Table of Content

    05 October 2018, Volume 38 Issue 10
    Atorvastatin promotes the expression of bone morphology protein-7 and SnoN in the kidney of diabetic rats
    2018, 38(10):  1373-1377. 
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    Objective To observe the effects of Atorvastatin on the expression of Bone morphology protein-7 and SnoN in the kidney of diabetic rats. Methods The rats were divided into normal control(NC) group,diabetic (DM) group and atorvastatin lavage treatment (AT) group randomly.After 16 weeks,the rats were sacrificed to measure biochemical parameters ,and to observe the changes of pathomorphology.Meanwhile,immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to examine protein expression of collagen-I(Col-I),collagen-III(Col-III),BMP-7,SnoN,E-cadherin,Desmin and collagen-IV(Col-IV)in the renal tissue.Results Compared with NC group, the levels of blood glucose(BG), triglyceride(TG), kidney index and the urine trace albumin/uric creatinine (MA/CR) were increased remarkably in DM group(P<0.05). In AT group ,the levels of BG, TG, MA/CR were reduced(P<0.05). The glomerular atrophy was observed in the DM group compared with the NC group, and the alleviated renal fibrosis was observed in AT group. Compare with NC group, the expression of BMP-7, SnoN, E-cadherin were significantly decreased in DM group, the expression of Desmin, ColI, ColIII and ColIV were a significantly increased in DM group(P<0.05). In vivo,compare with DM group, Atorvastatin increase the expression of BMP-7, SnoN, E-cadherin the expression of Desmin,ColI,,ColIII and ColIV were a significantly decreased in AT group(P<0.05). Conclusion Atorvastatin promotes the expression of BMP-7 and SnoN ,therefore protect the kidney of diabetic rats.
    Effect of arginine vasopressin on GluR1-3 protein expression of AMPA receptors in rat preoptic area of hypothalamus
    2018, 38(10):  1378-1382. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on the mRNA and protein expression of GluR1-3 in the preoptic area of the rat hypothalamus. Methods After 0.5 h for intraperitoneal injection of AVP (10μg/kg) or V1a receptor antagonist (30μg/kg), the changes of the mRNA and protein expression of POAAMPA receptor GluR1, GluR2 and GluR3 subunits were analysed by reverse transcriptase real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot technology. Results Compared with control group, the GluR2mRNA was significantly decreased (P<0.05) by the injection of V1a receptor antagonist. AVP could up-regulate the protein level of POA GluR1,GluR2 receptor subunits(P<0.01), but down-regulate the expression of GluR3 protein (P<0.01). Nevertheless,the effect of AVPcould not be blocked by V1a receptor antagonist. Conclusions Exogenous AVP is involved in modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the POA by regulation expression of AMPA receptor proteins.
    Down-regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins promote apoptosis of mouse macrophages infected with MTB
    2018, 38(10):  1383-1388. 
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    Objective: To investigate the regulator role of Bcl-2 family proteins on the apoptosis of mouse Raw264.7 macrophages infected with different virulent of M. tuberculosis strains whentarget Mcl-1 expression by using RNA interference. Methods: Raw264.7 macrophages were infected by XJ-MTB, H37Rv, H37Raand BCG strains, Mcl-1shRNA was treated the infection cells. The apoptosis rate of macrophages was detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of Mcl-1 and Bax protein were detected by Western blot. The expression of Bcl-2 family genes and the expression of Caspase-3 and Cytochrome-c were detected by Real-time PCR. Results: 1) Infection with different virulence of M. tuberculosis induced mouse Raw264.7 macrophages apoptosis, down-regulate Mcl-1 could significantly increase the apoptosis rate of host macrophages infected with XJ-MTB and H37Rv. 2) Infection with XJ-MTB and H37Rv could significantly up-regulate the expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in host macrophages, the levels of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 were significantly decreased after silencing Mcl-1 expression, while increasing the expression of Bax. 3) M. tuberculosis infection could induce host macrophages Caspase-3 and Cytochrome-c expression, down-regulation of Mcl-1 could up-regulate the expression of Caspase-3 and Cytochrome-c in host. Conclusion: The expression of Bcl-2 family members in host macrophages induced by M. tuberculosis infection associated with the virulence of M. tuberculosis. Down-regulate Mcl-1 expression by Mcl-1 shRNA could promote host macrophages apoptosis.
