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Table of Content

    05 March 2018, Volume 38 Issue 3
    Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease
    2018, 38(3):  289-293. 
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    Genetic studies show that there are multiple of genes involved in pahtogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Biochemistry, molecular cell biology and transgenic modeling have already uncovered some of its molecular mechanisms; the development of chemistry, radiology and systems biology is beginning to provide useful biomarkers, and the current situation of pharmaceutical development and clinical trials have been expected to change owning to the emergence of personalized medicine. However, in consideration of multifactoriality of the disease, we should try different ways. In this review, we make a brief discussion of the most common types of dementia.
    Connecting Alzheimer's disease to diabetes: Underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets
    2018, 38(3):  294-298. 
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    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes(T2D) and vice versa, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these diseases are connected both at epidemiological, clinical and molecular levels. Recent studies have begun to reveal common pathogenic mechanisms shared by AD and type 2 diabetes. Impaired neuronal insulin signaling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are present in animal models of AD, similar to observations in peripheral tissue in T2D. These findings shed light into mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction of AD in T2D patients. Here, we review the literatures on selected mechanisms shared between these diseases and discuss how the identification of such mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic targets in AD.
    Homeostatic interplay between electrical activity and neuronal apoptosis in the developing neocortex
    2018, 38(3):  299-303. 
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    An interesting feature of neural development in most animal species is that the number of neurons initially produced is greater than the number of neurons belonging to the mature circuits. In the first two weeks after birth, a significant number of neurons were eliminated in a short period of time by apoptosis. Although we have been very clear that in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), neurotrophic factors and apoptosis play an important role in controlling the neurons survival, but the situation in central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. In the rodent cortex, the peak of apoptosis coincides with spontaneous, synchronous neural activity pattern. In this article, we review the recent research results, these studies proved the important role of electrical activity in the brain cortex neuron survival, describes the role of Ca2+ and neurotrophic factors in translating electrical activity into pro-survival signals, and finally discuss the clinical impact of the tight relation between electrical activity and apoptosis of neurons.
    Nutritional factors affecting adult neurogenesis and cognitive function
    Yan Zhang
    2018, 38(3):  304-307. 
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    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol consumption and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging.
    Expression of miR-207 was up-regulated in renal and urine of rats with renal fibrosis
    2018, 38(3):  308-311. 
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    Objective To investigate the differential expression of miR-207 in urine samples and kidneys of rat renal fibrosis (renal fibrosis, RF) model and its function was investigated. Methods The rats were divided into two groups, including one undergoing ligation of the right ureter as UUO rat model, the other just under the same surgery but not ligation the ureters as shamed rat model. Real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of miR-207 in kidney and urine of rat renal fibrosis model. The function of miR-207 was investigated with transfection of miR-207 mimics and inhibitor to the rat renal tubular epithelial cells NRK-52E. Results miR-207 expression in urine and kidney tissues of rat renal fibrosis model was upregulated(P<0.05). miR-207 increased the expression of gene related to fibrosis in rats renal tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells. Conclusions miR-207 might play an important role in renal fibrosis and provide a potential possibility for the diagnosis of renal fibrosis.
    ADAR1 up-regulates ZNF655 expression via RNA editing and enhances HBV replication in HepG2 cell line
    2018, 38(3):  312-316. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of ADAR1 on ZNF655 and the regulation of ZNF655 on the expression of HBV. Methods Sanger sequencing was used to validate the 3 'UTR region of ZNF655 was edited by ADAR1. The expression of ADAR1 and ZNF655 mRNA as well as HBV RNA were detected by RT-qPCR. Dual luciferase report plasmid assay was used to detect the expression of luciferase. To detect the expression of ADAR1 and ZNF655 protein by Western blot. HBsAg and HBeAg was detected by ELISA. Results The chr7:99575277 loci on ZNF655 3 'UTR was homozygous in DNA level and hybrid in RNA level. On the 3'UTR editing site of ZNF655,the luciferase activity of the edited G allele was significantly higher than that of the normal A allele (P<0. 001). The expression of ZNF655 was upregulated by ADAR1 in the level of transcription and translation (P<0. 01).ZNF655 significantly promoted the expression of HBV. Conclusions The chr7:99575277 loci on ZNF655 3 'UTR is edited by ADAR1, promoting the the expression of ZNF655, which upregualated the the expression of HBV.
