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Table of Content

    05 October 2015, Volume 35 Issue 10
    Effect of YC-1 on the hypoxia-induced proliferation of HPASMCs and the p53 expression
    2015, 35(10):  1303-1307. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) inhibitor YC-1 on hypoxia induced human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of p53, and explore the molecular mechanism in the processes. Method HPASMCs were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10%FBS in vitro. Then divided them into four groups: normoxia, hypoxia and hypoxia+YC-1(0.01 and 0.05mmol/L). Cells proliferation was measured by CCK-8, and the apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of HIF-1α and p53 were tested by Western Blot, and the mRNA expression of p53 was tested by RT-PCR. Results Hypoxia can promote the proliferation of HPASMCs. Treatment of HPASMCs with different concentrations of YC-1 intervention for 24h obviously dropped proliferation rate (P<0.05), and the apoptosis rate increased significantly (P<0.05). YC-1 can also down-regulate the expression of HIF-1α and up-regulate the expression of p53 significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion YC-1 can inhibit hypoxia-induced HPASMCs proliferation and promote apoptosis, and the mechanism probably related to the up-regulation of p53 expression.
    Ginsenoside Rg1 relieves injure of the spleen in aging rats induced by D-galactose
    2015, 35(10):  1308-1313. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the spleen structure and function of aging rats and its relative mechanism.Methods 40 SD rats were randomLy divided into normal control group, aging model group (D-galactose 120 mg/kg,qd×42d), Rg1 intervention group(D-galactose 120 mg/kg,qd×42d and Rg1 20 mg/kg, from day 15th,qd×28d) and Rg1 control group (saline and Rg1 20 mg/kg,from day 15th,qd×28d) . After finishing injections ,the spleen index were measured, paraffin section were made to observe spleen microscopic structure. Senescence-accociated β-galactosidase(SA-β-Gal) stain was detected aging splenocytes. The proliferative capacity of splenocytes stimulated with Concanavalin A (ConA) was measured by CCK-8. The content of IL-2,IL-6 and advanced glycosylation end products(AGEs) were detected by ELISA. The levels of ROS was analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM). Malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by enzymatic assay. The expression of senescence-accociated protein P53,P21 and RB were detected by Western blot analysis. Results Comparing the Rg1 intervention group with the aging model group, spleen index, splenic white pulp area proportion, the proliferative capacity of splenocytes were significantly increased (P<0.05);The secretory capability of IL-2 and IL-6, the active content of SOD were obviously increased(P<0.01);The percentage of SA-β-Gal positive splenocytes, the production of ROS and MDA were significantly decreased (P<0.01);The production of AGEs was decreased (P<0.05);The expression of P53,P21 and Rb was also significantly down-regulated (P<0.01).Conclusion Ginsenoside Rg1 relieves injure of the spleen in aging rats induced by D-galactose.It is suggested that the mechanism may be Rg1 inhibiting oxidative stress and down-regulating P53-P21-RB signaling pathway.
    Effects of aberrant activation of STAT3 in malignant transformation of human umbilical correlation cord mesenchymal stem cells when exposed to human breast cancer microenvironment
    2015, 35(10):  1314-1319. 
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    Abstract:Objiective To investigate whether hUCMSCs undergo malignant transformation when exposed to MCF-7B breast cancer microenvironment and whether the abnormal activation and over expression of STAT3 play an important role in this transformation. Methods The experiment was divided into three groups:blank group(hUCMSCs were separately cultured),experimental group(hUCMSCs were indirectly co-cultured with MCF-7B breast cancer cells),positive control group(MCF-7B breast cancer cells were separately cultured ).Morphology of cells was detected by invertedmicroscope. Cell cycle was detected by Flow cytometry. The mRNA expressions of STAT3、c-Myc and Bcl-xL were tested by real-time PCR.The protein expressions and locations of p-STAT3、c-Myc and Bcl-xL were detected by immunofluorescence.The protein expressions of p-STAT3、STAT3、c-Myc and Bcl-xL were also measured by Western blot.Results The experimental group cells showed typical morphology features of tumor cell. The cells proportion of experiment group in G1 phase was significantly lower than that of the blank group(P<0.05),but which in S and G2 phase were significantly higher than those of the blank group(P<0.05).The mRNA expression levels of STAT3、c-Myc and Bcl-xL in experimental group were significantly higher than those in blank group(P<0.05). p-STAT3、STAT3、c-Myc and Bcl-xL protein were significantly higher than that of the blank group(P<0.05),and they were mainly situated in the nuclei.The protein expressions of STATS also showed significant changes in experimental group. Conclusions hUCMSCs trends to malignant transformations when exposed to MCF-7B breast cancer microenvironment.And the abnormal activation and over expression of STAT3 is one of important factors leading to the malignant transformation of hUCMSCs.