    RIPK2-mediated autophagy on the activation of ROS, caspase-1 and IL-1β in high glucose-induced mouse glomerular mesangial cells
    2018, 38(10):  1389-1396. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of receptor interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 2(RIPK2) mediated autophagy on the activation of ROS, caspase-1 and IL-1β in high glucose-induced glomerular mesangial cells(GMCs). Methods GMCs were exposed to highglucose,RIPK2 was suppressed by NLRP3-specifc siRNA; autophagy was observed by mRFP-GFP-LC3fusion protein with confocal microscope; intracellular ROS level was detected by DCFH-DA fluorescent probe; the protein and mRNA expression of RIPK2,LC3II/I, caspase-1 and IL-1βweredetectedby Western blot and RT-PCR; the release of IL-1β was detected by ELISA. Results 1)The intracellular ROS and the expression of caspase-1 and IL-1β were increased by high glucose in a time and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05).2)The expression of RIPK2 and LC3II/I were increased by high glucosefor0-12h(P<0.05), but these proteins weredown-regulated following high glucose over 12 h(P<0.05). 3)LC3II/I expression were decreased but intracellular ROS, caspase-1 and IL-1β expression were significantly facilitated by siRNA-RIPK2(P<0.05). Conclusions RIPK2-mediated autophagy negatively regulates the activation of ROS, caspase-1 and IL-1β induced by high glucose, suggesting that a potential target for prevention and control of diabetic kidney disease(DKD).
    Recombinant newcastle disease virus IL-29 promotes the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and apoptosis related proteins in small cell lung cancer cell line H446
    2018, 38(10):  1397-1402. 
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    Object To explore the effects of rL-IL29 (recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing IL-29 ) on endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and apoptosis related protein in smll cell lung cancer cell line H446. Methods H446 cells were divided into control group, Newcastle Disease Virus NDV group and rL-IL29 group randomly, which the later groups infected with NDV and rL-IL29, respectively. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. IL-29 content in cell supernatant was detected by ELISA assay. Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of GRP78 and CHOP, which related with endoplasmic reticulum stress. Then, the experimental groups were treated with 4-PBA 4h, the expression of caspase-3 and LC3 I/II protein was detected with Western blot. Results The activity of cells decreased significantly with the increase of virus concentration, which increased significantly at 10-5 concentration (P<0.05). And the content of IL-29 in the supernatant of rL-IL29 group increased obviously than that of control group(P<0.05). The expression of GRP78, CHOP, LC3 I/II and caspase-3 had high level in NDV and rL-IL29 group than PBS group after infected 24 h. Moreover, rL-IL29 group had high level than NDV group (P<0.05). After pre-treated with 4-PBA 4h,the expression of GRP78, CHOP, LC3 I/II and cleaved-caspase-3 decreased in NDV and rL-IL29 group than control group (P<0.05). Conclusion rL-IL29 can promote the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and apoptosis related protein in small lung cancer cells.
    MAM calcium signal transduction-associated protein expression in hippocampus of mice with aging
    2018, 38(10):  1403-1407. 
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    Objective To investigate the age-related changes of MAM-coupled calcium signal transduction related proteins in mice hippocampus. Methods Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of MAM calcium signal transduction-related proteins (GRP75, IP3R, VDAC1 and Sig-1R) in hippocampus of mice at 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months old. Results The expression of IP3R mRNA in the 24 months old group was significantly lower than that in the 2 month old group (P<0.05). GRP75 mRNA and protein expression increased significantly with age (P<0.01, P<0.05). The expression of Sig-1R mRNA and protein in the 24-month-old group was significantly lower than that in the 2-month-old group (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of mRNA and protein in the hippocampus MAM calcium signal transduction-related proteins GRP75 and Sig-1R are involved in the senescence process.
    Response inhibition dysfunction in heroin addicts and the influence of long-term heroin addiction
    2018, 38(10):  1408-1411. 
