Table of Content

    05 September 2015, Volume 35 Issue 9
    PLCε regulates invasion and migration of human bladder cancer cells through PKCα/β/TBX3 pathway
    2015, 35(9):  1155-1161. 
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    Objective To investigate the molecular mechanisms of PLCε in regulating the invasion and migration of human bladder cancer cells in vitro. Methods After cells treated with recombinant adenovirus, the migratory/invasive abilities of T24 cells were explored by wound healing and Transwell chamber cell migration and invasion assay; RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of PLCε; The protein levels of PLCε,PKCα,PKCβ, TBX3 and E-cadherin were determined by Western blot; QRT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of TBX3 and E-cadherin .Results It was confirmed by digesting and sequencing that the recombinant adenovirus had been constructed successfully. The expression of PLCε mRNA and PLCε protein were both decreased after the infection of Ad-shPLCε. Wound healing and Transwell chamber cell migration/invasion assay showed that Ad-shPLCε treatment could inhibit the migratory and invasive activity of bladder cancer cells(P<0.05). The results of Western blot indicated that the expression of PKCα/β in membrane was decreased(P<0.05), and phosphorylation levels of PKCα and PKCβ were reduced. QRT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression level of TBX3 was decreased, but the expression level of E-cadherin was increased. Conclusion: PLCε shRNA can inhibit migratory and invasive ability of bladder cancer cells through PKCα/β/TBX3/E-cadherin pathway.
    Relationship between genetic polymorphism of transcription factor 7-like 2 and genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uygur population of Xinjiang region
    2015, 35(9):  1162-1166. 
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    Objective To study the association of transcription factor 7-like 2(TCF7L2) polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uygur population of Xinjiang region. Methods In this case-control study,819 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were recruited in case group and 731 healthy individuals were selected as control. 5 mL of blood sample was collected from each subject,from which the DNA was extracted. The polymorphism was detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and the OR value (95%CI) was evaluated by Logistic Regression Method to analyze the relationship between susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus and different genotypes. Results In case group, the frequencies of TC, CC genotype and C allele at rs7901695 were higher than the corresponding frequencies in control group (P<0.05). The interaction between TCF7L2 and environment risk factors did not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions The polymorphisms of rs7091695 in TCF7L2 gene may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uygur population from Xinjiang region,while the polymorphisms of rs7085532 in TCF7L2 gene may not be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uygur population from Xinjiang region.
    ZNF330 promotes erythroid differentiation
    2015, 35(9):  1167-1170. 
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    Objective To explore the effects of ZNF330 on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and its mechanism. Methods Realtime PCR was performed to detect the expression of ZNF330 in K562 cells induced by hemin. After CD34+ cells were infected by the recombination lentivirus ZNF330-RNAi, Realtime PCR was applied to detect the expression of CD235a and γ-globin. The luciferase report assay was performed to examine if ZNF330 could act as a trans-acting factor in 293T/17 cells. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) was applied in 293T/17cells to detect the interaction between ZNF330 and ZNF408 which was involved in mRNA degradation. Results The expression of ZNF330 was up-regulated after hemin treatment. The expression of CD235a and γ-globin was decreased after the express of ZNF330 was inhibited. Luciferase report assay showed that ZNF330 has no effect on report gene. Co-Ip in two ways confirmed the direct binding between ZNF330 and ZNF408.Conclusion ZNF330 can promote erythroid differentiation, and a possible mechanism is that ZNF330 inhibits the function of ZNF408, a factor that is involved in mRNA degradation, through the interaction between the two proteins.