    Human insulin could inhibit apoptosis and promote proliferation of rat liver cell line BRL-3A
    2015, 35(10):  1320-1324. 
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    Objective To study the effect of human insulin on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in rat liver cell line BRL-3A in vitro. Methods MTT method was used to observe the effect of insulin on cell activity, and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Then qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of related genes. Results Human insulin induced the proliferation of BRL-3A cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05或P<0.01); After 3 days treated by human insulin (500 nmol/L), the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phases remarkably decreased (P<0.05). Moreover, pro-apoptotic BAX was down-regulated (P<0.05), while cell proliferation-related gene CCNA2 was up-regulated (P<0.05). Conclusions Human insulin could inhibit the apoptosis of BRL-3A cell line and induce its proliferation due to the down-regulated expression of BAX and up-regulated expression of CCNA2.
    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiat into epithelial cell of colon tissue of rats with ulcerative colitis
    2015, 35(10):  1325-1330. 
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    Objective To investigate the potential effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on repairing the colon epithelial cell,and on treating the the rats with ulcerative colitis (UC).Method Monocytes were purified from bone marrow, amplified and identified as MSCs in vitro.Thirty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, the normal control, model and MSCs groups (10 rats/group).The rats in model and MSCs groups were induced colitis with trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid;The rats in normal control group and model groups were injected with 1mL saline via tail vein, while those in MSCs group with 1mL MSCs suspension. After two weeks, colon tissue samples were analyzed for histopathology,and the colon tissues were made into serial section for determining the distribution of Y chromosome and CK20 double positive cells,analyzing the mRNA levels of CK20、NF-κB、IL-4 by RT-PCR,and assaying colonic NF-κB protein expression with Westen blot,detecting colon tissues IL-4 content with ELISA. Results Y chromosome and CK20 double positive cells could be seen in MSCs transplanted colon tissues.The expression of CK20 was increased in the colon tissues of UC rats(P <0.01), while in MSCs group was increased compared with model group (P <0.01). The expression of NF-κB was increased in the colon tissues of UC rats (P <0.01), while in MSCs group was decreased compared with model group (P <0.01).The expression of IL-4 was decreased in the colon tissues of UC rats (P <0.01), while in MSCs group it was increased compared with model group (P <0.01). Conclusion MSCs may exert therapeutic efficacy on colitis in rats through differentiating into colon epithelial cells.
    Recombinant AAV-IFNα inhibits HBV replication in vitro
    2015, 35(10):  1331-1335. 
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    To identify the anti-HBV efficiency of AAV-IFN by infecting HepG2.2.15 cell line, and to develop a new strategy of curing hepatitis B. Method Firstly,recombinant vector was packaged into AAV by three plasmids co-transfection method; then AAV-IFNα infected HepG2.2.15 cell line, and samples were collected on the1st, 3rd,6th and 9th day; thirdly, The time-course of HBV DNA,HBsAg and HBeAg were detected by qPCR and ELISA. The proliferation of HepG2.2.15 cells detected by MTT. Result Recombinant AAV-IFN can significantly inhibit HBV replication and expression in vitro because of the proliferation of HepG2.2.15 cells inhibited by AAV6-IFNα(P<0.05). Conclusion AAV-IFN is a potential antiviral therapeuticsfor curing hepatitis B.
