Table of Content

    05 February 2018, Volume 38 Issue 2
    Association of GNA11 gene polymorphisms with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and its complications
    2018, 38(2):  145-152. 
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    Objective To investigate the association of GNA11 gene polymorphisms with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) and its complications. Methods 203 patients with IHP and 209 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were recruited at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1987 to December 2015 as case group and control group, respectively. The GNA11 gene polymorphisms were selected and genotyped by Sequenom MassArray iPLEX System. Results The minor allele T of rs308060 was associated with an increased risk of IHP in the additive [OR=2.505 (1.005-6.245) , P<0.05; OR=3.269 (1.264-8.458) , P<0.05] and recessive model[OR=2.727 (1.105-6.727), P<0.05]. Although no significant difference was observed in the incidence of intracranial calcification and cataract in IHP patients, the haplotype CTCGCT consisting of minor allele T of rs308060 was correlated with their 24 hours urinary calcium levels (β=0.186,P<0.05). Conclusion The minor allele T of rs308060 in GNA11 gene might increase the risk of IHP, and was positively correlated with urinary calcium excretion in IHP patients after treatment with oral calcium and vitamin D analogs supplements.
    Mutations of P16INK4a/CDK4/CCND1 genes in 134 Chinese melanoma patients and their clinical significance
    2018, 38(2):  153-157. 
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    Objective To investigate the frequency of P16INK4a, CDK4 and CCND1 gene mutations in Chinese melanoma patients and find out the possible clinical significance. Methods The samples in this study were from 134 melanoma patients(37 acral melanomas,87 mucosal melanomas,10 non-acral skin melanomas), hospitalized in Beijing Cancer Hospital from January 2010 to December 2014.The mutation status of P16INK4a,CDK4 and CCND1 was detected by PCR amplification and Sanger sequence.Statistical analyses were used to investigate the correlation between gene mutation and prognosis. Results Among the 134 samples, the mutation frequency of P16INK4a, CDK4, CCND1 was 8.2%(11/134), 0.75 %(1/134) ,0 %(0/134) respectively.81.8% (9/11) of the P16INK4a gene mutation may affect protein function.The median survival time of melanoma patients with P16INK4a mutations was significantly shorter than the patients without P16INK4a mutations (c2= 8.872,P<0.01).P16INK4a gene mutation is an independent prognostic factor for melanoma (P <0.05). Conclusions P16INK4a may be a breaking point of targeted therapy for melanoma.
    Transfection with lentivirus carrying Ifi204 genes can up-regulate p204 expression of the aortic vascular fibroblasts in rats
    2018, 38(2):  158-162. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of transfection with lentivirus carrying ifi204 genes on the expression of p204 in rat vascular adventitial fibroblasts. Methods By means of culturing the vascular adventitial fibroblasts of rat aortic,and then conducting Immunocytochemistry to identify the type and purity of these rat fibroblasts. The vascular adventitial fibroblasts of rat aortic cultured in vitro were transfected with lentivirus vector system carrying Ifi204 genes(Ifi204 group).The fibroblasts which has been transfected with the empty vector lentivirus particles as the control group (group C),and the untreated fibroblasts as the blank group (group N). Test the expression of mRNA and protein of p204 in the fibroblasts by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot test separately .Results There was expression of p204 in group N. Compared with group N and group C, mRNA and protein expression of p204 in the Ifi204 group had been all up-regulated (P <0.01). Conclusions There was structural expression of p204 in vascular adventitial fibroblasts of rat aortic. Transfection with lentivirus carrying Ifi204 genes can up-regulate the expression of p204 in vascular adventitial fibroblasts.
    Beneficial effect of berberine on atherosclerosis based on attenuating vascular inflammation and calcification
    2018, 38(2):  163-168. 