    Rhein lysinate attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac injury in mice
    2015, 35(9):  1171-1175. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective effects of rhein lysinate (RHL) on cardiac tissue damage induced by paraquat in experimental mice, and to clarify its mechanism. Methods In this study mice were assigned to the following three groups: control, paraquat model, and RHL-treated groups. The model of oxidative damage mice was established by intraperitoneal injection of paraquat. RHL-treated group was given RHL (50 mg/kg) by gavage for one week before performing model. The other two groups were given equal volume of distilled water. For making model, paraquat was intraperitoneally injected in the paraquat model and RHL-treated group. The content of MDA was detected by thiobarbituric acid assay. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px were detected by biphenyl three phenolic autoxidation assay and NADPH coupling method respectivly. The pathological profile of cardiac tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and reactive oxygen species was observed by DCFH-DA staining. The change of proteins related to myocardial damage detected by Western blot. Results Compared with control group, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were decreased (p<0.05) and the content of MDA was increased (p<0.05) in paraquat model group. However, these changes were attenuated after RHL treatmen (p<0.05). The pathological examination indicated the structure of cardiac tissue was damaged and reactive oxygen species of cardiac tissue was increased after paraquat was given, however, these changes were attenuated after RHL treatmen. It was shown in western blot analysis that compared with control group, the expression of SIRT1 was decreased, the acetylation of p53 and the expression of p53 and p66 were increased in paraquat-treated group. These changes were attenuated after RHL treatmen (P<0.05). Conclusion RHL could attenuate paraquat-induced cardiac injury in mice
    H3K27me3 demethylase JMJD3 regulates proliferation and differentiation of embryonal lung epithelia of mice
    2015, 35(9):  1176-1181. 
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    Objective To investigate the role H3K27me3 demethylase JMJD3(KDM6B) during the development of lung in embryonal mice. Methods Jmjd3 knockout embryos of E19.5 mice was examined by HE, PAS and immnohistochemistry assays. Results The developmental defects of the lung of Jmjd3 heterozygous (Jmjd3+/?) embryos were mild compared to Jmjd3+/+ embryos. However, Jmjd3?/? mice suffered from the severe hypoplasia of lung tissue. Differentiated defects of ciliated cell, Clara cell, type I and II alveolar epithelial cells were observed in Jmjd3?/? embryos. The index of cell proliferation was increased in Jmjd3?/? embryos compared to wildtype and Jmjd3+/? embryos. No difference of apoptosis was detected in these embryos. Conclusion JMJD3 is indispensable for proliferation and differentiation of embryonal lung epithelia of mice.
    IL-10 inhibits cardiac fibroblasts proliferation and phenotype transformation induced by TGF-β1 in rats
    2015, 35(9):  1182-1187. 
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    Objective To examine the effects of IL-10 on cardiac fibroblasts (CFBs) proliferation and phenotype transformation to myofibroblasts (MyoFbs) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1); and to investigate the regulating pathways. Methods Cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from cardiac ventricles of neonatal SD rats. The passage 2~4 were used and divided into the following groups for treatment: 1) control group, 2) IL-10 reaction group, 3) TGF-β1 reaction group, and 4) IL-10 plus TGF-β1 reaction group (TGF-β1 treatment followed with IL-10 pretreatment). Cells proliferation was assessed by MTT assay and immunocytochemistry staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); the phenotype transformation into MyoFbs was assessed by immunocytochemistry of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA); and extracellular signal related kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 kinase pathways were assessed by western-blot. Results TGF-β1(10μg/L) treatment boosted the proliferation and the expression of α-SMA significantly (P<0.01), while IL-10 (10, 50 or 100μg/L) plus TGF-β1 co-treatment induced lower cell proliferation and expression of α-SMA than treating with TGF-β1 alone (P<0.05), with the inhibitory effect of IL-10 being concentration dependent. TGF-β1 could significantly stimulate the ERK1/2 and p38 kinase phosphorylation (P<0.01), however IL-10 (100μg/L) plus TGF-β1 co-treatment could down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinase compared with TGF-β1 alone (ERK1/2:P<0.05;p38:P<0.01). Conclusions IL-10 can attenuate TGF-β1-induced CFBs proliferation and phenotype transformation to MyoFbs. The inhibitory effects could involve a mechanism of inhibiting the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinase.
    The effect of wet hyperthermia combined with microwave ablation on the proportion and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in animal model of mouse mammary carcinoma
    2015, 35(9):  1188-1193. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of wet hyperthermia combined with microwave ablation on the proportion and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in animal model of mouse mammary carcinoma and explore its significance. Methods An experimental animal model of mouse mammary carcinoma was established and then treated with microwave ablation on day 14. Local wet hyperthermia was also performed. The proportion of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in splenocytes were analyzed by FACS. The relative expression of Foxp3, as well as the expression of CTLA4 and GITR, on Tregs was determined by Real-time PCR assay and FACS respectively. Moreover, the secretion of TGF-? and IL-10 from Tregs also were detected by ELISA. In addition, the suppressive capacity of Tregs on CD4+CD25-T cell also was performed by MTT assay. Results The proportion of Tregs in wet hyperthermia combined with microwave ablation treated group decreased significantly compared with that in wet hyperthermia or microwave ablation treated alone group (p<0.05). Moreover, the expression level of Foxp3 on Tregs decreased significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of CTLA4 and GITR, as well as the secretion of TGF-? and IL-10, on Tregs also decreased obviously (p<0.05). Finally, the suppressive capacity of Tregs on the proliferation of CD4+CD25-T cells were also impaired significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions Wet hyperthermia combined with microwave ablation were more effective than single wet hyperthermia or microwave ablation on the function of Tregs, which may be closely related to the enhanced suppression of tumor growth.
