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Table of Content

    05 November 2018, Volume 38 Issue 11
    Expression of caveolin-1 is enhanced in the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into vascular smooth muscle cells
    2018, 38(11):  1517-1521. 
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    Objective To explore the expression of caveolin-1 in the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) into vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC). Methods BMSCs from SD rats were cultured in vitro by whole-bone marrow culture. Then, testing the differentiation potential of stem cells through adipogenic, osteoplastic and chondrogenic differentiation. BMSCs were induced to differentiate into VSMC by transforming growth factor-β 1(TGF-β1) in vitro. Western blot was performed to evaluate the expression of SM-MHC, SM22α and caveolin-1. Results TGF-β1 treatment increased the expression of caveolin-1, SM-MHC and myocardin in a time dependent manner. During the stage of BMSCs differentiate into vascular smooth muscle cells, the expression of caveolin-1 was specifically increased. Conclusions This study implies that caveolin-1 may be related to the formation of smooth muscle cells derived from stem cells.
    Prediction of potential γ- and β-globin gene regulators based on transcriptome analysis
    2018, 38(11):  1522-1525. 
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    Objective To predict potential regulators of γ- and β-globin gene. Methods The RNA-seq data of differential expression between γ- and β-globin were analysed to screen the differential expressed genes and IPA was used to explore the upstream regulators. Prediction of γ- and β-globin gene regulators was conducted by STRING database and Centiscape software. Results Known globin gene regulators such as BCL11A, NF-E2, YY1, GATA1 were predicted in the protein-protein interaction network. And 14 potential regulators were both predicted from two sets of data. Conclusion MAPK1, TNF, IFN etc predicted regulators may regulate γ- and β-globin gene expression. And it requires further molecular biology experiments to confirm.
    Effect of joint line elevation after total knee arthroplasty on clinical outcomes and kinematics
    2018, 38(11):  1526-1531. 
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    Objective To evaluate the clinical and kinematic results of TKAs with posterior-stabilized (PS) or cruciate-retaining (CR) prosthesis in which the JL was elevated postoperatively. Methods Patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty between January 2013 and December 2015 were collected . The patients were divided into two groups based on the prosthesis they received (PS or CR). Clinical results were evaluated by AKS knee score、AKS function score and Feller score. In vivo kinematic analysis after TKA was performed and a previously validated three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) image registration technique was used to obtain the kinematic data. Anteroposterior translation of the medial and lateral femoral condyles, and axial rotation relative to the tibial plateau, were analyzed. Results At time of follow-up, there were differences in the AKS knee scores、 AKS function scores 、Feller scores and postoperative ROMs between the PS and CR group. In the PS group, the magnitudes of AP translation for the medial and lateral condyle were (4.9±3.0 )mm and (12.8±3.3 )mm, respectively. Axial rotation of the tibial component relative to the femoral component was 12.9°±4.5°. In the CR group, the magnitudes of AP translation for the medial and lateral condyle were (4.3±3.5) mm and (7.9±4.2) mm respectively. Axial rotation was 6.7°±5.9°. There were statistically different between PS group and CR group in kinematics post-operatively. Conclusions Postoperative JL elevation has more adverse effects on the clinical and kinematic outcomes of CR TKAs than PS TKAs.
    miR-342-3p promotes adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells
    2018, 38(11):  1532-1536. 
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    Objective To investigate the mechanism by which miR-342-3p regulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stems cells (hAMSCs) and cultured in vitro. Methods HAMSCs were obtained from healthy human adipose tissues. Adipogenic differentiation was induced by adipogenic medium, and determined by Oil Red O staining. The expression of miR-342-3p was detected by RT-qPCR. Then these cells were transfected with miR-342-3p mimics and miR-342-3p inhibitors in the study group and a negative control sequence in the control group. After adipogenic induction, RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to detect the expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα and LPL. Results The expression of miR-342-3p was significantly elevated during adipogenic differentiation in hAMSCs. miR-342-3p overexpression remarkably promoted hAMSCs differentiate into adipogenic lineage, as indicated by significant increase in the amount of lipid droplets compared with negative control transfected cells. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and LPL were all upregulated significantly (p<0.05). Adipogenesis was significantly blocked by miR-342-3p downregulation. Conclusions miR-342-3p is a differentiation enhancer of the adipogenesis of hAMSCs.
    Amyloid-β-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cell in rat retina
    2018, 38(11):  1537-1542. 