    Estabilshment and identification of an asymmetric dividing cell line derived from mouse Lewis lung cancer cells
    2018, 38(3):  317-323. 
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    Objective To establish an asymmetric dividing cell line(LLC-ASD cells) derived from mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cancer cells( LLC-parental cells), and to investigate its stemness features in order to lay a foundation for depth studying the function of asymmetric dividing in the cancer biology. Methods In order to obtain asymmetrically dividing LLC cells (LLC-ASD cells) derived from LLC-Parental cells, 8 times of consecutive culture, enrichment and collection of floating spheriod forming cells followed by 5 times of consecutive single cell cloning were conducted. Immunofluorescence assay was used to visualize and quantify the rate of asymmetric division in LLC-ASD cells labeled by BrdU. For comparing the stem characteristics of LLC-Parental and LLC-ASD, RT-qPCR, clonogenic assay in 6-well plate,single cell spheroid formation assay with agar in 6-well plate and 96-well-plate single cell cloning assay were conducted. In vivo, LLC-parental cells and LLC-ASD cells were subcutaneously transplanted in nude mice to determine the effect of the difference in stem cell like properties on tumorigeneicy. The same lung transplantation into tumor experiment in mice were used to compare the differences in cancer biology characteristics. Results Asysmmetric dividing cells were found in LLC-ASD cell culture through the BrdU immunofluorescence assay and the rate of asymmetric division in the anaphase cells was as high as 50%。According to the clonogenic assay in 6-well plate,single cell spheroid formation assay with agar in 6-well plate and 96-well-plate single cell cloning assay in LLC-ASD cells, the results showed that they were more prominent than those in the LLC-Parental cells(P <0.05). In vivo, the tumor metastatic ability of LLC-ASD was enhanced than that of LLC-parental when transplanted to the C57 mice. Further, the tumorigenic ability of LLC-ASD cells was also increased compared to that of LLC-parental cells when subcutaneously transplanted to the nude mice. Conclusions The asymmetric dividing cell line derived from mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cancer cell line (LLC-ASD cells) is established which exhibits stemness properties. The establishment and characterization of this model will facilitate the studies of the function of asymmetric cell dividing in cancer biology .
    Determination of oxybutynin concentration in rabbit plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to bioequivalence evaluation
    2018, 38(3):  324-329. 
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    Objective To develop and validate a LC-MS/MS method to quantify oxybutynin in rabbit plasma and evaluate the bioequivalence of self-prepared oxybutynin chloride gel and Gelnique. Methods The plasma sample was submitted to liquid–liquid extraction using methyl t-butyl ether after alkalified by 0.5mol/L NaOH, with diphenhydramine as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column with the mobile phase consisting of 10mmol/L ammonium acetate (1‰formic acid)–acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). Oxybutynin and diphenhydramine were ionized with an ESI source operated in positive ion mode, and the detected ions were m/z358→142 (oxybutynin),m/z256→167(diphenhydramine). The validated method was then applied to the drug determination in rabbit plasma following single dermal topical administration of oxybutynin gel. Results Calibration curve was liner over the concentration range of 1~200 μg/L in rabbit plasma. For quality control samples, the intra- and inter-day precision was in the range of 1.67%~9.79%, and accuracy was within 92.9% to 103%. Self-prepared oxybutynin chloride gel and Gelnique were proved to be bioequivalent. Conclusions It was validated that the LC-MS/MS method is simple, strong specificity and high sensitivity, which could be successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study and bioequivalence evaluation of transdermal oxybutynin formulations in rabbit.
    Effects of miR-143 target-regulating ER-α36 on the invasion of gastric cancer cell line SGC 7901
    2018, 38(3):  330-334. 