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    Objective To estimate the influence of long and short-term addiction on the response inhibition function of heroin addicts. Methods 40 heroin addicts, divided into short-term group (ST group, 1-5 years, 19 participants) and long-term group (LT group,6-25 years, 21 participants), participated in our study while 40 healthy controls were matched. Stop signal task (included GO trials and NOGO trials) was used to investigate the response inhibition ability for these three groups. Results In GO trails, the reaction time of ST group[(1134±104)ms] and LT group[(1224±27)ms] were slower than controls [(1005±180)ms, P<0.05], and LT group was rather slower than ST group (P<0.05). In NOGO trails, significant differences were detected between controls[(92.5%±16.9%,83.5%±18.3%,64.3%±23.6%)] and long-term heroin addicts[(92.7%±16.7%,84.0%±18.3%,64.4%±23.4%)] when Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOAs) were 400, 600 and 800ms (P<0.05). Conclusions Heroin addiction may damage the response inhibition ability of addicts, and the longer they abuse, more seriously the deficits is.
    Myricetin combined with PLIN1 silencing promotes lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    2018, 38(10):  1412-1416. 
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    Objective To investigate the mechanism of myricetin combined with PLIN1 silencing on lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods 3T3-L1 adipocytes were routinely induced to differentiate by the hormonal cocktail. According to the optimal concentration of Myric combined with the high efficient transfection vector of sh-PLIN1, the intervention experiment was divided into four groups: control group, transfection group (sh-RNA), Myricetin group (Myric) and combination group (Myric+sh-RNA). The Oil Red O staining was used to observe the morphology of lipid droplets. The protein expression levels of ERK, p-ERK, MEK, p-MEK and p-HSL were detected by Western blot. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the content of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA) and p-PKC. Results Compared to Myric group and sh-RNA group, size of lipid droplets decreased obviously in Myric+sh-RNA group. Compared to sh-RNA group and control group,the relative value of p-PKC, p-ERK/ERK, p-MEK/MEK and p-HSL increased significantly in Myric+sh-RNA group and Myric group (P<0.05), meanwhile, the content of cAMP and PKA decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions Myric may promote lipolysis through the activation of PKC-MEK/ERK signaling pathway, and further increase expression level of p-HSL in this pathway. Meanwhile, Myric may also inhibit the activity of related factors in cAMP/PKA signaling pathway.
    HMGB1 promotes cell proliferation of primary hepatocellular carcinoma
    2018, 38(10):  1417-1421. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of the high-mobility group box-B1 (HMGB1) and the receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) in primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and to study the effect of HMGB1 on the proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells and the related molecular mechanism. Methods 25 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and corresponding normal liver tissues were collected and the expression levels of HMGB1 and RAGE in the tissue samples were observed by immunohistochemistry. HepG2 cells and normal L02 hepatocytes were cultured in vitro, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of HMGB1 and RAGE. HepG2 cells was pretreated with recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) at different concentrations (0, 10, 50 and 100 μg/L) and for different time (0, 12, 24 and 36 h), and then MTT assay were used to detect the proliferation of HepG2 cells. The expression of RAGE and NF-κB in HepG2 cells was detected by Western blot. Results The positive expression rates of HMGB1 and RAGE protein in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were 64% and 72%, and much higher than corresponding normal liver tissues of 20% and 28% (P <0.05). With the prolongation of cell culture time, the expression of HMGB1 and RAGE increased. With the increase of rhHMGB1 concentration or the prolongation of treatment time, the proliferation rate of HepG2 cells was significantly increased (P <0.05), and the expression of RAGE and NF-κB was up-regulated (P <0.05). Conclusions HMGB1 and RAGE protein are highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and hepatocarcinoma cells. HMGB1 may activate NF-κB signaling pathway by binding to its receptor RAGE, thereby promoting the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
    Nitidine chloride alleviates renal injury in diabetic nephropathy rats
    2018, 38(10):  1422-1427. 