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    Objective To investigate the beneficial effect ofberberine(BBR) on atherosclerosisin Apo-/-E mice and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods 48 Apo-/-E mice,at 6-8 weeks old,were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Control, Model(fed with high-fat diet for 4 weeks),BBR( p.o.,100 mg/(kg?d)) and Atorvastatin (p.o., 5 mg/(kg?d))groups with 12 mice in each group.. The morphology and inflammation infiltration of aortic were examined with HE staining. The expression of BMP-2,OPG,OCN,RUNX2 in aortic was examined by immumohistochemical staining. Blood lipid levels were examined by automatic biochemical analyzer. The expression of IL-6, TNF-α and BMP-2 in serum and tissues was detected by ELISA method. The expression of ALP and the content of calcium were detected by commercially-available kits. HUVEC cells were stimulated with TNF-α and incubated with various concentrations of BBR for 24h. The contents of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9in the culture supernatant were detected by ELISA method. Results 4-weekberberine treatment markedly reduced serum TC and LDL-c levels and improved the plaque stability in Apo-/-E mice fed with a high-fat diet(P<0.05) which was comparable with the effect of atorvastatin. Berberine also significantly decreased the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in mice serum and aortic tissues (P<0.05). Berberine tended to decrease ALP, BMP-2 levels and the content of calcium in mice serum and aortic tissues (P<0.05) which were not observed in atorvastatin group. Berberine significantly reduced the levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MMP-9 in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Conclusions BBR can profitably regulate the levels of blood lipid in mice fed with a high-fat diet, decrease the injury caused by inflammation, and attenuate vascular calcification. It may improve atherosclerosis and play a role in cardiovascular protection.
    Effect of mangiferin on myocardial apoptosis induced by hypoxia ischemia in rats
    2018, 38(2):  169-173. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of mangiferin on myocardial apoptosis induced by hypoxia ischemia in rats. Methods myocardial apoptosis model induced by hypoxia ischemia12h in rats. After mangiferin intervention, myocardial cell apoptosis was deteced by flow cytometry; apoptosis protease Caspase-3, Caspase-9 activity in cell lysates was detected by spectrophotometry; the protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was detected by western blot. Results myocardial apoptosis model was successfully established by hypoxia ischemia 12h. Compared with the model group, After mangiferin intervention, myocardial apoptosis rate was significantly decreased (P<0.05); apoptosis protease Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 activity were significantly decreased (P<0.05); the protein expression of the pro apoptotic protein Bax was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of the anti apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion Mangiferin can significantly inhibit myocardial apoptosis induced by hypoxic-ischemic.
    lncRNA EVADR promotes proliferation and migration of human colorectal cancer cell lines
    2018, 38(2):  174-179. 
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    Objective To explore the effect and mechanism of lncRNA EVADR on the proliferation and migration in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and LOVO. Methods HCT116 and LOVO cell lines were transfected with LncRNA EVADR by overexpressing lentivirus system. CCK8 assay was performed to measure the growth of HCT116 and LOVO cells after overexpression of EVADR. Transwell migration was performed to determine if EVADR could promote HCT116 and LOVO cells migration. Finally, the expressions of E-cadherin and transcription factor Snail, Slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2 were detected by Western blot and real - time quantitative PCR respectively. Results We successfully established colorectal cancer cells strains HCT116, LOVO which can stably overexpress LncRNA EVADR and the capacity of proliferation and migration in overexpression group were significantly improved (P <0.05). The expression of E-cadherin was decreased while mesenchymal markers Snail, Slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2 were increased in EVADR overexpression HCT116 and LOVO cells. Conclusion Overexpression of LncRNA EVADR in HCT116 and LOVO cells can significantly promote the proliferation and migration of HCT116 and LOVO cells, which may play a important role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cells.
    Quantitative detection of the KRAS gene mutation in circulating tumor DNA for colorectal cancer
    2018, 38(2):  180-184. 