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    Objective: To investigate the effects of ER-α36 on invasion of human gastric cancer cell lines SGC7901 by miR-143. Methods: Lentiviral vectors were constructed to generate up-and down-regulations of miR-143 lentiviruses (LV-miR-143 and LV-anti-miR-143, respectively).The viruses were used to infect human gastric cancer cell lines SGC7901.The ER-α36 protein expression level and the invasion ability of constructed cells were detected by Western blotting and transwell. The target gene of miR-143 was predicted by bioinformatics tools. Luciferase reporter assay was carried out to confirm the predicted target gene. Results: The infection efficiency of the lentivirus titers of LV-miR-143 and LV-anti-miR-143 were over 80% by the observation of green fluorescence. The ER-α36 expression level, the cell invasion ability in LV-miR-21 group were significantly lower than those in LV-anti-miR-21 group(p<0.05). Conclusions: miR-143 plays an important role in the negative control of gastric cancer invasion by the regulation of ER-α36.
    Preparation of antibody against mouse UPF1 and the expression of UPF1 in adipose cell differentiation
    2018, 38(3):  335-339. 
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    Objective To prepare polyclonal antibodies against mouse UPF1 protein and to investigate the expression of UPF1 protein during adipocyte differentiation. Methods UPF1 protein expression vector was constructed to prepare and purify rabbit UPF1 antibody. The differentation of 3T3-L1 cells were induced and to the expression of UPF1 was detected by CoIP. Results 1) High specific mUPF1 polyclonal antibody was prepared and the titer of this antibody reached 640000; 2) The expression of UPF1 protein does not change during adipogenesis; 3) In the process of adipocyte differentiation , interaction of UPF1 and UPF2 is increased. Conclusions 1) The polyclonal antibodies prepared by using 550 amino acids at the C terminal of mUPF1 protein could effectively recognize intact mUPF1 protein; 2)The interaction of UPF1 protein with UPF2 protein during adipocyte differentiation was enhanced.
    Orexin-B inhibits cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats
    2018, 38(3):  340-343. 
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    Objective To study the neuroprotective effect of Orexin-B on rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and its molecular mechanism. Methods The artery occlusion model of male Wister rats (Middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAO) was established which has been ischemic 2h and reperfusion 24h. Rats were randomly divided into Sham group (Sham), ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R), ischemia-reperfusion +PBS group (I/R+PBS), and ischemia-reperfusion +Orexin -B group (I/R+OXB). The neurological deficit scores were processed to inclusion and exclusion. Infarct size was determined by TTC staining; Using western blot, the expressions of Orexin receptor 2,p-AKT, p-GSK-3β proteins in hippocampus were detected; Jumping test was used to detect learning and memory abilities in rats. Results Orexin-B significantly reduce the volume of cerebral infarction in TTC staining; Orexin-B group was significantly increased the expression of Orexin Receptor 2as well as p-AKT,which decreased p-GSK-3β (P<0.05), compared with the untreated group. Furthmore, the Orexin-B treated group can improve the latency period and decline the mistakes in rat Jumping test (P<0.05). Conclusions The neuroprotective effect of Orexin-B in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury may enhance p-AKT activity and inhibit p-GSK-3β activity, which might increase the proliferation of neurons and improve the cerebral blood glucose concentration.
    LIMK1 takes part in the regulation of Aurora-A-localization on spindle during mouse oocyte meiosis
    2018, 38(3):  344-349. 
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    Objective To investigate the sub-cellular distribution correlation between activated LIMK1 (pLIMK1Thr508) and Aurora-A in mouse oocyte meiosis, and changes in Aurora-A location and spindle structure in condition of LIMK1 inhibition. Methods Immunofluorescence staining was employed to detect the sub-cellular localization of pLIMK1Thr508 and its spatial-temporal correlation with spindle organizing regulator Aurora-A in mouse oocyte meiosis; BMS-3, the specific inhibitor to LIMK1 activity, was applied to analyze the effects of LIMK1 inhibition on Aurora-A distribution and spindle formation. Results At meiotic prophase, pLIMK1Thr508 was weakly detected and concentrated in the germinal vesicle (GV) in oocytes, with no signal of Aurora-A across the cytoplasm and nuclear area; as meiotic assumption approaching, pLIMK1Thr508 left nuclear, aggregating as a single dense dote in the vicinity of nuclear, and being co-localized with the emerging Aurora-A; After germinal vesicle broke down (GVBD), pLIMK1Thr508 and Aurora-A remained overlapped and concentrated as multi foci around the condensed chromosomes; at metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII), pLIMK1Thr508 was co-localized with Aurora-A on spindle poles; During anaphase I (AI) to telophase I (Tel I) progression, pLIMK1Thr508 was detached from spindle poles and mainly concentrated on the cleavage furrow, while Aurora-A loosely congressed on spindle. In addition, LIMK1 inhibition with BMS-3 destroyed Aurora-A polar location and spindle formation. Conclusions pLIMK1Thr508 is a microtubule organizing center (MTOC)-associated protein, may participate in spindle assembly and maintenance through regulating Aurora-A in mouse oocytes during meiotic progression.