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    Objective To observe the protective effects of nitidine chloride on renal injury in diabetic nephropathy rats, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods All rats were divided into four groups: control group, diabetic nephropathy group, and diabetic nephropathy treated with nitidine chloride (20mg/kg or 40mg/kg) groups. In addition to control group, the rest of the rats were induced for diabetic nephropathy model. After the animal model was successfully established, diabetic nephropathy rats were received nitidine chloride at dose of 20mg/kg or 40mg/kg by gavage once a day, for 7 weeks. The levels of serum insulin and glucagon were determined by commercial detection kit. The pathological morphology of kidney tissues was observed by PAS staining. Cell apoptosis in glomerular was detected by TUNEL staining. The phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 and the protein expression of TGF-β1 and Smad7 were analyzed by western blotting. Results After treatment with nitidine chloride, insulin level in the serum was increased, whereas the glucagon level was decreased. PAS staining showed that weak positive staining and diffuse glomerular sclerosis in low dose group. Moreover, no thickening matrix structure and renal tubular lesion could be observed in high dose group. Finally, western blotting showed that the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 and the protein expression of TGF-β1 and Smad7 in kidney tissues were significantly decreased after nitidine chloride administration.Conclusion Nitidine chloride protects against renal injury in diabetic nephropathy rats via inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.
    DMB induces BMSCs differentiation to osteoblasts and alleviates osteoporosis in OVX mice
    2018, 38(10):  1428-1433. 
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    Objective To determine the effect of DMB on bone formation in OVX mice via the differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts. Methods We isolated the BMSCs and identified them by flow cytometry. The mice were divided into three groups: control、OVX mice and OVX mice+DMB. DMB was given for 2 month to observe the bone formation. Results DMB induced BMSCs proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, DMB promoted osteoblasts differentiation and inhibited adipocytes differentiation. DMB could also increase the rate of BV/TV, the trabecular number and thickness. Conclusion DMB promotes osteogenesis in OVX mice through osteoblasts differentiation of BMSCs.
    Incidence types and distribution of abnormal hemoglobin in Yunnan province
    2018, 38(10):  1434-1437. 
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    Objective To understand the epidemiological status of abnormal hemoglobin disease endemic in Yunnan minority and premarital population. Methods There were tested for blood analysis, Hb electrophoresis and other laboratory tests, who 14 088 Children of 15 ethnic minorities and Han children in 22 counties and 10 cities in Yunnan ,and who People of childbearing age of 21 317 in 2012-2014.Results There weredetected abnormal Hb in 7 of the 10 states and municipalities , and 21 of the 26 ethnic groups detected abnormal Hb.Abnormal Hb is widely distributed among different ethnic groups, and there are ethnic differences:there weredifferent of ethnic groups in the same region , and the same people in different regions .Conclusions Abnormal hemoglobin has obvious genetic polymorphismsin Yunnan.The reason is mainly related to the special geographical location of Yunnan Province.The survey provided valuable basic information for the genetic consultation and prevention and control of hemoglobin in Yunnan minority nationalities.
    Bortezomib promotes cell apoptosis in Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L428
    2018, 38(10):  1438-1442. 
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    Objective: To explore the influence on L428 cell lines morphology, growth inhibition rate, apoptosis rate, tumor invasion and metastasis of different doses of Bortezomib, and then illustrate the mechanism that how Bortezomib influence the tumor invasion and metastasis so that we can provide new thought and therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of lymphoma. Methods: Inverted microscope was used to observe L428 cell growth state after treating cells with 10 nM Bortezomib for 24 h; MTT was used to detect the L428 cell growth inhibition rate after treating cells with different Bortezomib concentration and time; TUNEL kit was used to detect the L428 cell apoptosis rate after treating cells with different Bortezomib concentration and time; Transwell was carried out to detect the invasion and metastasis of lymphoma influenced by different Bortezomib doses; Western blot was carried to detect the apoptosis proteins expression of Bcl-2 and Bax influenced by different Bortezomib doses. Results: Cells have appeard cliques, wire drawing and sparse phenomenon after treating with 10nM Bortezomib for 24h when compared with the blank control group; MTT data has indicated that as the Bortezomib concentration increased from 10nM to 50nM and the treating time increased from 12h to 36h, ?the cell growth inhibition rate showed a trend of rising (P<0.05); TUNEL data has indicated that as the Bortezomib concentration increased from 10nM to 50nM and the treating time increased from 24h to 72h, ?the cell apoptosis rate showed a trend of rising (P<0.05); Transwell has indicated that as the Bortezomib concentration increased from 10nM to 50nM, the?cell invasion and metastasis ability decreased gradually (P<0.05); ?The Bcl - 2 protein level showed a trend of concentration dependence downgrade (P<0.05) and Bax protein level showed a trend of concentration dependence upgrade (P<0.05) when treating cells with 10nM, 30nM, 50nM Bortezomib for 48h. Conclusions: Bortezomib can influence the growth state and the ability of invasion and metastasis of tumor cells by influencing the expression of apoptosis proteins, and the inhibition rate of tumor cells are concentration dependence?in a certain dosage range, the study has important reference value for clinical treatment of lymphoma.