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    Objective To study the effect of amyloid-beta (Aβ) on retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in mouse retina, and explore the role of p38MAPK pathway in this process. Methods Mice were randomly divided into three groups: experimental group, control group and intervention group. Seven days after intravitreal injection, the distribution pattern of Aβ on retina tissue was detected by immunofluorescence technique. RGC in retinal flatmount were stained by immunofluorescence and counted by quantitative analysis. In situ detection of cell apoptosis in RGC layer was performed by TUNEL assay. Active caspase-3 in RGC layer was detected by fluorescent immunohistochemical methods. Cellular morphology of RGC was observed using transmission electron microscope. The expression of p-p38MAPK in the retina was observed by Western blot. Results Seven days after intravitreal injection, Aβ was found immunofluorescent stained in all layers of retina tissue, with strong fluorescence signal in retinal neurepithelium layer and photoreceptor cell layer. In experimental group, the number of RGC was significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the number of TUNEL-positive or caspase-3 positive cells was significantly increased (P<0.05), compared with that in control group respectively. The classic morphologic characteristics of apoptosis were observed in RGC by transmission electron microscope. The expression of p38MAPK phosphorylation in retina was significantly increased. In intervention group, SB203580 obviously suppressed these changes on RGC induced by Aβ. Conclusions Aβ could induce apoptosis of retina ganglion cell, and p38MAPK signaling pathway may play an apoptosis-promoting role in this process.
    Expression and effect of lncRNA GASL1 in breast cancer tissues and cell line
    2018, 38(11):  1543-1547. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of lncRNA GASL1 in breast cancer and the effect of lncRNA GASL1 on proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer. Methods RT-qPCR was used to measure the expression of lncRNA GASL1 in breast cancer tissue and cells. pcDNA3.1 plasmid and siRNA were used to over-express and knockdown the expression of lncRNA GASL1 respectively in MCF-7 cells, and then measured the proliferation through MTT method, caspase 3 Activity Assay Kit was used to measure the caspase 3 activity. Moreover, the protein levels of Bax and Bcl-2 were tested by Western-blot. Results Lower lncRNA GASL1 levels in breast cancer tissue and cells compared with paracancerous normal tissues and normal breast cell HBL-100, respectively (P<0.05). Overexpression of lncRNA GASL1 inhibited MCF-7 proliferation and promoted apoptosis (P<0.05), while knockdown of lncRNA GASL1 increased proliferation and suppressed apoptosis (P<0.05). Conclusions The expression of lncRNA GASL1 is lower in breast cancer, which is involved in development of breast cancer through the regulation on breast cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.
    Glycyrrhizin promotes cell apoptosis in oral squamous cancer cell line Tca8113
    2018, 38(11):  1548-1552. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin on oral squamous cancer cells Tca8113 apoptosis. Methods Tca8113 cells were treated with different concentrations of glycyrrhizin (0, 10, 20, 40 or 80μmol/L), cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V-FITC double staining using flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 staining. The protein expression of cytochrome C was measured by western blotting. Results Compared with control group, Glycyrrhizin concentration-dependently inhibited cell growth(P<0.05), increased Tca8113 cell apoptosis(P<0.05) and significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential(P<0.05). Moreover, the cytochrome C was translocated from mitochondria to cytoplasm(P<0.05). Conclusions glycyrrhizin increases Tca8113 cell apoptosis through mitochondria-dependent pathway.
    Effect of Bi-Min-Gan granule on cytokines in rats with allergic rhinitis
    2018, 38(11):  1553-1557. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of Bi-Min-Gan granule on cytokines in rat model of allergic rhinitis . Methods Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group (using ovalbumin as a allergen to construct a rat model of variant rhinitis), loratadine group (10 g/(kg?d), gavage treatment) and nasal sensitivity. Kang granule group (10g/(kg?d), gavage treatment), 10 in each group.The levels of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-18 and TGF-β1 were measured by ELISA before and after treatment. The expressions of T-bet and GATA-3 protein and gene expression after treatment in each group were detected by Western blot and q-PCR. Results Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-18 in the model group were increased and the level of TGF-β1 was decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-18 decreased and TGF-β1 level increased in loratadine group and Bi-Min-Gan Granule group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, GATA-3 protein and gene expression increased and T-bet protein and gene expression decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, GATA-3 protein and gene expression decreased, the expression of T-bet protein and gene level increased in loratadine group and Bi-Min-Gan Granule group (P<0.05). Conclusions Bi-Min-Gan Granule can relieve nasal inflammation in allergic rhinitis rats. Its possible mechanism is to downregulate the expression of GATA-3, up-regulate the expression of T-bet, and then regulate the balance of Th1 / Th2 cells.