    Altered expression of RCAN1/CaNA in temporal lobe epilepsy patients and pentylenetetrazol-induced rats model
    2018, 38(3):  350-354. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) and calcineurin A (CaNA) in brain tissue of temporal lobe (TLE) epilepsy patients and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced rat model. Methods Cortical samples from 18 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were collected as epilepsy group and cortical samples from 11 patients with brain trauma were used as control group. 30 SD rats were randomly divided into model control group (MC) and PTZ group. The expression of RCAN1 and CaNA in human brain cortex, rat cortex and rat hippocampus were detected by Western blot and Immunohistochemistry assay. The location analysis of RCAN1 was detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation was used to test whether there was an interaction between RCAN1 and CaNA. Results RCAN1 mainly located in neuronal cytomembrane. The expression of RCAN1 was down-regulated and expression of CaNA was up-regulated both in the epileptic patients and epileptic rats (P<0.01). RCAN1 interacted with CaNA. Conclusions Decreased expression of RCAN1 and increased expression of CaNA indicate that RCAN1 may be involved in the epileptogenesis by regulating CaNA.
    Overexpression of TCF2 ameliorates insulin resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2
    2018, 38(3):  355-360. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of TCF2 overexpression on insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. Methods HepG2 cells were treated with high concentration of insulin (1×10-8 mol/L) for 24 hours to induce insulin resistance (IR). Cells were divided into four groups: control group, IR group, IR+vector group and IR+TCF2 overexpression group. RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to detect the expression of TCF2. Glucose consumption and glycogen synthesis were assayed by glucose oxidase method and anthrone method, respectively. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The activities of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were detected by colorimetry. The protein level of IRS-1 and GLUT4 was detected by Western blot. Results Compared with control group, the decreased glucose consumption was observed in IR group (P<0.05), indicating that insulin-resistance model was established successfully. The mRNA and protein expression of TCF2 was remarkably down-regulated in IR group compared with control group. Compared with IR group, overexpression of TCF2 significantly improved glucose consumption, liver glycogen content, and the activities of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase (P<0.05). Moreover, TCF2 overexpression up-regulated the protein expression of IRS-1 and GLUT4 (P<0.05). Conclusion TCF2 overexpression ameliorates insulin resistance of HepG2 cells.
    Selenium and benazepril inhibit renal interstitial fibrosis in rat with unilateral ureteral obstruction
    2018, 38(3):  361-369. 
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    Objective To compare and study the protective effect of the sodium selenite and benazepril on renal interstitial fibrosis(RIF) in rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction(UUO) and its mechanism . Methods The male SD of clean grade rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group, UUO group (UUO model was established by ligating unilateral ureter), UUO+ sodium selenite group group(sodium selenite 0.2mg/kg?d gavage), UUO+ benazepril group (benazepril 10mg/kg?d gavage), with 18 in each group.At day 7,14 and 21 after the treatment, 6 rats selected randomly from each group were killed.The extent of RIF was evaluated by HE and Masson staining of the renal tissue. The expression of connective tissue growth factor(CTGF),transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1),alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) and III collagen( Col III ) were detected by Immunohistochemical method.The protein expression of CTGF and TGF-β1 were detected by western blotting. Chemical colorimetric method was used to detected the contents of supper oxide dismutase (SOD) ,malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH -px) in renal cortex. Results The extent of RIF and the expression of CTGF,TGF-β1, α-SMA and Col III in renal cortex were significantly lower in sodium selenite group and benazepril group at day 7,14 and 21 after the operation compared with that in UUO group(P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). In sodium selenite group and benazepril group ,the contents of SOD and GSH -px in renal cortex were higher significantly than those in UUO group at day 7,14 and 21 after the operation respectively(P<0.05),but the MDA in renal cortex was significantly decreased(P﹤0.05).There were no significant differences in the indexes between the two groups of sodium selenite and benazepril. The expression of CTGF,TGF-β1, α-SMA ,Col III and the extent of RIF were positively correlated to the level of MDA in UUO group (P ﹤0.05,respectively), and negatively correlated to the level of SOD and GSH-Px(P ﹤0.05,respectively). The expression of CTGF was positively correlated to the expression of α-SMA and Col III in UUO group(P <0.05).The expression of CTGF、a-SMA and ColⅢ were positively correlated to RIF in UUO group (P <0.05). Conclusions Sodium selenite and benazepril can reduce the extent of RIF in rat model with unilateral ureteral obstruction.