    Extracellular matrix protein SRPX2 promotes angiogenesis ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    2015, 35(10):  1336-1340. 
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    Objective To evaluate the proangiogenesis ability of extracelluar matrix proteins SRPX2 on HUVECs. Methods pcDNA3.1-SRPX2 vector (transfection group) and pcDNA3.1 vector (negative group) were transfected into HEK293T cells, divided into 3 groups,including blank group. The proliferation of HUVECs (absorbance, A450) was detected by CCK-8 kit. The transmembrane cell number was counted by Transwell migration and wound healing assay to evaluate the migration ability of HUVECs.A three dimensional culture system of cells was constructed on the Matrigel, and tube formation number of HUVECs was assessed. Results The proliferation of HUVECs ( absorbance,A450 ) among transfection group,negative group and blank group had no significant difference (P>0.05). A signifiant difference was noted in the total branch point of capillary tubes among transfection group, negative group and blank group ([97±4]/field versus[57±3] and [54±3]/field) (P<0.05). In wound healing assay, the distance of transfection group compared to 0, 6 and 12 h were both significantly larger than that of negative group and blank group ([90±6], [37±7], [36±4] μm and [135±5], [65±8], [63±4] μm respectively, both (P<0.05)). In Tranwell assay, the number of migrating cells in the transfection group was significantly more than negative group and blank group ([549±10]/field vs [334±11]and [329±12]/field(P<0.05)) after co-culture 16 h. Conclusion SRPX2 may enhance angiogenesis ability by promoting the migration ability and tubing on the Matrigel of HUVECs.
    Analgesia nociception index guided remifentanil administration during general anesthesia in posterior lumbar spinal surgery
    2015, 35(10):  1341-1345. 
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    Objective To evaluate the clinical profile of ANI-guided remifentanil administration during posterior lumbar spinal surgery. Methods 60 patients undergoing selective posterior lumbar decompression laminectomy and internal fixation were randomized into two groups, ANI-guided analgesia group (ANI group) and another group which was blinded to ANI (control group).In both groups, combined propofol-remifentanil target control infusion(TCI) were performed, In ANI group, the concentration of remifentanil was adjusted to maintain ANI values between 50 and 70, however, in the control group, remifentanil target concentration was adapted corresponding to HR or BP values. Anesthetics consumption, incidence of unwanted events, interventions, time of open-eyes and extubation, VAS0h and VAS1/2h, complementary analgesics, intraoperative awareness, PONV and other symptoms were recorded. Results Remifentanil consumption was lower in ANI group than that in control group (P<0.05).The number of unwanted events(hypotension, bradycardia and total unwanted events ) were also less in ANI group than that in control group (P<0.05). Compared with control group, the usage of urapidil was more and the usage of volume expansion was less in ANI group(P<0.05). There were no significant statistic differences in other index between two groups. Conclusion ANI-guided remifentanil infusion resulted in lower remifentanil administered dose and more stable hemodynamics in posterior lumbar spinal surgery.
    Effect and mechanism of IL-31 on the expression of VEGF, EGF and EGFR in 16HBE cells
    2015, 35(10):  1346-1350. 
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    Objective To explore the influence and mechanism of IL-31 on the expression of VEGF, EGF and EGFR in 16HBE cells. Methods 16HBE cells were cultured in vitro and treated with IL-31 with or without SB203580 or SP600125, real-time PCR and Western blot were applied to determine the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, EGF and EGFR respectively. Meanwhile, Western blot was used to examine the changes of p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. Results Compared with control group, the mRNA expression of VEGF, EGF and EGFR was increased markedly under the stimulation of IL-31(P<0.01), meanwhile, the expression of pp38 MAPK and p-JNK was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with IL-31 group, the expression of pp38 MAPK was significantly decreased in IL-31 combined with SB203580 or SB203580 group(P<0.01), while the expression of p-JNK was markedly declined in IL-31 combined with SP600125 or SP600125 group(P<0.01).Compared with IL-31 group, the expression of VEGF was significantly decreased in IL-31 combined with SB203580 or SP600125 group (P <0.01), while the expression of EGF and EGFR was markedly declined in IL-31 combined with SB203580 group (P <0.01).Conclusions IL-31 could up-regulate the expression of VEGF through activating p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways and up-regulate the expression of EGF and EGFR through activating p38 MAPK signaling pathway in16HBE cells.