    Estrogen regulates anoikis through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
    2015, 35(9):  1194-1198. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of estrogen(E2)on the resistance to anoikis and a possible role of extracellular signal-regulated kinse (ERK)-focal adhesion kinse (FAK) signaling in the effect of estrogen to understand its underlying mechanism. Methods Poly-Hema-coated culture of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used to induce anoikis. Cells were treated with E2 and/or pretreated with MEK or FAK inhibitors where needed. Western blotting was used to assess the phosphorylation of ERK and FAK, trypan blue staining and cell counting were employed to evaluate cell viability, and Hoechst staining was used to verify apoptosis. Results Suspension culture greatly reduced cell survival (P<0.01), and exposure of MCF-7 cells to E2 (10 nM) led to a significantly increased resistance to anoikis and survival (P<0.05) compared to DMSO. Meanwhile, E2 induced increased phosphorylation of both ERK and FAK. Pharmacological inhibition of MEK with U0126 (10 μM) reduced E2-increased cell survival by 57.48% (P<0.01) and E2-decreased anoikis; Treatment with FAK inhibitor (10 μM) attenuated E2-enhanced cell survival by 53.59% (P<0.01) and E2-reduced apoptosis. Conclusion E2 contributes to enhanced cell viability and increased resistance to anoikis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and ERK-FAK signaling may be involved in the E2-stimulated survival during suspension culture of MCF-7 cells.
    Up-regulated expression of NT-3 attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
    2015, 35(9):  1199-1204. 
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    Objective To investigate the neuroprotective effects of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) expression controlled by five copies of the hypoxia-responsive elements after focal cerebral ischemia. Methods Three groups of rats received RV-5H-NT3, RV-5H-EGFP or saline injection. Three days after gene transfer, the rats underwent 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), followed by 1–28 days of reperfusion. Immunohistostaining and western blotting were performed to detect ischemia/hypoxia-regulated expression of NT-3 controlled by HRE. The volume of brain infarction and the apoptosis were analysised by TTC and TUNEL staining. The neurological scoring was determined by neurological behavior tests. Results Three days after tMCAO, brain NT-3 expression was significantly increased in the RV-5HNT3-transduced animals compared with the RV-5H-EGFP or saline group (P<0.05), and brain infarct volume was smaller in the RV-5H-NT3-transduced group than the RV-5H-EGFP or saline group (P<0.05). The percentage of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced in RV-5H-NT3-transduced brains compared with the RV-5HEGFP or saline group 3 and 7 days after tMCAO (P<0.05). Furthermore, the neurological status of RV-5H-NT3-transduced rats was better than that of RV-5H-EGFP- or saline-transduced animals from 1 day to 4 weeks after tMCAO (P<0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrated that HRE could modulate NT-3 expression in the ischemic brain environment and that the up-regulated NT-3 could effectively improve neurological status following tMCAO due to decreased initial damage.
    Reference intervals of serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase of healthy school children and adolescents in Heilongjiang province
    2015, 35(9):  1205-1208. 
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    Objective To analyze the serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase level among apparently healthy school children and adolescents in Heilongjiang Province and establish the reference intervals in different gender and different age groups. Methods Random sample of 2101 primary and secondary school students from 9 to 18-year-old was selected from different district of Heilongjiang Province including Harbin and Mudanjiang from July 2008 to June 2009. The fasting venous blood was collected and serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase concentration was measured as soon as possible. After screening outlier individual, a total of 2091 subjects were enrolled. The reference intervals of serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase for healthy school children and adolescents were established by gender and age (P2.5 to P97.5). Results The change tendency of serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase with age and sex were presented. All these parameters had shown inverse relationship with age and were significantly higher in boys than girls (P<0.001). Serum calcium, phosphate of both sexes and serum alkaline phosphatase of girls declined progressively with age. However, the highest alkaline phosphatase level was seen at 13 years in boys. Alkaline phosphatase showed a positive correlation with age before 13 years of age, but after that alkaline phosphatase started to decline. Conclusion Reference intervals of serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase for healthy school children and adolescents in Heilongjiang Province in the age group of 9–18 years were presented, which supply good reference value for clinicians, especially pediatricians to interpret the results of school children and adolescents and make decision.