    GKN2 transfection inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cell line MKN28
    2018, 38(3):  370-374. 
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    Objective GKN2(gastrokines 2) protein expression is detected in gastric cancer tissues, the distal gastric mucosa tissues and the adjacent normal gastric tissues; the effect of GKN2 overexpression is displayed on proliferation, migration and invasion in human gastric cancer cell line MKN28. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to observe GKN2 expression in gastric cancinoma tissues, adjacent gastric mucosa tissues and distal gastric mucosa tissues. Then, the GKN2 gene eukaryotic expression vector Xhol_GKN3SP-hGKN2-TEV-SBP_Xhol was transfected into human gastric cancinoma MKN28 cells. Western blot was used to verify the expression of GKN2 in MKN28 cells. Cell viability, migration and invasion ability were investigated by MTT, Transwell migration assay and Transwell invasion assay. Results GKN2 expression in gastric cancinoma tissues (6.67%,6/90) lowered in comparison with those in the adjacent normal gastric tissues (43.75%,21/48) or distal gastric mucosa tissues (83.36%,19/22) respectively (P < 0.05). The viability of MKN28 cells was significantly inhibited after transfected by GKN2 vs untransfected cells (P < 0.05). GKN2 overexpression decreased the cells’ number passing through both the membrane and matrigel, compared to those of untransfected cells(P < 0.05). Conclusions Downregulation of GKN2 protein expression is associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer; GKN2 overexpression can suppress the proliferation, migration and invasion of MKN28 cells.
    Targeting knockout of DMD gene exon51 in HEK293T cell based on CRISPR/Cas9 system
    2018, 38(3):  375-380. 
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    Objective To target knockout the exon51 of DMD gene in HEK293T cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Methods Design the target sequences of sgRNA and clone them into plasmid PX459 respectively; transfer these plasmids into HEK293T cell and extract the total genome DNA; test the activity of sgRNAs with surveyor assay, choose the most efficient one in each end; construct plasmid PX459-2sgRNA and transfer it into HEK293T cells; check whether the exon51 has been knocked known with PCR and T vector sequencing. Results 50% of HEK293T cells’ DMD gene exon51 were knocked out, showing a high gene editing efficiency. Conclusion Successfully establish a platform to target knockout the exon51 of DMD gene, provide an important experimental basis for the treatment of DMD and other genetic diseases.
    Up-regulation of GABAAα1 in ventrolateral periaqueductal gray in rats is associated with formalin-induced acute pain
    2018, 38(3):  381-384. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor α1 subunit ( GABAAα1 ) in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray ( vLPAG ) in rats with formalin-induced acute pain. Methods The rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group ( group C ) and formalin-induced pain group (group F),12 rats in each group: 0.9% sodium chloride solution or 2% formaldehyde 50 μL was injected into the ventral surface of right hind paw respectively. The pain scores were recorded for every 5 minutes and the mechanical pain threshold were recorded for every 10 minutes until 1 h. The expression levels of GABAAα1 in vLPAG were determined by Western blotting analysis in each group. Results The rats in formalin group showed significant nociceptive behaviors immediately, such as paw withdrawal and/or paw licking. Results demonstrated that the rats exhibited a biphasic response to pain. The pain behavior scores in group F were significantly higher than that in group C ( P <0.05 ), and the mechanical pain threshold in group F was decreased after injection compared with group C ( P <0.05 ). The expression of GABAAα1 protein in group F was significantly higher than that in group C ( P <0.05 ). Conclusion The up-regulation of GABAAα1 expression in ventrolateral periaqueductal gray is associated with the decrease of pain threshold in rats with acute pain.