    Effects of estrogen on rats of different age groups with Parkinson's disease and its mechanisms
    2015, 35(10):  1351-1357. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of estrogen(E2) on different age rat groups of Parkinson’s disease(PD) models induced by Rotenone and its mechanism. Methods 24-month-old SD rats(high age group)and 12-week-age SD rats(low age group)were divided into control group (saline), Rotenone treatment group(Rotenone 2mg/kg), Estrogen treatment group(Rotenone 2mg/kg and E2 1mg/kg)and Tamoxifen treatment group(Rotenone 2mg/kg, E2 1mg/kg and Tamoxifen 1mg/kg). Behavior tests were carried out to observe the change of movement function, Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to assess the changes of TH and LC-3.HPLC-ECD was used to detect possible changes of monoamine neurotransmitters in striatum. Results (1)Rotenone reduced significantly high age rat’s rotarod latencies, and prolonged the climbing pole time(P<0.05). E2 ameliorated this effect, Tamoxifen could reduce the effect of E2. (2)Rotenone significantly reduced the number of TH positive cells in high age rats(P<0.05) , E2 could partly restore TH positive cell loss, and Tamoxifen could reduce this effect of E2, so did the expression of TH protein. (3)Rotenone increased the expression of LC-3(P<0.05), E2 did not affect the expression of LC-3, so did Tamoxifen. (4)Rotenone significantly decreased the level of DA and its metabolite DOPAC(P<0.05), elevated the level of 5-HT,especially in high rats(P<0.05). E2 downregulated the influence, and Tamoxifen could reduce the effect of E2. (5)Rotenone increased the number of autophagosomes, but E2 increased the proportion of autolysosomes/autophagosomes. Conclusions High age rat PD model was more reliable. Estrogen promoted autophagy mature, and had obvious therapeutic effect on rat PD model induced by rotenone.
    Expression and significance of fascin in ductal intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive ductal carcinoma
    2015, 35(10):  1358-1362. 
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    Objective  To study the significance of fascin protein expression in ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).Methods Thirty cases of usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) , 30 cases of flat epithelial atypia (FEA,DIN1a) , 15 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH,DIN1b) , 2 cases of DCIS grade1(DIN1c),10 cases of DCIS grade2(DIN2)and 18 cases of DCIS grade3(DIN3)were immunohistochemically investigated using monoclonal antifascin antibody and compared with 120 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Results Fascin protein expression was not seen in normal breast tissue, UDH, FEA (DIN1a) , ADH(DIN1b),DCIS grade1(DIN1c)and DCIS grade2(DIN2), and was only seen in 2 out of 18 cases of DCIS grade3(DIN3)(11.1%), and 18 out of 120 cases of IDC (15%) . Fascin protein expression was correlated with ER negative(P<0.05)、 PR negative(P<0.05)、 tumor grade(P<0.05)and axillary lymph node status(P<0.05), but not correlated with age、location、tumor sizeand HER2 expression.Conclusions Fascin protein expression seems to be a late event, usually present in carcinoma. Targetting the fascin pathway may be a noval therapeutic strategy of mammary carcinoma.
    HMGB1 involved in the activation of p38MAPK signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rats after cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    2015, 35(10):  1363-1368. 