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    Objective To establish a liquid biopsy technique of KRAS gene G12D mutation and discuss its diagnostic value. Methods KRAS G12D mutation was analyzed by ddPCR in plasma DNA from 52 colorectal cancer patients and compared to 80 healthy subjects. KRAS gene sequencing in cancerous tissue of colorectal cancer patient being set as a golden standard, we evaluated the accuracy of ddPCR and analyzed the correlation between G12D mutation rate ,plasma concentration; and their clinical manifestations in CRC. Results ddPCR indicated that KRAS G12D mutation rate and concentration(26.92% , 81.5 copies/mL)in the plasma samples of colorectal cancer patients are significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (8.75%, 16 copies/mL). colorectal cancer patients with highly differentiated adenocarcinoma showed a significantly higher number of mutant copies than medium and low differentiated adenocarcinoma(p<0.05); M2 patients had a significantly higher number of mutant copies than N1 and N0 patients(p<0.05); The concordance rate of KRAS gene mutation between cancerous tissue and plasma ctDNA was 87.50% in CRC;Conclusions our study showed that ddPCR is a rapid ,noninvasive and accurate method for plasma testing of ctDNA , and the test results could be used to monitor the course of the disease and as clinical guidelines.
    Inhibition of curcumin on the apoptosis of HK-2 cell line induced by cisplatin
    2018, 38(2):  185-188. 
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    Objective To investigate whether curcumin could inhibit cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells. Methods Using MTT methods to observe inhibitory effects of curcumin and cisplatin on the proliferation of HK-2 cell. Detecting caspases expression after curcumin and cisplatin treatment by Western blot. Results To some extent, cisplatin can induce cell apoptosis, and its effect is dose-dependent(P<0.05).Under the joint effect of curcumin and cisplatin on HK-2 cell,the number of apoptosis decreased(P<0.05), yet in the same time the expressions of Bcl-2 protein were increased(P<0.05) and the expressions of Bcl-2 protein were decreased(P<0.05). Conclusion Cisplatin enhances the apoptosis of HK-2 cell in a dose-dependent relationship within limits, and possess the antagonistic effect when cisplatin and curcumin are conbined. Curcumin can antagonize cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HK-2 by regulating the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 protein.
    Astragalus polysaccharide attenuates liver injury in rats with chronic cadmium exposure
    2018, 38(2):  189-193. 
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    Objective To explore the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on liver injury induced by cadmium chloride. Methods The cadmium chloride solution was administrated by intraperitoneal injection to prepare the rat models of liver injury, Rats were randomized divided into three groups: control group, model group, Astragalus polysaccharides intervention group. After the 5 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the liver was removed. The liver index was calculated by weighing method, the levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT) 、glutamic oxalacetic transaminase(AST) and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) were detected by colorimetric assay, the contents of cadmium(Cd) was checked by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometerthe(ICP-MS), the contents of interleukin-2(IL-2) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was measured by ELISA, the the protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were observed by immunohistochemistry staining method. Results Compared with the control group, the liver index was increased in model group, the levels of ALT、AST and LDH were also ascended in model group, the contents of Cd、TGF-β1 and the protein expression of Bax were all increased evidently in mode group(P<0.05 or P<0.01); But, the content of IL-2 and the protein expression of Bcl-2 were decreased in mode group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the liver index was decreased in Astragalus polysaccharides intervention group, the levels of ALT、AST and LDH were also reduced in Astragalus polysaccharides intervention group, the contents of Cd、TGF-β1 and the protein expression of Bax were all dropped in Astragalus polysaccharides intervention group(P<0.05 or P<0.01); But, the content of IL-2 and the protein expression of Bcl-2 were increased in Astragalus polysaccharides intervention group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Astragalus polysaccharides could reduce the oxidative stress injury of rats liver cells indued by cadmium chloride, and its mechanism may be achieved by the regulation of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression.
    Expression of WNT4 and its inhibitory factor SFRP1 in renal tissue of diabetic nephropathy rats
    2018, 38(2):  194-199. 