    The effects of silencing Smo gene on proliferation and apoptosis of rat primary chondrocyte
    2015, 35(9):  1209-1213. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of silencing Smo gene on proliferation and apoptosis of rat primary chondrocyte in vitro. Method The primary chondrocyte was obtained by mechanical-enzyme digestion and identified by Immunohistochemical cells (ColⅡ). The experiment was divided into control group, control siRNA group and Smo siRNA 1~3 group. The siRNA were transfected into chondrocytes by lentivirus vector. After 72h, the cell viability was detected by MTT, Smo expressions were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, and the apoptosis of chondrocyte was assessed by flow cytometry. Results All types of siRNA were transfected into primary chondrocyte by vectors, the Smo siRNA 1 ~ 3 could inhibit the expression of Smo mRNA and protein in chondrocytes, and Smo siRNA2 had the highest silencing rate (the expressions of Smo mRNA and protein were 0.19±0.03 and 0.39±0.07). The cell viability in Smo siRNA2 group was lowest (77.38%±7.19%), while the apoptosis rate of Smo siRNA2 was highest (21.43%±2.97%). Conclusion Silencing Smo gene in primary chondrocytes can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis, Smo may have a protecting role from apoptosis of the chondrocyte.
    Silencing Nestin expression mediated by lentivirus inhibits human esophageal cancer ECA109 cell proliferation
    2015, 35(9):  1214-1218. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of Nestin gene silencing on the proliferation of human esophageal cancer ECA109 cells and possible mechanism. Methods Lenti-Nestin was constructed and transfected into ECA109 cells to establish a stable Nestin-silencing cell line Lenti-Nestin. Blank group, scrambled group, Lenti-Nestin group were set up. The expressions of Nestin, c-myc and cyclinD1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK8 assay. Results The stable Nestin-silencing cell line was successfully established. The expression of Nestin mRNA (P<0.01) and protein (P<0.05) levels were reduced significantly and the downregulation evidently suppressed cell proliferation (P<0.01) and colony forming capacity (P<0.05) compare with the scrambled group and blank group. However,The c-myc and cyclinD1 expression levels in ECA109 cells in Lenti-Nestin group were significantly lower than that of scrambled group and blank group (P<0.05). Conclusion Knockdown Nestin expression significantly inhibits the level of esophageal cancer ECA109 cells proliferation,which may act via influencing the expression of c-myc, cyclinD1.
    The comparison of perioperative clinic anesthesia of VHL syndrome and non- VHL patients undergoing pheochromocytoma resection
    2015, 35(9):  1219-1222. 
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    Objective To compare the experience of perioperative management and anesthesia in VHL syndrome and non-VHL patients undergoing pheochromocytoma resection. Methods 50 patients scheduled for surgical removal of pheochromocytoma in PUMC Hospital from 2009-01-01 to 2014-12-31 were included in this retrospective analysis. Among them,12 patients were diagnosed with VHL syndrome,others were non-VLH patients. We focused on the clinical records, especially clinical manifestation, preoperative preparation, intraoperative anesthetic management, operation duration and postoperative hospital stay. Results Comparing with non-VHL patients, VHL syndrome patients undergoing pheochromocytoma resection surgery were much younger, with multiple pheochromocytoma and a significantly increased norepinephrine release. The drug preparation period was much longer, as well as the operative time and hospital stay (P<0.05). But no statistical difference existed in the intraoperative hemodynamic fluctuation and the outcomes of the patients. Conclusions VHL syndrome patients mainly present with multiple pheochromocytoma which has more aggressive function. Since the long operation duration and high risk, the optimization of perioperative management and adequate drug preparation are the key factors to ensure the operation safety.
    Effect of long non-coding RNA UCA1 on invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cell lines
    2015, 35(9):  1223-1227. 