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    Objective To investigate the role of HMGB1 involved in the activation of p38MAPK signal pathway in the hippocampus of rats after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Method Rats were randomly divided into two groups as shame-operated group, CPR group including 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation( ROSC) (5sub-groups).The animals were sacrificed and hippocampus were removed at the indicated time. Pathological changes were observed at each time point. Calculated the brain water content by day/wet ration.The HMGB1mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR technique. The expressions of HMGB1 and p38MAPK activity were determined using Western blot. Results There were no histopathological in the hippocampus of rats in shame-operated group, brain tissue appeared change of ischemia pathology in CPR group, it was the most severest at ROSC 24 h. The brain water content, HMGB1mRNA in rats of CPR group increased obviously along with the prolongation of time following ROSC and reached its peak at ROSC 24 h(P<0.01),much higher than that of shame-operated group, the HMGB1 level in the hippocampus of rats after CPR significantly declined at 2 h after ROSC(P<0.01) and increased obviously at 6, 12 h and reached peak 24 h later(P<0.01), the p38MAPK activity in the hippocampus of rats after CPR, significantly increased at 2 h after ROSC and reached peak 6 h later(P<0.01), then declined slowly later, much higher than that of shame-operated group. Conclusions HMGB1 involved in the activation of p38 MAPK signal pathway that may play an important role in the early stages of brain injury after CPR.
    The effect of Y-27632 on invasion and migration of gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901
    2015, 35(10):  1369-1374. 
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    Objective To study the effect of Y-27632 on invasion and motility of SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cells, and discuss whether Y-27632 excerts the effect by attenuating SRF expression. Methods SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cells were divided into 3 groups: 1) blank control group; 2) Y-27632 group; 3) siRNA-SRF-1107 group. Transfected siRNA-SRF or incubated by Y-27632 48h. The effect of Y-27632 on proliferation suppressions of SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cells was detected by CCK-8 assay. Cell invasion was analysed by Transwell and wound healing test. The expressions of SRF, ROCK1, E-cadherin, β-catenin, F-actin, MRTF-A and Cyclin D1 were detected by Western blot. Results Y-27632 inhibited invasion (P<0.05)and had no effect on proliferation of SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cells(P>0.05). Western blot showed that are treated with Y-27632, the ROCK1, MRTF-A, F-actin, SRF protein expressions were reduced by 37.0%, 44.3%, 62.7% and 62.7% respectively, and E-cadherin protein expression was up-regulated by 2.64 folds(P<0.05).Conclusion The inhibition of ROCK and up-regulation of E-cadherin by Y-27632 can inhibit the invasion and migration of SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cells that is done at least, in part, by attenuating SRF expression.
    Isoflurane attenuates human cardiacmyocytes anoxia/reoxygenation injury
    2015, 35(10):  1375-1381. 
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    Objective To explore the effect and the mechanism of isoflurane on human cardiac myocytes (HCM) injury induced by anoxia/reoxygenation (AR). Methods HCM cells were divided into control group (con), anoxia/reoxygenation group (AR) and isoflurane (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) treatment group (n=6). Cell viability , LDH activity, apoptosis and the expression level of Anoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were detected using CCK-8 assay, LDH activity assay kit, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, PCR and western blot, respectively. Results Compared with the con group, cell viability decreased, LDH activity and apoptosis cells increased in AR group. Isoflurane can significantly relieve the decrease of cell viability, the increase of LDH activity and apoptosis cells, and the down-regulation of the mRNA and protein expression level of HIF-1α induced by AR (P<0.05). Compared with AR group, the mRNA and protein expression level of HIF-1α in siRNA transfected group is significantly decreased (P<0.05). 2% isoflurane significantly relieve the increase of cell viability, and the decrease of LDH activity and apoptotic cells induced by HIF-siRNA in AR injuried HCM cells(P<0.05).Conclusion Isoflurane can protect HCM cells from AR injury partly through up-regulate the expression of HIF-1α.
    Transfecting pcDNA3-TRAF4-DM-TRAF iimproves cell proliferation of human breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231
    Xiao-Li ZHANG Xiao-Yi MI
    2015, 35(10):  1382-1386. 