    Evodiamine decreases blood glucose in type II diabetes rats
    2018, 38(10):  1443-1445. 
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    Clinical features of 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis complicated with ANCA-associated vasculitis
    2018, 38(10):  1448-1451. 
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    Objective To analyze the characteristics of rare clinical manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis(RA) with ANCA-associated vasculitis(AAV). Methods 5 hospitalized patients from Peking Union Medical College Hospital during January 2003 to July 2015 were diagnosed as RA with AAV. The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for clinical manifestations, laboratory examination, imaging findings, and pathological results of renal needle biopsy. Results 5 patients (3 female and 2 male) were diagnosed as microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and all previously diagnosed with RA. All patients had renal abnormalities (100%), and pulmonary (60%), ENT (20%) and eye (20%) involvement was found. Wight loss was found in 2 patients. Conclusions RA with AVV is a rare clinical manifestation, but these two diseases may have a mutual genetic predisposition. Complication with AAV should be taken into considerations while new-onset renal abnormalities was found in RA patients without hypertension, diabetes, or related medication history.
    Research progress of paediatric Cushing’s disease
    2018, 38(10):  1452-1456. 
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    Paediatric Cushing’s disease, sharing the same etiology with that in adults, combines a series of clinical manifestations of hypercortisolism, attributed to the adrenal hyperplasia and hypercortisolemia caused by the excessive ACTH produced by pituitary ACTH adenoma or ACTH cell hyperplasia. Paediatric cushing’s disease has different clinical characteristics from that in adults with more complicated diagnostic procedures. Early diagnosis and treatment are very important for the prognosis of children patients.
    Advances in glymphatic system and cognitive impairment related diseases
    Qian ZHOU Hao 无LI
    2018, 38(10):  1457-1460. 
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    The glympahtic system rapidly removes metabolic waste in the brain through the drainage and material exchange between cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid. The influencing factors include AQP-4, cerebral artery pulse, sleep and body posture. Glympahtic system dysfunction can lead to a variety of diseases related to cognitive impairment. Glymphatic system function recovery may be a new way to prevent and treat diseases related to cognitive impairment.
    Role of interleukin-25 and related factors on liver fibrosis
    2018, 38(10):  1461-1465. 
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    Interleukin 25 (IL-25) is a member of the IL-17 family and plays an important role in chronic inflammation and cancer. IL-25 can activate hepatic stellate cells and induce the expression of downstream cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, which promote liver fibrosis; IL-25 can promote M2 Macrophages polarization and maybe can recruit LY-6Clo infiltrating macrophages, which inhibit liver fibrosis, Therefore, the relationship between IL-25 and its related factors with liver fibrosis is yet unclear.
    Progress in nuclear factor-kB signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of endometriosis pain
    2018, 38(10):  1466-1469. 
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    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease, affecting women of reproductive age associated with chronic pelvic pain. Activation of NF-?B has been implicated in the early development as well as processes of endometriosis lesions. In vitro and in vivo studies show that NF-?B mediated gene transcription promotes immune and inflammatory response, modulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, invasion, and angiogenesis of endometriotic cells which may attribute to changes of peripheral nerves and the peritoneal environment in endometriosis lesions and cause pain. This may indicate a new target for the cure of endometriosis pain.
    Application value of BRAF V600E as main molecular marker detections in the prognostic assessment of papillary thyroid carcinoma
    2018, 38(10):  1470-1474. 