    Incidence and etiology of stent associated respiratory tract infection caused by coated metal and silicone airway stents
    2018, 38(3):  385-389. 
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    Objective To investigate the incidence and bacterial etiology of stent associated respiratory tract infection (SARTI) caused by two types of airway stents. Methods Silicone and coated metal airway stent were placed for patients with central airway stenosis caused by varied pathologies. The incidence of stent related respiratory tract infection, bacteria etiology of SARTI and improved dyspnea score were compared between two groups receiving different airway stent. Results 1) Totally 171 patients received airway stents, and among them, 39 patients (22.81%) developed SARTI. 2) The incidence of SARTI in metal stent group and silicone stent group was 29.21% (26/89) vs. 15.85% (13/82), P<0.05; 3) Bacterial spectrum of SARTI was different in metal and silicone stent groups: staphylococcus aureuswas 38.46% vs. 69.23%, respectively; candida albicans was 23.08% vs. 0%, respectively; Singular proteus was 7.26% vs. 0%, respectively; 4) The narrowed lumen was improved from 74.27%±7.13% to 17.64%±6.22% in the metal stent group, while the data was improved from 74.94%±9.18% to 12.68%±8.32% in the silicone stent group (P<0.01). Accordingly, the dyspnea symptomscore was improvedfrom 2.85±0.89 to 0.85±0.68 in metal stent group, and from 2.88±0.91 to 0±0.61 in the silicone stent group (P<0.05). Conclusions Compared with metal airway stents, silicone stents had a lower incidence of SARTI, which mightbe due to the projections in the silicon stent surface and wider expanded in the bronchial stenosis.
    Effects of dexmedetomidine combined with butorphanol on postoperative analgesia and recovery in cesarean section
    2018, 38(3):  390-393. 
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    Objective The present study was designed to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine combined with butorphanol on postoperative analgesia and recovery for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) in parturients undergoing cesarean section. Methods Eighty-four parturients scheduled for elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups. Control group: physiological saline infusion (0.5 ?g/kg) after delivery and butorphanol (10 mg) in PCIA. Experimental group: dexmedetomidine (0.5 ?g/kg ) infusion after delivery and dexmedetomidine (200 ?g) with butorphanol (10 mg) in PCIA. Hemodynamic variables, the visual analogue score (VAS), the sedation score, side effects, the total pump-press number and additional analgesics cases were recorded. The quality of recovery was evaluated by using a 40-item quality of recovery questionnaire (QoR-40) and a 9 questions fatigue score (FFS). Results Compared with control group, the VAS scores, the total pump-press number, the incidence of side effects and the FSS scores in experimental group was significantly decreased (P <0.05). In addition, the QoR-40 score at POD3 was significantly increased (P <0.05). Conclusions Dexmedetomidine combined with butorphanol for PCIA after caesarean section decreases the consumption of butorphanol, promotes postoperative analgesia, alleviates fatigue, and improves postoperative recovery.
    FXR expression is associated with the prognosis and pathological staging of patients with pancreatic cancer
    2018, 38(3):  394-399. 
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    Objective To explore the correlation between Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) and clinical stage and survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods The total protein and mRNA were extracted from cultured 8 pancreatic cancer cell lines, and the expression level of FXR in pancreatic cancer cells was detected by Western Bolt and Real-Time PCR. We Collected 5 cases of normal pancreatic tissue and 50 cases of pancreatic cancer tissues, and used immunohistochemistry method to detect FRX expression in normal pancreatic tissue and pancreatic cancer. According to the different expression level of FXR, these 50 patients were divided into low expression group and high expression group, and the correlation of clinical data and FRX expression level was analyzed. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis of prognostic factors was assessed in a multivariable analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results FXR was differently expressed in 8 pancreatic cancer cell lines and pancreatic cancer tissues. FXR was closely related to the pathological G stage of pancreatic cancer (P<0.05). FXR and pathological G stage were significantly correlated with the patients’ survival time. The survival time of the patients with high FXR expression was significantly longer than that of patients with low FXR expression (P<0.05). Conclusions The expression of FXR is closely related to the pathological G stage in patients with pancreatic cancer. Both FXR expression and pathological G stage are independent prognostic factors in patients with pancreatic cancer.