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    Objective To observe the change of expression of WNT4/β-catenin signaling pathway and its inhibitory factor Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) in renal tissue in diabetic nephropathy(DN) rats, and to explore its possible role in the development of renal fibrosis. Methods Rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group and DN group, and was equipped with 8 in each group. The IDDM model was prepared by tail vein injection of STZ 55 mg/kg. Hemotoxyin and eosin、Periodic Acid-Schiff and Masson stain was used to observe the morphological structure and fibrotic lesions in renal tissue; Immunohistochemical analysis was used to observe the protein expression of WNT4 and β-catenin in renal tissue; Western blot was used to detect the protein expression changes of WNT4, SFRP1, β-catenin , p-GSK-3β, GSK-3β, CollagenⅠ, α-SMA, E-cadherin in renal tissue in each group; The mRNA expressions of WNT4 and SFRP1 in renal tissues of rats were detected by real-time PCR. Results Compared with NC group, renal tissue fibrosis was obvious in DN group. Compared with NC group,The protein and mRNA expressions of WNT4 significantly increased (p<0.05), and the protein expressions of β-catenin, p-GSK-3β, α-SMA and CollagenⅠsignificantly increased (p<0.05), and the protein expressions of E-cadherin significantly decreased (p<0.05), and the protein and mRNA expressions of SFRP1 significantly decreased (p<0.05). Conclusions In the case of DN, the signal pathway of WNT4/β-catenin was abnormal activation. The expression of SFRP1 is decreased that may inhibit this pathway and promote the development of renal fibrosis in DN.
    Deep hypothermia decreases MMP-9 and NPY protein levels in brain of ischemia rats
    2018, 38(2):  200-204. 
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    Objective To probe the influence of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest on expression of MMP-9 and NPY in brains of rat. Methods Rats were divided randomly into three groups: normal comparison group (NC), normal temperature circulatory arrest group (NTCA) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group (DHCA). After establishment of the extracorporeal circulation model, the NC group with no hypothermia or circulatory arrest, maintain circulatory 10 min under in normal temperature. In NTCA group, rats were circulatory arrested under normal temperature with 10min. In DHCA group, circulatory arrest were performed in 18.5℃~20℃ with 10min. Then removed the brains immediately, used dry-wet way to measure water content of the brains, and used immunohistochemical way and Western Blot to measure the expression of MMP-9 and NPY. Results The water content of the brains in NTCA group is much higer than that in DHCA group and NC group, but the survival rate of nerve cells in NTCA group is lower than that in other two groups obviously (P<0.05). The expression of MMP-9 in NTCA group and DHCA group was much higher than that in NC group (P<0.05), and the expression of MMP-9 in DHCA group was lower than that in NTCA group (P<0.05). The expression of NPY in NTCA group and DHCA group was much lower than that in NC group (P<0.05), but in DHCA group, the expression of NPY is higher than that in NTCA group (P<0.05). Conclusions Deep hypothermia can increase the survival rate of neurons by reducing the magnitude of NPY and the expression of MMP-9.
    CD11 c+DCs promote the occurrence and development of psoriasis-like morbidity on K14-VEGF transgenic mice
    2018, 38(2):  205-212. 