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    Thyroid cancer is the malignant tumor with the most rapidly increasing incidence in recent years. Papillary thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 90% of thyroid cancers. Though thyroid cancer is generally associated with favorable prognosis, there are still some patients appear local recurrence and distant metastasis. Molecular marker detections of BRAF V600E combined with TERT, miRNAs and P53 contributes to evaluate prognosis and risk of recurrence, helping identify PTC patients who are most likely to have poor prognosis.
    Research progress of the Akkermansia muciniphila and it’s mechanism in obesity
    2018, 38(10):  1475-1479. 
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    The intestinal microflora is closely related to the metabolism of the human body and also participates in the development of obesity. The research of Akkermansia muciniphila has become a new direction of intervention and prevention of obesity.
    Update regarding anesthetic management of enhanced recovery after surgery in patients undergoing hepatectomy
    2018, 38(10):  1480-1483. 
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    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a series of evidence-based multimodal perioperative optimization program with multidisciplinary approach, to improve clinical outcomes and accelerate the recovery process. Hepatectomy is the preferred treatment for a variety of primary and secondary liver tumors. It is associated with a high rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The adoption of ERAS protocols in hepatectomy, including preoperative evaluation and preparation, anti-thrombotic prophylaxis, multimodal anesthesia and analgesia, and circulation and fluid management, has been shown to decrease postoperative complications, accelerate functional recovery, and shorten hospital length of stay.
    Research progress on lymphatic vessels and lymphatic circulation in central nervous system
    Xiao-peng GUO 兵 幸
    2018, 38(10):  1484-1487. 
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    The lymphatic vessel system is composed of capillary lymphatic vessels, lymphatic vessels and lymphatic ducts. The flow of lymph in the lymphatic vessel system forms the lymphatic circulation. Lymphatic circulation represents a significant supplementary part of the blood circulation, and plays an important role in the metabolic substance transportation, immune response, osmotic pressure maintenance and water balance. It is a traditional view that the central nervous system lacks lymphatic vessels and there is no lymphatic circulation in the central nervous system. However, studies regarding central nervous system lymphatic circulation and meningeal lymphatic vessels during recent years have overturned the traditional notions.
    Forecasting and control of enrollment scale of medical education in the U.K. and the U.S. and its implications to China
    2018, 38(10):  1488-1491. 
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    Objective: The U.K. and the U.S. attach importance to the scientific assessment and prediction of enrollment scale of medical education. In the United Kingdom, the total enrollment and enrollment quota for each medical school are under direct control of the government. In the United States, the number of enrollment is mainly determined by medical schools themselves. Educational subsidy is used in controlling scale of enrollment in both of the two countries. China should strengthen scientific planning and make use of economic measures in controlling the enrollment scale of medical education. All influential factors should be considered and appropriate methods be used in predicting the scale. Finally, government sectors and research institutions should collaborate closely to establish a long-term mechanism in assessing and predicting the enrollment scale of medical education.
    Development and consideration in the construction of micro-course in medical schools in China
    2018, 38(10):  1492-1494. 
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    With the arrival of the global "micro-era", the micro-course has become the inevitable trend due to its individualization, diversification, short period and brief content. Medical education should attach great importance to the basic knowledge of medicine and the cultivation of students’ clinical research capabilities. Thus, as the supplementary teaching model, the micro-course is of vital significance for medical students. However, the researches of micro-course correlated with medical education in our country are still in the primary stage. The current study summarizes the development process of micro-course in China and puts forward suggestions to strengthen the micro-course construction.
    Reflection on problems in morphological virtual slice teaching mode
    2018, 38(10):  1495-1498. 
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    Virtual slice teaching model is widely used in morphological experiment teaching. There are some problems affecting the teaching, such as low portability and shareability, decreased students’ ability to operate and observe, reduced teacher-student interactions and the weakened base of microscopic techniques. Aiming to improve the teaching and management in future, this article makes discussions on the causes of the problems and proposes solution ideas.
    Design and exploration of medical morphology experiment homework in the Information age
    2018, 38(10):  1499-1501. 