    Association between components of serum high density lipoprotein and coronary heart disease
    2018, 38(11):  1558-1562. 
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    Objective To investigate the association between HDL and CHD. Methods Two hundred and eight consecutive patients who underwent angiography were took part in this study. Plasma ApoA-I and HDL-C were measured in all patients. Angiography analysis included number of lesions and gensini score as qualitative and quantitaive measurements. Clinical and HDL level were compared between patients with CHD and patients without CHD. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors for presence of CHD and CHD extent. Results The concentrations of plasma ApoA-I(P <0.015)were significantly lower in the CHD group than non-CHD group. The concentation of ApoA-I was found to be significant predictors of presence of CHD(P <0.015). The concentrations of ApoA-I decresead with the increase on vascular damage(P <0.015). Conclusions The concentration of ApoA-I is independent negative related with the presence of CHD and CHD extent.
    Treatment of early neurogenic pulmonary edema in coma patients with cerebral hemorrhage
    2018, 38(11):  1563-1567. 
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    Objective To investigate the early diagnosis of neurogenic pulmonary edema in coma patients with cerebral hemorrhage, and to formulate the treatment plan and evaluate the curative effect according to the pathogenesis of neurogenic pulmonary edema. Methods This was a retrospective study of 120 coma patients with cerebral hemorrhage, admitted to the Neurosurgery Department of the Yan'an University Affiliated Hospital between April 2011 and September 2016. Sixty patients in the treatment group received the therapies of dilating blood vessel, reducing blood vessel permeability and enhancing colloid osmotic pressure. Sixty patients in the control group did not receive the therapies above. The respiratory rate, the number of sputum suction, the saturation of blood oxygen, the chest CT, and the complications caused by pulmonary complications within 3 weeks were observed.Results The respiratory rate, the number of sputum suction and the changes of blood oxygen saturation were significantly different 3 days after treatment in two groups(P<0.05). Chest CT within 3 days after treatment revealed that double symmetrical, cloudy or patchy changes of bilateral pulmonary pleural effusion aggravated in 91 patients, which were different compared with the beginning (P<0.05). Within 3 weeks, the treatment group had 5 cases of adverse pulmonary complications, which were significantly less than 29 cases in the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion In coma patients with cerebral hemorrhage, it is an effective measure to treat neurogenic pulmonary edema by expanding blood vessel, reducing blood vessel permeability and enhancing colloid osmotic pressure.
    Effect of febuxostat on blood rheology and platelet activation in patients with gout and hyperuricemia
    2018, 38(11):  1568-1571. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of febuxostat on blood rheology and platelet activation in patients with gout and hyperuricemia. Methods Sixty-eight cases of patients with gout and hyperuricemia were collected in our hospital from April 2015 to March 2017. They were randomly divided into the control group (35 cases), received allopurinol treatment, and the observation group (33 cases) treated with Febuxostat. The clinical effects, blood rheology and the changes of platelet activation function were compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the improvement of blood rheology and platelet activation function in the observation group were more significant than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Febuxostat therapy can effectively reduce uric acid level in patients with gout and hyperuricemia; improve blood rheology and platelet activation function in patients with gout and hyperuricemia, and the curative effect is better than that of allopurinol.
    Effects of self-management intervention on the self-efficacy and the concerns of disease of patients with IBD
    2018, 38(11):  1572-1576. 
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    Objective To explore the effects of self-management intervention on the self-efficacy and the concerns of disease of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods A total of 100 Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD)patients in gastroenterology department of a tertiary comprehensive hospital in Peking city, were selected as research objects from May to November 2017 by convenience sampling method, and were randomly divided into the control group(n=50) and the intervention group(n=50). The control group received intervention measures for routine health education for six months. The intervention group received a six-month intervention measure, including self-management of drug, lifestyle, symptoms and psychosocial status. After six months, we compared the self-efficacy, the quality of life, and the concerns of disease of patients. Results The self-efficacy of disease at the six months after intervention in the control group was significantly reduced and the concerns was improved compared with the intervention group; In term of the quality of life, the systemic symptom was significantly reduced compared with the intervention group. Conclusions Self-management intervention can improve the self-efficacy and reduce the concerns of disease of patients with IBD, and it is apparent to improve the quality of life of IBD patients. It is an effective method for the management of chronic diseases.
    Multiplex SNP genotyping technology without nucleic acid extraction for noninvasive samples
    2018, 38(11):  1577-1582. 