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    Objective To investigate the auxoaction and mechanism of CD11 c+DCs on psoriasis. Method:CD11 c+DCs in the psoriasis-like lesions were identified by immunofluorescence double staining experiments. The CD11 c+DCs were injected subcutaneously into the neck skin of transgenic mice without disease. The clinical features were observed and assessed with PASI score every day. The ear and back skin were HE stained. At the same time, the T lymphocyte and DCs of bone marrow, spleen, submandibular lymph nodes and blood were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the T lymphocyte in the skin lesions were analyzed by immunofluorescence. The heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kindey were HE stained. Results In the psoriasis-like lesions, about 90% FLT3+ cells expressed CD11c. HE test showed that the thickness of the skin layer was significant different between the experimental group (ear: 29±4 μm; back: 25±3 μm) and the control group(ear: 11±2 μm; back: 9±1 μm)(P<0.01). CD3+CD4+ T lymphocyte cells in the blood of the experimental mice (17.87 %) were decreased significantly (P <0.01) compared with the control group mice (31.77 %). The numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells from bone marrow, spleen, submaxillary lymph nodes and blood, as the same as CD11 c+DCs from bone marrow and submaxillary lymph nodes, were decreased in the experimental mice compared with the control group mice (P <0.01). The number of CD4+T cells,CD8+T cells,IL-17a+cells and IFN-γ+cells in the skin lesions from the experimental group all were higher than that from the control group (P <0.01). And the vessels in the lesions of the experimental group were higher than that in the control group (P <0.01). Conclusion FLT3+CD11c+DCs may play an important role on the occurrence and development of psoriasis by increasing the T lymphocyte and the blood vessel in the skins of K14-VEGF transgenic mice.
    High fat diet-induced elevation of blood glucose impairs the microvascular function of testis in mice
    2018, 38(2):  213-217. 
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    High fat diet-induced elevation of blood glucose impairs the microvascular function of testis in C57BL/6 mice ZHANG Xiao-yan, LI Bing-wei, SHANG Fei, LIU Shu-ying, SHENG You-ming, LI Hong-wei, XIU Rui-juan1* (Institute of Microcirculation, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences , Key Laboratory of Microcirculation, Ministry of Health, CAMS & PUMC, Beijing, 100005, China) Abstract:Objective To observe the effects of high fat diet-induced elevation of blood glucose on the microvascular function of testis and male reproduction in C57BL/6 mice. Methods A total of 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group and high fat group(High Fat Diet,HFD),n = 20. The mice in control group were fed with normal diet, and the mice in HFD group were fed with high fat diet for 20 weeks. Blood glucose and body weight were measured weekly. Testicular blood testosterone barrier permeability was evaluated by intraperitoneal injection of Evans blue. The blood flow of testicular microcirculation and the testicular microvascular vasomotion were detected by laser Doppler blood flow imaging system. The expression of CD31 on testicular microvascular endothelial cells was detected by HE staining and immunohistochemistry. The proliferation and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells were observed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling) staining. Results The body weight and blood glucose of HFD group were significantly higher than those in control group (P <0.01). Evans blue staining showed that the integrity of blood testis barrier of HFD group was damaged, and red fluorescent substance was observed in seminiferous tubules. In HFD group, the mean blood flow of testis and the frequency and amplitude of microvascular vasomotion were significantly lower than those in control group(P<0.01). HE staining showed that the number of spermatogenic epithelial cells and the thickness of seminiferous epithelium were decreased than those in control group. The expression of CD31 in microvascular endothelial cells was significantly lower in HFD group than that in control group (P<0.01). The expression of PCNA expression in spermatogenic cells was lower than that in the control group (P <0.05), and the apoptosis level evaluated by TUNEL staining was higher than that in the control group (P <0.05). Conclusion Increased blood glucose level induced by high fat diet in mice can impair the testicular microvasculature and damage the integrity of blood testosterone barrier and injure the structure of seminiferous epithelium in mice.
    Role of Treg in the immune pathogenesis of subacute thyroiditis
    2018, 38(2):  218-223. 
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    Objective To explore the role of regulatory T-lymphocytes(Treg) in the immune pathogenesis of subacute thyroiditis(SAT). Methods The proportion of Treg in CD4+T cells in peripheral blood of 46 SAT patients and 15 controls was detected using flow cytometry. And the concentration of interleukin-10(IL-10), transforming growth factor-beta1(TGF-β1) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in serum of 46 SAT patients and 15 controls was measured with ELISA. In addition, the Forkhead box protein 3(Foxp3) positive cells in thyroid tissue of 29 SAT patients and 20 controls was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results The proportion of Treg in peripheral blood of SAT patients was significantly lower than that of controls (P<0.05). And the concentration of TGF-β1 in serum of SAT patients was apparently higher than that of controls(P<0.05). Additionally, the positive rate of Foxp3 in thyroid tissue of SAT patients was markedly higher than that of controls(P<0.05). Conclusions The decrease of Treg may play an important role in the immune pathogenesis of SAT.
    Overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase inhibits myocardial apoptosis induced by anoxia/reoxigenation in rats
    2018, 38(2):  224-228. 
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    Objective To investigate the Effects of human telomerase reverse transcriptase on myocardial apoptosis induced by Anoxia/Reoxigenation in rats. Methods Adenovirus mediated transfection of TERT gene into myocardial cells of neonatal rats, lentivirus-mediated siRNA silencing the TERT. To investigate the protective effects of human telomerase reverse transcriptase on myocardial Anoxia/Reoxigenation injury in rats. Results The apoptosis rate of A/Ro group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Compared with the A/Ro group, TERT over-expression group could significantly reduce the rate of apoptosis, and over-expression of TERT decreased the expression of CytC gene and increased the expression of P21 gene in cardiomyocytes(P<0.05). Conclusions Over expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase inhibits myocardial apoptosis induced by A/Ro. The mechanism is related to the regulation to the expression of P21 and CytC genes.
    Culture and identification of mouse submandibular epithelial cells in vitro
    2018, 38(2):  229-232. 
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    Objective To establish a culture method of mouse submandibular epithelial cells and to explore the optimal isolation and culture conditions so as to provide an in vitro experimental model for cell biology study and drug evaluation of salivary gland related diseases such as sj?gren's syndrome. Methods Collagenase type IV was used to digest and isolate the submandibular cells of mice. And the survival rate of cells was determined by trypan blue staining. After purified by differential attachment method, the cells were cultured in F-12/DMEM medium containing 10 μg/L epidermal growth factor. Optical microscope was applied to observe the morphology of the cultured cells and the cell proliferation feature was estimated by proliferation curve. In addition, immunofluorescence staining was conducted to identify the cells. Results The cell survival rate obtained by collagenase digestion was 97.5%. The morphology characteristic showed the typical epithelioid with polygon in the arrangement of typical “pebble stone” appearance. The cells were stable in growth with active proliferation according to the proliferation curve and could be subcultured to three passages. Immunofluorescence results showed that the expression of cytokeratin 8 was positive while vimentin was negative, which was consistent with the phenotypic characteristics of salivary gland cells. Conclusions The method of primary culture and subculture of mouse submandibular epithelial cells was successfully established. The method is simple and convenient, which provide a technical basis for further experimental study.
    Progress on the relationship between lncRNA-CCAT1 and gastrointestinal cancer
    2018, 38(2):  237-240. 
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    Colon cancer associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) is a kind of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) found recently, which is aberrant overexpression in colorectal cancer, and it can promote cancer cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. CCAT1 involves in the regulation of multiple pathophysiological processes, especially the formation and progression of gastrointestinal cancer, through the interaction with microRNA (miRNA) or protein by regulation mechanism like endogenous competition, and it is expected to serve as a valuable biomarker and therapeutic target.
    Mechanism and progress of the research on the treatment of bacterial infection with bacteriophage lysin
    2018, 38(2):  241-245. 
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    Bacteriophage lysin has high stability, wide bactericidal, strong antibacterial properties and safty. It is able to lysis bacteria specifically and is not susceptible to bacterial resistance. In the presence of phage, phage infecting bacteria and coding for endolysin then it lysis the bacteria from interior, In the absence of the phage, holin assists the endolysin lysis the bacteria from external. In addition, the research progress on the treatment of gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was also discussed in this paper.