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    Objective To explore the expression of urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) in pancreatic cancer cell lines and its influence on the invasion and metastasis of the pancreatic cancer cells. Methods The expression of UCA1 in pancreatic cancer tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues (11 cases) and 5 pancreatic cancer cell lines was analyzed by real-time PCR. The level of UCA1 in BxPC-3 was knocked down by small interfering RNA. The ability of invasion and migration in vitro of transfected BxPC-3 was detected by Transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay. The protein level of MMP2 and MMP9 was measured by Western blot experiment. Results The expression level of UCA1 in pancreatic cancer tissues was higher than that in paired adjacent normal tissues, and UCA1 differentially expressed in 5 pancreatic cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of UCA1 by siRNA suppressed the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in BxPC3, and dramatically impaired the ability of invasion and migration of BxPC-3. Conclusion UCA1 is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer, and down-regulation of UCA1 attenuates the capacity of invasion and metastasis in vitro of BxPC-3 by decreasing MMP2 and MMP9.
    The distribution of gene polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase among Han women in Zhangjiagang city
    2015, 35(9):  1228-1231. 
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    Objective To explore the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) gene polymorphisms among the Han women in Zhangjiagang city. Method A total of 4008 Han women were recruited. And their oral epithelial cells were collected to extract genome DNA in order to detect gene polymorphisms of MTHFR and MTRR using fluorescence quantitative PCR. Then the results were compared with those in other cities in China. Results The genotype frequencies of MTHFR C677T CC, CT and TT among Zhangjiagang women are 32.2%, 49.5% and 18.3% 18.3%, respectively. The C allele frequency is 64.3%, T allele frequency is 35.7%. The genotype frequencies of MTHFR A1298C AA、AC and CC are 68.7%、28.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The A allele frequency is 80.8%, C allele frequency is 19.2%. The genotype frequencies of MTRR A66G AA, AG and GG are 54.4%、38.5% and 7.1%, respectively. The A allele frequency is 76.3%, G allele frequency is 26.4%. Conclusion The MTHFR, MTRR polymorphism distribution of Han women in Zhangjiagang city is region specific.
    The relationship between learning and memory and neural cell apoptosis hippocampal of rats with impaired glucose regulation
    2015, 35(9):  1232-1236. 
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    Objective Discuss the relationship between impaired glucose regulation of neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and the ability of learning and memory in rats. Methods Impaired glucose tolerance model rats were made by high fat and sugar diet;The morris water maze was used to detect the learning and memory function;The TUNEL method was used to detect the number of neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Expression of bal -2/Bax and bcl-2 mRNA/Bax mRNA factor in hippocampus neurons were detected using immunohistochemistry and situ hybridization. Results Compared with NGT group, in IGR group the learning and memory ability were meaningfully decreased (P<0.05); the number of neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus was increased significantly(P<0.05); the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-2 mRNA in hippocampus was decreased significantly(P <0.05); the expression of Bax and Bax mRNA in hippocampus was increased significantly(P <0.05);The ability of learning and memory was correlated positively with the expression of bcl-2 (P <0.05) and negative correlation with the expression of bax (P<0.05). Conclusions There is a relationship between impaired glucose regulation and the ability of learning and memory in rats, one of its important mechanism may have some connection with hippocampal neuronal apoptosis.
    Expression of hsa-miR-10b in three cervical cancer cell lines and the prediction of it's target genes
    2015, 35(9):  1237-1242. 
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    Objective To analyze the expression levels of hsa-miR-10b in three cervical cancer cell lines, and predict the target genes of hsa-miR-10b. Methods PCR was applied to measure expression levels of hsa-miR-10b in C-33A, HeLa and CaSki. The relative studies on hsa-miR-10b were retrieved from PubMed. The sequence and genome characteristics of hsa-miR-10b were analyzed on line by miRbase and NCBI. The target genes of hsa-miR-10b were predicted by TargetScan, PicTar and miRanda, and then demonstrated by Gene Ontology and Pathway Enrichment analysis. Results Compared with C-33A, the expression of hsa-miR-10b significantly reduced in HeLa and Caski (P<0.01). Current studies showed that hsa-miR-10b was related with multiple tumorigenesis. Hsa-miR-10b located in human chromosome 2q31.1 and highly conserved among different species. The target genes were enriched in the biological processes of transcription, gene expression regulation, cell proliferation and etc.(P<0.05). Pathway analysis showed that these target genes were related to the signaling pathways of cancer, cell cycle, ARF and etc. (P<0.05). Conclusion Hsa-miR-10b may have extensive functions, and closely related with the occurrence and development in cervical cancer. Prediction of target genes provides a theoretical basis for the further study.
