideas, and fully integration with clinic.
    Exploration of the teaching mode in critical clinical diagnosis and treatment
    2018, 38(1):  141-144. 
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    Objective The critical clinical diagnosis and treatment remain unstandardized, and the teaching mode of critical clinical diagnosis and treatment in the remote area was investigated and summarised. Methods The Critical Care County Working Group had summarised seven protocols of critical clinical diagnosis and treatment, which have been taught in the hospital of the remote areas. The teaching mode included the theory, clinical case discussions, and simulated practice. The examination was used to assess the effect of the teaching mode. Results A total of 573 ICU doctors from 15 provinces participated in the teaching courses. The accuracy rate of the examination was 49% at the baseline, and the accuracy rate of the examination was 61% after the teaching course.Conclusion The critical diagnostic thinkings was poor in the remote area hospital,and the education should be further enhanced.The teaching mode of “medical theory -case discussion -simulated practice” could im-prove the ability of critical clinical diagnosis and treatment in the ICU doctors.