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    Objective To investigate whether overexpression of TRAF4 in human breast cancer may impact its cell proliferation. Methods This study had two groups, MDA-MB-231 transfected with pcDNA3-TRAF4-DM-TRAF or pcDNA3. We detected the expression and localization of TRAF4 with immunofluorescence and western blot. We detected the expression of the phosphorylation level of p70S6K and S6 with westernblot. Flow cytometry detected the cell cycle. MTT Assay detected the cell reproductive capacity. Results TRAF4 localized in both cytoplasm and nuclei in MDA-MB-231. Nuclear expression of TRAF4 in nuclei was lower than that in cytoplasm (P <0.05). After pcDNA3-TRAF4-DM-TRAF was transfected into the cells, the expression of TRAF4 in nuclei was increased (P <0.05). The phosphorylation level of p70S6K and S6 significantly increaseced ( P <0.05,P < 0.01). More S phase cells were detected (P < 0.01) by FCM . The cell proliferation was promoted by MTT (P < 0.01). Conclusion The expression of TRAF4 in nuclei may play an important in the cell proliferatuion by promoting p70S6K and S6 activation.
    Progress of the relationship between autophagy and breast cancer chemotherapy resistance
    2015, 35(10):  1393-1396. 
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    The therapy to different type of breast cancer has appeared chemoresistance successively which is induced by autophagy. Autophagy, to tumor’s generation, is a double edged sword, and it can result to chemoresistance and autophagic cell death thorough interaction with apoptosis in breast cancer chemotherapy. However, autophagy may have nothing with chemoresistance. It will be a key research point that to further explore the relationship and mechanism between autophagy and chemoresistance.
    Research progress on the expression of P-glycoprotein in the cerebral injury diseases
    2015, 35(10):  1397-1400. 
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    As an energy dependent membrane transporter, P-GP expresses highly in the organs which have the function of barrier and secretory. In the brain, P-GP mainly expresses in the cerebral vascular endothelial cells of blood brain barrier .In the state of brain injury diseases (such as epilepsy and cerebral ischemia), P-GP appears in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum of rat brain. On a cellular level, it mainly exists in the cerebral vascular endothelial cells and also overexpresses in the neurons and glial cells.
    Relationship between neurogenesis in the brains of adult organisms and the neurodegenerative disease
    2015, 35(10):  1401-1405. 
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    It is very common that the number of neurons in the brain is progressively decreased in the neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease, etc. Moreover, it is much more important that there is a decline in the neurogenesis of adult brain in such neurodegenerative diseases. In treating neurodegenerative diseases, it is an ideal and potential therapeutic modality to promote endogenous neurogenesis in the brain.
    Progress of proteomics of exosomes from tumor cell or associated with tumor
    2015, 35(10):  1406-1409. 
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    Exosomes are vesicles of endocytic origin released from different cell types under both normal and pathological conditions. Proteomics is an emerging discipline for studying composition and mechanics and interaction of proteins with regard to disease occurrence、cellular metabolism ,etc. Progress of Sdudying exosomes from tumor cell or associated with tumor on proteomics technology platforms in aspect of clarifying mechanisms of shaping and sustaining microenviroment of tumor growth and survival and metastasis, induce tumor proliferation, Immunosuppressive effects or immune evasion,and discovering biomarker,makes a promising prospect of exsomes in clinical diagnosis and treatment.
    Novel progression of GROβ in basic research and cancer
    2015, 35(10):  1410-1413. 
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    GROβ is a member of the CXC chemokine superfamily. It plays an important role in inflammation and wound healing process. As extensive research continued, researchers realized that the gro gene was one of oncogenes. And its expression product, GROβ, was also found to be very important in angiogenesis, tumorigeness, metastasis, and interaction between tumor and immune cells.
    Advances in the non-genetic regulation of PTEN tumour suppressor activity
    2015, 35(10):  1414-1418. 
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    Mutations and deletions of the tumour suppressor PTEN are frequently involved in the development of cancer. However, PTEN is also tightly controlled by various non-genomic mechanisms,such as the epigenetic silencing of PTEN, post-transcriptional regulation by non-coding RNAs and post-translational modification.