    Culture and identification of immature dendritic cells from rhesus monkey myeloid
    2015, 35(9):  1243-1248. 
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    Objective To approach a method for culturing dendritic cells (DC) from rhesus monkey bone marrow CD34+ cells, and identify the cells by morphological observation and cell surface marker detection. Methods Screen rhesus monkey bone marrow cells using a magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) system to collect highly purified CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were applied to isolated CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to induce bone marrow-derived DCs. Morphological changes of cells were observed under an electron microscope, and cell surface molecules were detected using flow cytometry after cells were stained with DC surface marker CD1a and mature DC surface marker CD83.Results Typical DCs with surface villous and dendritic protrusions were identified 6 days after cytokine treatment. 92.35% of the cultured cells were DC and 27.61% of the cultured cells were mature DCs (mDC). Conclusions We established a method for culturing highly purified rhesus monkey bone marrow-derived immature DCs (imDC). Characterization of imDCs and functional studies will be carried out shortly.
    The diagnosis and treatment analysis of two cases of renal neoplasm with calcification
    2015, 35(9):  1249-1251. 
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    Objective: To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of the renal neoplasm with calcification. Methods: Retrospectively summarized the clinical data of the 2 patients with calcific renal neoplasm admitted in our hospital from the May to July in 2014, then analyzed and discussed the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment combined with the literatures. Results: The two cases were both suspected of renal malignant tumor preoperatively. The case 1 was a 32-year-old male, laparoscopic partial resection of the left kidney was performed, and the postoperative pathology was clear cell carcinoma (Fuhrman level I). The case 2 was a 18-year-old male, partial resection of the right kidney was performed because of the tumor size, and the postoperative pathology was adult nephroblastoma. Conclusion: The calcific renal neoplasm is rare clinically, the property determination depends on postoperative pathology, and as to the choice of surgical method, the patients` age, the tumor size and the tumor location should be taken into consideration, and intraoperative frozen should be performed when necessary.
    Anorectal malignant melanoma:a clinicopathological analysis of seven cases
    2015, 35(9):  1252-1255. 
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    Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological features of anorectal malignant melanoma(AMM). Methods The clinical pathological and follow-up data of 7 cases of anorectal malignant melanoma were collected. The clinical and histopathological features and immunophenotype was analyzed. Results Among the 7 cases, 5 cases were female, 2 cases were male, aged 50-68 years, the average was 61 years. The tumors located in the lower rectum in 1 cases, 2 cases of teeth near the line, 4 cases of anal anus. The structure and morphology of the cancer cells were diverse. The organizational structure were mainly diffuse, focal and acinar. The cellular morphology were mainly epithelioid, spindle and lymphocyte like. And the results of IHC showed the expression of the following three markers, vimentin, S-100 and HMB45, were strongly positive in cancer cells. However, the expression of CK, EMA and LCA were negative. And 2 cases of CEA expression were positive, LI Ki-67 was 20~50%. Conclusion Anorectal malignant melanoma is one kind of rare malignant tumor and its characteristic morphology, immunophenotype could be helpful for diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
    Advances in research on ARID1A in Malignancies
    2015, 35(9):  1267-1270. 
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    SWI/SNF is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. ARID1A gene is an important subunit of SWI/SNF complexes and its dysfunction can cause abnormal chromatin remodeling resulting in tumorigenesis. ARID1A occurs frequently low expression or deletion mutation in a variety of malignant tumors, such as ovarian cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer and so on which indicates ARID1A is an important tumor suppressor gene.
    The relation between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in Xuanwei city, Yunnan province
    2015, 35(9):  1271-1275. 
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    The rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) and lung cancer morbidity in Xuanwei city of Yunnan province are among the highest nationwide, and COPD is an major risk factor for lung cancer. The concurrence of COPD and lung cancer is common in clinical practice. There are common causative environmental risk factors and pathogenic processes between the two diseases, which provides new ideas for the study, prevention and treatment of both diseases. Additionally the discussion of the relationship between COPD and lung cancer can provide references for further studies of both diseases.