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    Objective To introduce a nucleic acid extraction-free processing method for non-invasive samples, combining with high throughput genotyping technology, for large-scale epidemiological monitoring and genetic analysis. Methods Instead of nucleic acid extraction, we lysed saliva/ buccal swabs and captured the target DNA directly to 96-well plate by sandwich hybridization using multiple oligo probes with universal tail sequences. We tested the feasibility of the new assay for saliva and buccal swabs, and evaluated the accuracy,repeatability and reliability by comparing with commercial multiplex SNP assay (iPLEX), for the detection of 23G6PD gene variants known to be at risk for primaquine-induced hemolysis in antimalarial therapy Results In this study, the treatment of non invasive samples was applied to high throughput genotyping, The accuracy of the results was 100% concordant with sequencing ,and better than that of the traditional iPLEX method with blood samples. The results also show that the repeatability and reliability is good. A typical 40 μl saliva or one buccal swab sample is sufficient for running 2 assays. A 384-samples can be processed from sample to result in a 36-hour workflow, with a hands-on time of 2 hours. Conclusions This study represents an efficient and cost-effective approach to multiplex SNP genotyping at population level. It’s among the first to demonstrate saliva and buccal swab’s role for accurate, sensitive and high-throughput DNA analysis, providing a more feasible solution for large scale, preemptive genotyping.
    Application of wax block surface decalcification in the preparation of osteosarcoma specimen
    2018, 38(11):  1583-1586. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of wax surface deca-lcification on osteosarcoma morphology and molecular biology. Met-hods 17 specimens of osteosarcoma were collected, Two pieces of bone tissue containing tumor were cut out and divided into two gr-oups: surface decalcification group and routine decalcification group,the paraffin sections were stained with HE; Immunnohistochemical Staining was used to detected the expression of Ki-67,statb2,caspase9, su-rvivin and BAX; Fluorescence in situ hybridization with MDM2 probe was used to detected the gene amplification; Results There was no difference between the surface decalcification group and the routine decalcification group on HE staining,The differenceof antigen expression and MDM2 gene amplification was significant Conclusions The surface decalcification of wax block is superior to the routine decalcification in morphology,antigen and preservation of antigen and nucleic acid.
    Results interpretation of 24 hours urinary protein in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    2018, 38(11):  1595-1598. 
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    Objective To explore the interpretation of 24h urinary protein. Method By combination of urine routine, urine sediment and urine protein electrophoresis, the results of 24h urinary protein in a type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM2) patient were analyzed in the condition with and without a catheter. Result There’s no association between 24h urinary protein and catheter indwelling. When 24h urinary protein was positive, urine electrophoresis showed the components of urine protein are complex and presentα2 macroglobulin suggested the source of urine protein from post-renal diseases. In the urine routine and urine sediment tests lots of bacteria, blood cells and white cells were detected, which implied the patients suffering with urinary infection and caused the false positive results of 24h urine protein. Conclusion When the results of 24 h urine protein were interpreted, clinicians should combine urine routine, urine sediment and urine protein electrophoresis to give a comprehensive judgement for the source of urine protein.
    Modern cell biology research interprets the medical essence of the triple energizer /mesenchymal tissue system
    2018, 38(11):  1599-1605. 
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    With the development of science and technology, especially cell biology and medical biopsy technology, people now have more knowledge of the human body than before. It is gradually realized that some scientific discoveries in medical science are compatible with ancient medicine. This paper describes the developmental origin, function and essence of the triple energizer from the concept of mesenchymal stem cells and mesenchymal tissue system. We propose that the triple energizer is the largest tissue system which connects all organs of human body and has special tissue structure. It is distributed between human tissues and organ systems, connects and supports all tissues and cells. It organically integrates tissues and organs, and plays a role in stem cell reserve, liquid metabolism, nutrient transport, immune regulation, hormone transport and signal transmission. The triple energizer connects the viscera and all parts of the body to nourish the Zang and Fu, through the running of Qi and blood, to conduct and complete the regulation system of human meridian function. The triple energizer/mesenchymal tissue system is mainly responsible for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, tissue regeneration and functional reconstruction. It participates in human immune surveillance, response and regulation, and plays a systematic role in the regulation and function of nerve, interstitial hormone, endocrine and tissue metabolism.
    Research progress on the fuction of lncRNAs in autoimmune diseases
    2018, 38(11):  1606-1610. 