    Research progress in the long non-coding RNA ANRIL
    2015, 35(10):  1419-1423. 
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    Long non-coding RNAs are important regulators of gene expression. ANRIL which was coded on the Chr9p21.3 loci participates in the pathogenesis of tumor, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other diseases. Multiple ANRIL isoforms are tissue-specific. ANRIL mainly functions through Polycomb proteins, while there are also other downstream targets. The mechanism of each isoform and the downstream pathways are hotspots currently.
    Practice and prospect of basic medical comprehensive experiment
    2015, 35(10):  1424-1426. 
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    In order to meet the needs of national clinical medical education strategy, to cultivate medical students’ ability of analyzing and solving problems, it is imminent to carry out the reform on comprehensive experiment in basic medical teaching. During the practice, the basic medical college of Hebei North University tried to integrate functional experiment and morphological experiment, and had some experience to share with medical education colleagues.
    Reflection on Educational Reform of Epidemiology Practice for Clinical Students
    2015, 35(10):  1427-1429. 
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    Epidemiology is a discipline of strong theory and practice. How to make the practice course function better is a topic worthy of exploring in educational reform to clinical students. The article explored the ‘Student-Dominated’ Model based on ‘Problem-Based Learning’ and ‘Team Based Learning’ in teaching process and compared the model with the traditional one (Teacher-Dominated Model). Suggestions were given to further improve effectiveness of epidemiology practice courses.
    Development and implementation of multiple mini-stations interview (MMI) to link with the pre-med phase and basic medical learning phase for 8-year program of clinical medicine
    2015, 35(10):  1430-1432. 
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    Objective To guide students to better adapt to the life of medical learning phase, and to plan a good profession design, while eliminate candidates do not meet the characteristics of medical school. Method: Develop and Implement of seven stations of multiple mini-interview in 3-grave medical students. Result: The score of each station shows a normal distribute, and reliability Cronbach's α coefficient is 0.629. Conclusion: The design and implementation of multiple mini-interview f to link with the pre-med phase and Basic medical learning phase for 8-year program of clinical medicine is successful, and meet the purpose of ‘ examination promotes learning’.
    The investigation for the relationship between tutors and postgraduates in medical college
    2015, 35(10):  1433-1436. 
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    Teacher-student relationship is the most important part in educational activities. The nature and level of the relationship have a significant impact on educational and teaching effectiveness. This article aims to analyze the exiting status of the relationship between the tutors and the postgraduates in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, focusing on the some main factors which affect the said relationship, including environment factor, tutor factor, postgraduate factor and etc., and combining the characteristics of Medical Colleges’ studying. On the basis of the concerned survey, this article initially discusses the key issues during the establishment of the harmony relationship between tutors and postgraduates.
    The application of combined teaching method of case-based learning and W2H2 thinking-type learning in the comparative morphology experiment teaching
    2015, 35(10):  1437-1439. 
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    The combined teaching method of case-based learning and W2H2 thinking-type learning was used in the comparative morphology experiment teaching. The teaching method can further strengthen the reform of the comparative morphology experiment teaching, and improve the quality of practice teaching.
    A discussion on clinical education feedback teaching in American medical education
    2015, 35(10):  1440-1442. 
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    Teaching feedback has been affected by many fact,which including education theory, culture diversity et.al. Article analysis the teaching feedback in United States clinical education by the example of the visiting student’s experience in Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. In clinical education, the aim of teaching could be successfully got by consideration the specific teaching contact and students’ idiosyncrasy and flexible teaching feedback utilization.
    Experience of Applying Micro-lectures in Higher Medical Education
    2015, 35(10):  1443-1446. 
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    The application of micro-lectures in higher medical education is still in the stage of exploration. The authors applied the micro-lectures with the traditional teaching method in the teaching of physiology, and conducted a questionnaire survey about it. In this article, the authors summarized the developing process, the students’ attitude and the video production of micro-lectures, and compared the micro-lecture with traditional teaching method and MOOCS. At last, they gave some suggestions about application of micro-lectures in higher medical college.