    ESE-3 transcription factor and tumorigenesis
    2018, 38(3):  400-404. 
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    ESE-3 belongs to the epithelium-specific ETS transcription factor subfamily of ETS (E26), which is located in chromosome 11p12. It belongs to the transcriptional regulation factor which forms transcription complexes with its effector molecules, enhancing or inhibiting transcription of different downstream target genes. It has been found that the expression of ESE-3 is abnormal in many kinds of tumors, such as colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and so on. It suggests that ESE-3 plays an important role on the occurrence and development of various tumors.
    Advances in research on anti-Mullerian tube hormone and male reproductive endocrine-related diseases
    2018, 38(3):  405-408. 
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    Anti-Müllerian tube (AMH) hormone, also known as Müllerian inhibitory substances, is a member of the transformation system. In men, AMH, is secreted by immature Sertoli cell, promotes the degradation of male fetal Müllerian tubes, and participates in testicular development and spermatogenesis. AMH can affect gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testicular stromal cells secrete testosterone (T), inhibin B, and thus by affecting the hypothalamus- pituitary - gonadal axis (HPG axis) causes male reproductive endocrine related diseases.
    Progress of neutrophil extracellular traps on diabetic foot ulcer
    Yan LIN Ping LI
    2018, 38(3):  409-412. 
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    The neutrophils are activated to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to capture and eliminate pathogens, is an important finding of innate immunity. NETs is a double-edged sword, excess or persistent existence of the NETs can lead to diabetic foot ulcer wound healing is delayed.
    Gut microbiota might be a new target for the intervention of essential hypertension
    2018, 38(3):  413-417. 
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    The essential hypertension is not only the syndrome due to many complicated factors, but also the main inducement and reason in the occurrence and development of cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Based on analysis of the relations between gut microbiota and the clinical risk factors (glyeolipid metabolism disorder,obesity,atherosclerosis) of the essential hypertension, and the research on relationship between gut microbiota and circadian clock disturbance, gut microbiota and central blood pressure regulation,this article illustrates the changes of the community characteristics of gut microbiota might affect on the occurrence and development of hypertension, also abnormality of the energy absorption,low level elevations of gut derived endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and dysfunction of the gut barrier might play the most important role in this process, moreover, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is one of the important approaches.Combining with the increasing evidences which gut microbiota involved in the hypertension control, this article puts forward a viewpoint that gut microbiota might be a new target for the intervention of essential hypertension.
    Research progess of the microecology and intestinal mucosal barrier
    Hui TIAN Hong-Jing ZHAO Lin YANG
    2018, 38(3):  418-421. 
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    The human gut contains a lot of microbiota, which constitutes a complex and important ecosystem and influences human physiological function. The intestinal mucosa is the important barrier for our body. The connection between the intestinal micriecology and the intestinal mucosa keep our body stabilized. Once the intestinal micro ecology is destructed, intestinal flora will be imbalanced and will cause intestinal mucosa damaged by other ways. Eventually, harmful pathogenic bacteria will invade human gut.
    Application and prospect of virtual reality in medical filed
    2018, 38(3):  422-426. 
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    Virtual reality technology can simulate the real scene. It will provide the ideal learning materials and the environment as well as make up for the disadvantage of current medical education without the constraints of time and space constraints. It will not only improve clinical conditions and clinical treatment, but also promote the development of medicine. This article aims to introduce and discuss the application and research of virtual reality in the field of medical.
    Reconsideration on training of internal chief medical residency in post-graduate medical education system
    2018, 38(3):  427-429. 
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    Under the backgroud of establishing a unified and standardized postgraduate medical education system in China, this article reviews the origin and current situation of chief resident of internal medicine. By comparing the difference of training in Sino-American, the chief residency of internal medicine should comply with the international medical education system, and flexible design the role and function of chief medical residents combining with the domestic medical and training needs.
    Problems and solving strategy in personnel information management of medical research institutes
    2018, 38(3):  430-432. 
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    A perfect personnel information system is the foundation of efficient operation in modern scientific research institutes. In this paper, on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the scientific research institutes and personnel information, We analyzes the current status and problems in personnel information management of scientific research institutes ,and put forward a concrete way to solve these problems according to the practical experience.