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    Long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs that are more than 200 bases in length but have no protein-coding function. LncRNAs play crucial role in epigenetic, gene transcription, protein transportation and cell development. LncRNAs play an important role in the activation and differentiation of immune cells and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
    Advances in gastrointestinal microbiome and Helicobacter pylori-related diseases
    2018, 38(11):  1611-1614. 
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    The gastrointerstinal micobiota is a large and complex microecosystem, which is influenced by heredity, diet, drug and environmental factors. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is an important pathogenic factor of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer and other diseases. It can provide a novel thought for Hp pathogenesis to illustrate the interaction between Hp and other flora in gastrointestinal tract and its effect on the development of Hp-related diseases.
    Research progress and application prospect of exosomes in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Xun LI
    2018, 38(11):  1615-1619. 
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    Exosome is an important intercellular material and information exchange tool. It regulates the tumor microenvironment through the gene and protein signaling, which in turn mediates tumor cell apoptosis, differentiation, angiogenesis and metastasis. The exosome contribute to the development and progression of HCC by a variety of mechanisms. They are closely related to the early diagnosis, drug resistance detection, prognosis evaluation and treatment of HCC. Therefore, the study of the exosome can provide new directions and opportunities for the treatment of HCC.
    Research progress of cellular autophagy induced by sonodynamic therapy in tumors and atherosclerosis
    2018, 38(11):  1620-1624. 
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    Sonodynamic Therapy (SDT) is a novel way to regulate cellular autophagy by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Autophagy of tumor cells enhances its survival ability and promotes the occurrence of tumor, while autophagy of macrophages can regress the progression of atherosclerotic plaque by reducing the accumulation of lipids and level of inflammation. In this review, the mechanism of SDT induced autophagy and its effects on tumors and atherosclerotic diseases are introduced, and its problems and prospects are pointed out.
    Advance of research study on histone deacetylase-targeted anti-triple negative breast cancer
    2018, 38(11):  1625-1629. 
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    Abnormal high expression of Histone deacetylase(HDAC) promotes malignant proliferation of many kinds of tumor and has been identified as a new target for anti-triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) therapy. In view of the important role of HDACs played in tumorigenesis, a variety of HDAC inhibitors have been developed and widely used in basic research and clinical treatment of cancer. This paper reviewed the latest research progress of HDAC promote TNBC generation and the development and application of HDAC inhibitor in anti-TNBC therapy.
    Progress on the role of miRNA in osteosarcoma
    2018, 38(11):  1630-1634. 
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    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignancy in bone tissue. Its high degree of malignancy, prone to children and adolescents. MicroRNA (miRNA) refers to a class of non-coding RNAs having a length of about 18~25 nt. miRNAs play a negative regulatory role at the post-transcriptional level by promoting target mRNA degradation or inhibiting the translation process. miRNAs are associated with the development, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of osteosarcoma, and play an important role. The differential expression of miRNAs in osteosarcoma cells provides a new target for the early diagnosis and treatment of osteosarcoma.
    Progress of CD26 in T cell and related immune diseases
    2018, 38(11):  1635-1639. 
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    CD26, as a T cell surface antigen and a costimulatory molecule, is involved in the whole process of T cell maturation, activation and the realization of immune effect. In many related immune diseases of human, including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer and so on, CD26 plays an indispensable role through the immune regulation of T cells.
    Research progress of alterations in histone acetylation in certain rheumatic diseases
    2018, 38(11):  1640-1643. 
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    The etiological factors and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is indefinite,however,many studies have found that epigenetic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases in recent years. Epigenetic mechanisms includes histone modification,chromosome modification,chromosome inactivation,RNA editing and so forth,histone acetylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms. This article mainly summarized the research progress of abnormal changes in histone acetylation and related enzymes in certain autoimmune diseases.
    Research progress in left ventricular outflow tract obstruction associated gastrointestinal hemorrhage
    2018, 38(11):  1644-1648. 
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    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and aortic stenosis (AS) are common causes of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Hemodynamic changes in HCM or AS cause shear-induced destruction of high molecular weight von Willebrand factor, which leads to acquired von Willebrand factor syndrome (AvWS). This in turn increases risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, with or without secondary angiodysplasia. Treatment like aortic valve replacement, septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation are ideal for patients with LVOT obstruction associated GI hemorrhage. Timely diagnosis and proper treatment relies on a thorough understanding of epidemiology and pathogeneesis of these patients.
    Practice of embedded SPOC in basic course of medicine
    2018, 38(11):  1649-1652. 