    The role of Notch signaling pathway in ovarian physiology and pathology
    2015, 35(9):  1276-1280. 
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    Notch signaling pathway is involved in oogenesis and the secretion of ovarian hormones. It controls proliferation and differentiation of ovarian stem cells. In addition, the Notch pathway is involved in ovarian carcinogenesis.
    The comparison of medical education curricula in different countries
    2015, 35(9):  1281-1284. 
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    Objective In order to summarize the common characters of medical education, this research Compared curricula and educational reformation of different counties. The common characters of international medical education are useful to China’s current medical education reformation. Methods This research used method of comparative education study to compare the medical education of the U.S, the U.K and Japan. Results Although the medical education program length is different in the 3 countries, they all recognize medical education as professional education. So they all adopt muti-method to test candidates. The curriculum frameworks of medical education program of 3 countries are different, but the curriculum organization, teaching methodologies, assessment methods are similar. They all have complete quality control system. As to the medical education reformation, about half of medical schools in the U.K and Japan have implemented graduate entered medical education program. Conclusion Although medical education program length is different in the U.S, the U.K and Japan, they have some common characters. These common characters are useful to medical education reformation and quality control in China.
    Training intubation by video-laryngoscope among novice residents: digital video versus intubation model simulator
    2015, 35(9):  1285-1288. 
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    Objective To compare the effectiveness of training with a digital video disc (DVD)-based instruction versus intubation model simulator in placement of endotracheal tube by video-laryngoscope. Methods Sixty patients undergoing elective gynecology surgeries and twenty residents of Dept. of anesthesiology were randomized to place a endotracheal tube by video-laryngoscope. Results Compared with intubation model simulator, intubation time [(68±14)s vs (69±7)s], score of performance (8.24±0.64 vs 8.31±0.58), failure rate (3 times/11 vs 1time/9 residents), and instruction rate (5times/11 vs 4times/9 residents) were no statistic difference. Conclusion Digital video disc (DVD)-based instruction individuals is an alternative way to intubation model simulator in training.
    Pilot use and assessment of a virtual patient system - PUMC-DxR Clinician system
    2015, 35(9):  1289-1292. 
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    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the application of virtual patient system in medical education in China. Methods Forty-one medical students were recruited to take part in a 5-week pilot use of PUMC-DxR Clinician system, and to finish ten virtual cases totally. At the end of the pilot use, all students were required to complete a survey about PUMC-DxR Clinician system. Results General assessment scored 3.71±0.72,novelty scored 4.66±0.62,usability scored 3.51±0.87,practicality scored 4.00±0.87,and all of them were over 3 points. According to the survey, 95.1% students agreed that this kind of virtual patient system is suitable for clerkship, intern, or junior resident, and 80.5% students agreed that it is suitable to teaching. Conclusion PUMC DxR Clinician system shows good practicality and usability in this pilot use, whose value is mainly based on the training of clinical reasoning.
    Educational reform of pathophysiology oriented to clinical application
    2015, 35(9):  1293-1295. 
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    Educational reform of pathophysiology oriented to clinical application is to pass the physician qualification examination as the goal and implement pathophysiology teaching with the translational medical philosophy and promote the harmonious development of physician-patient relationship with the utilization of the development and changes of disease in the teaching process. In that way, the pathophysiology in basic and clinical medicine is worthy of the name of "bridge", and ultimately achieves the goal of "the transformation and development of the cultivation of clinical application talents".
    Assessment of the residents' clinical competence with a new electronic information system
    2015, 35(9):  1296-1298. 
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    To meet the challenges of the current evaluation system for the residents, the department of internal medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) developed a new on-line system. This new system, not only solved the problems of the current system, but also had several advantages as manpower saving, real-time update, back-to-back evaluation, convenience in comparison. This promising system is a possible solution to similar problems in other institutions.
    Initial study of stratifying management with objective structured clinical examination in resident standardized training
    2015, 35(9):  1299-1302. 
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    Objective To use objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for the stratifying management of new residents in resident standardized training. Methods Using OSCE to access new residents of resident standardized training, analyze the result and perform stratifying management and teaching based on the result. Results The result of OSCE was objective. Based on the result of OSCE, stratifying management and teaching could be performed in new residents. Conclusion OSCE could be used to access the clinical competence of new residents, and based on results of OSCE stratifying management and teaching could be performed, which could improve the efficiency and effectiveness of resident standardized training.