    Immunotherapy of targeting at tumor stem cells
    2018, 38(2):  246-250. 
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    Tumor stem cells (TSCs), because of its close relations to occurrence, development, metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance of tumor, is considered by research commnity as root cause of the tumor cells. In other words, The key way to cure tumor may be to eradicate TSCs. The traditional surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy not only have rare effect in killing TSCs, but also result in recurrence and metastasis easily. However, TSCs can definitely killed by the immunotherapy targeting TSCs, for instance, targeting the surface antigens of TSCs’, T cells targeting the TSCs, differentiation therapy and so on.
    Research progress on exosomes in promoting bone regeneration
    2018, 38(2):  251-254. 
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    Exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin, have attracted attention in bone regeneration field. The vesicles travel between cells and deliver functional cargoes, such as proteins and RNAs, thereby regulating targeted cells differentiation, commitment, function, and proliferation. Exosomes directly regulate MSCs into the osteoblastic lineage, stimulate bone regeneration by directly regulating osteoblast proliferation and activity, regulate osteoclast maturation and activity and stimulate bone growth and regeneration by increasing vessel formation.Meantime, exosomes resolves toxicity and immunogenicity problems caused by biomaterial treatment.Furthermore, compared with living cell transplantation, exosomes present a lower risk for severe complication(such as tumors, emboli formation).
    Research advances of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow in myelodysplastic syndrome
    2018, 38(2):  255-259. 
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    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) comprise a group of clonal hematological malignancies characterized by bone marrow (BM) ineffective hematopoiesis and increased risk for progression to acute myeloid leukemia. The altered BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. Compared to normal MSC, MSC in MDS often exhibit altered Cytogenetic, epigenetic, differentiation and functional properties , moreover, high MSC density is associated with poor risk independent of known prognostic factors, which translated into a significantly diminished ability to support normal hematopoiesis, facilitates survival of malignant hematopoietic cells, ultimately promote disease progression and transform to acute myeloid leukemia.Therefore, Characterization of key steps in the pathogenesis of MDS will lead to new approaches to treat patients with this disease.
    Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pathogenesis of liver disease
    2018, 38(2):  260-264. 
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    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is an important cellular self-protection mechanism. It can activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) that promotes cell survival, but sustained ERS will lead to cell apoptosis. There are a lot of endoplasmic reticulum in the liver cells, and many liver-related diseases are associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease, toxic liver injury, viral hepatitis, hepatic malignant tumors and hepatic ischemia-perfusion injury. This article will summarize the role of ERS in the pathogenesis of liver-related diseases and the significance of intervention in liver disease.
    Implementation of literature case study in clinical epidemiology teaching reformation for medical students of the eight-year medical education program
    2018, 38(2):  265-268. 
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    In order to improve the teaching quality of the clinical epidemiology course for medical students of the eight-year medical education program in Peking Union Medical College, and foster the practice of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), the Clinical Epidemiology Unit of PUMCH (PUMCH-CEU) borrowed successful experience from foreign faculties and conducted a teaching reform. In addition to theory teaching, PUMCH-CEU incorporated literature case study and assignments into the course, so as to improve students’ understanding about the design, measurement, and evaluation of clinical research. The execution of a well-designed reformation plan has led to a great success of this course, as well as fruitful achievements.
    Application of simulation training for central venous catherteriazation in emergency depatment
    2018, 38(2):  269-271. 