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    Morphology experiment homework is one of the important factors that influence the effect of classroom teaching. In this paper, a new homework mode of medical morphology experiment, independently designing micro-videos, is presented to enhance the vitality of laboratory classes and to improve the teaching effect. This homework mode realized the form diversification of experiment homework, the cooperation in completing the homework and the diversity of evaluation. After years of reform and exploration, this teaching method is now recognized and welcomed by teachers and students.
    Application of case report evaluation and feedback system in ultrasonic resident training
    2018, 38(10):  1502-1504. 
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    Objective To investigate the application value of case report evaluation and feedback system in residents training of ultrasound. Methods In accordance with the standardized scanning, marking, color flow, and report writing and other aspects of hospital physician assessment method, score according to the scoring method of residency training in the daily report, and were scheduled to feedback. Taking the past untrained resident's diagnosis report as the control, we made paired t test in the above aspects and regular examination results, and judged whether there was difference in the diagnostic level of the residents in the same period. Results After daily case report evaluation and feedback system training, the scores of clinical reports of all residents (total score 46.70) increased compared with the score of the control group (total score 40.70), the difference between them was significant (p<0.05). Conclusions The case report evaluation and feedback system has high feasibility in clinical training, which can improve the quality of residents’ training effectively.
    Research on practical experiences and attitudes of scientific training among 8-year program medical students at Peking Union Medical College
    2018, 38(10):  1505-1508. 
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    Objectives To investigate the attitudes, experience and self-evaluations on research training among eight-year-program medical students in Peking Union Medical College(PUMC), thereby evaluating the efficacy of current research training program and to explore more effective modes. Methods A questionnaire-based research was conducted among 64 medical students from the eight-year-program (enrolled in 2012 and 2013) in PUMC. The differences between two grades were statistically analyzed. Results Eight-year-program medical students generally agreed that clinical knowledge and skills had priority over research training during clinical training stage. Improvement in research capacity and achievements in scientific publications were the most important motivations for students. 68.8% students were interested in research training, hoping to enhance their abilities including academic writing, study design, data analysis, and experimental skills. 84.5% students agreed that research training was difficult and admitted that heavy burden of academic and clinical assignments were the biggest obstacle to research training. 82.8% of the students had research experience, but the scientific achievements they produced were scarce. The self-evaluation of students’ scientific qualities/competence was generally low. Conclusions The eight-year-program medical students of PUMC have a keen interest in research training. However, many difficulties exist. Optimization and personalization of training program is probably helpful for those medical students.
    A survey about clinical rotation in critical care medicine on eight-year medical students at Peking Union Medical College
    2018, 38(10):  1509-1512. 
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    Objective To investigate the teaching demands and practical effects of rotation in critical care medicine on eight-year medical students at Peking Union Medical College(PUMC). Methods From January 2016 to January 2018, the questionnaire survey were issued to the eight-year medical students of the 2009 to 2012 grade, which investigated the demands of the rotation, the difficulty in learning and the degree of mastery. Results A total of 89 valid questionnaires were received, which show that the eight-year medical students at PUMC had a strong demand for the knowledge of critical care medicine. Shock resuscitation、MV settings、CRRT are more difficult to learn. The degree of mastery of each point should be improved. Conclusion the difficulties and weak points in critical care teaching of eight-year medical students at PUMC are clarified initially, which is beneficial to the improvement of teaching in critical care medicine.
    Exploration of the application of OSCE to the standardized training system of residents as an entrance examination
    2018, 38(10):  1513-1516. 
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    Objective To investigate effective ways of assessing and improving clinical competence of residents, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to the standardized training system as an entrance test. Methods A total of 102 first year residents who began their training in 2016 and 2017 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH)were enrolled in the project. A 6-station OSCE was set up as the entrance examination. Results The total scores of OSCE were normally distributed. Residents enrolled in 2017 showed better results in medical history taking and total score compared with residents enrolled in 2016(P<0.05). The examination results of 2017 residents were obviously superior to the master degree candidates in each station except in physical examination station(P<0.05). Conclusions The overall design of the application of OSCE to the standardized training of residents is successful. It provides a reliable tool for assessment and enhancing clinical competence. OSCE may play an instructive role in medical training in the future.