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    Objection To compared the effect between simulaion training and traditional training on central venous cathertrization(CVC). Methods Forty emergency residents came from a teaching hospital were selected during May 2016 to May 2017, and they were randomly assigned into two groups:simulation group(SG)and traditional group(TG). After the training they must completed one CVC and filled in a questionaire. The success rate、puncture time、trail time and complication rate between the two groups were compared. Results There were 18 students on tradional group(TG) and 19 students on simulation group(SG) who completed the whole procedure(complete the procedure independently and filled in the questionaire). The success rate of SG and TG were 73.7% and 33.3% respectively(P<0.05).the lengthen of procedure was (21.3±4)min on SG and (31.3±5.9)min on TG, The trail times were (2.1±1 )on SG and (4.5±1)on TG, the complication rate was 16%±37% on SG and 38%±50% on TG, compared with TG, the lengthen of procedure on SG was significantly shortened(p<0.05),the trail times on SG were significantly reduced(p<0.05) and the complication rate was significantly decreased(P<0.05). Conclusions Compared with traditional training , the simulation training significantly improved the success rate of CVC,shortened the lengthen of procedure ,decreased the trail times and complication rate. It deserved teaching hospitals to popularizeing on standardized training for resident physicians.
    Small-class teaching in chemical biology
    2018, 38(2):  272-275. 
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    Chemical biology is a new discipline developed in recent years, which is originated from chemistry and has a high degree of cross between medicine and biology. Chemical biology courses in Peking Union Medical College for the graduate students use the small-class teaching mode, combining teaching theory with case discussion. This paper analyzes the present situation of chemical biology’s course development, and summarizes the characteristics of the small-class teaching mode, as well as the practical experience of small-class teaching in the chemical biology course.
    Attitudes of 8-year program medical students to concept mapping after the pharmacology teaching/learning practice and analysis of the learning readiness for students
    2018, 38(2):  276-280. 
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    Concept mapping is a new method to help learners organize their knowledge with a visual semantic network. In the process of Pharmacology teaching concept mapping are used as a teaching tool and a learning tool, respectively. Then a survey was conducted on 8-year program medical students to obtain information regarding students attitude towards concept mapping in Pharmacology teaching and learning as well as their learning readiness. The authors hope the information will play a direction role for the teaching activity in the future and make Pharmacology teaching contents and methods meet the knowledge requirement and learning readiness of medical students.
    Necessity of traditional blackboard in medical genetics teaching in the information age
    2018, 38(2):  281-283. 
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    With the rapid development of multimedia teaching, this article is to explore the necessity of traditional blackboard in the teaching of medical genetics. Multimedia is not a versatile teaching model, and the drawbacks of the single teaching method are increasingly prominent. This article mainly discusses that how blackboard teaching effectively makes up for the deficiencies of multimedia teaching, from the four parts including the integrity of knowledge system, deductive teaching, teaching flexibility and the interaction between teacher and student. Therefore, the traditional blackboard possesses unique teaching advantages and is very important in the teaching of medical genetics. Only the reasonable combination of the two teaching methods together will sufficiently improve the effectiveness of classroom teaching.
    Assessment and analysis of influencing factors of patients’ satisfaction with perioperative anesthetic care
    2018, 38(2):  284-288. 
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    Objective To introduce and revise the Patient Satisfaction with Perioperative Anesthetic Care questionnaire (PSPACq). To assess the patient satisfaction with perioperative anesthetic care and to analysis the influencing factors. Methods Translation and culture adaptation were used for PSPACq, then the questionnaire was applied to three hundred and eighty patients after selective operation. The reliability and validity of the simplified Chinese version was evaluated. To evaluate the patient satisfaction with perioperative anesthetic care and to analysis the influencing factors. Results The Cronbach’s α coefficient was employed to evaluate the internal reliability, which was 0.935. The content validity index(CVI)was 0.933. The total score of patient satisfaction with perioperative anesthetic care was (4.28±0.45). The factor “discomfort and needs” had gotten the highest score(4.68±0.67), and the factor “fear” had gotten the lowest score (3.56±0.79). Patients with different characteristics had different satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis showed that marriage, previous anesthetics and anesthesia methods are the main influencing factors(P <0.05). Conclusions Simplified Chinese version PSPACq could be used to evaluate and analysis patient’s satisfaction with perioperative anesthetic care. It is possible to improve patient’s satisfaction by taking effective measures depending on the influencing factors.