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    With the development of post-MOOC era, SPOC ( Small Private Online Course ) began to display its advantage in merging with the traditional classroom. We introduced SPOC model in the integrated course “Cellular biochemistry” to year 2 medical students, in which online teaching resource was combined with face to face teaching in order to explore the enhancing effect of SPOC based flipped classroom on basic medical education. Students benefit a lot from the experience especially in understanding clinical case associated biological mechanism. It is an advanced thinking experience for students and may put a foundation in their early and future clinical practice.
    Education and training of geriatricians in the United States and its implications to China
    2018, 38(11):  1653-1656. 
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    In the United States, the main channel to produce geriatricians is geriatric fellowship training in internal medicine, family medicine, and psychiatry. Qualifications for a fellow, contents of training, and competency requirement are clearly defined. China’s education and health governmental sectors should join hand to work on top-level design for the education and training of geriatricians and establish pathway to produce geriatricians in fellowship training programs. Furthermore, certification system and continuing medical education for geriatricians should be improved. The improvement of system design is capable of laying solid basis for the production of geriatricians.
    Comparison of training effect of LapMentor (virtual reality) and Simbox in laparoscopic basic skills
    2018, 38(11):  1657-1660. 
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    Objective Laparoscopic basic skills can be learned in simulators as virtual-reality (VR) or box-trainers. However, there is no clear recommendation for either box or VR trainers as the most appropriate tool for the training of acquired laparoscopic basic skills for medical students. Methods Surgical novices without prior surgical experience (medical students, n =30). Both training tools were compared in the acquirement of basic skills. Participants completed either a box- or VR-trainer curriculum and then were asked to cut out a circle marked on a stretchable material. All groups were assessed after 1 week on both VR or box-trainers. Three main parameters were assessed, namely time, precision and accuracy. Results There were no significant differences in time, precision and accuracy in these two groups. Conclusions VR or box-trainers can both be used for simulation training for laparoscopic skills. The box-trainers has much more cost-effect than VR, and it could be applied in training for laparoscopic basic skills in primary level hospitals.
    Role of surgery simulators in cataract surgery training
    2018, 38(11):  1661-1664. 
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    Cataract surgery simulator can simulate the three-dimensional image under the microscope so that the learners can complete the main steps of the cataract phacoemulsification. It has the advantages of simple and controllable and repeated operation. It improves the initiative and interest of the trainees, and promotes the reform of the clinical teaching and the teaching methods. More importantly, it is possible to avoid unnecessary injury to patients during training.
    Multi-dimensional training mode improves the hand hygiene compliance of advanced medical workers in ICU
    2018, 38(11):  1665-1668. 
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    Objective To investigate the influence of the multi-dimensional hand hygiene education on the hand hygiene compliance in refresher medical workers before and after the multi-dimensional hand hygiene education. Methods For the poor hand hygiene compliance of the refresher workers after the training in the first half of 2016, a multi-dimensional hand hygiene education have been performed with aim to improve hand hygiene compliance of newly-entered refresher. The multi-dimensional hand hygiene education bundle include "standardized hand hygiene series lectures", "Hospital Sense Group Assessment", "Clinical operation check List" and "Addition of hand hygiene supervision post". Results The trainees, who joined the department in the second half of 2016, enrolled in the training of hand hygiene. The refresher doctors’ hand hygiene compliance rose from 44.9% (318/709) in the first half to 81.4% (991/1,217) in the second half. Hand Hygiene Compliance Difference is 36.5%, (P<0.001); there are significant differences. The hand hygiene compliance of refresher nurses rose from 63.1 (318/709) in the first half to 91.9% (2,177/2,368) in the second half. Hand Hygiene Compliance Difference is 28.8%, (P<0.001); there are significant differences. Conclusions The established training model of hand hygiene could significantly improve the hand hygiene compliance of the trainees in a short-term.
    Feedback of OSCE examiners in the phase I skill examination of standardized training of Beijing radiology residents
    2018, 38(11):  1669-1672. 
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    Objective To evaluated the feedback of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) examiners in the stage I skills examination of the standardized training of radiology residents in Beijing. Methods The subjects were selected from the radiology examiners who supervised the exams in 2018.The basic features of examiners, the distribution of test sites, the satisfaction of pre-test and the questionnaire of post-test were evaluated. Results The results showed that the age of 29 examiners mainly focused on 35 to 45 and their professional title were mainly chief physician; 75.86% of examiners were very satisfied with the pre-exam training and 24.14% were satisfied with it. It was also indicated that the concept of OSCE was popularly acceptable among examiners. Examiners generally agreed that it was worth to promoting OSCE among radiology residents because its good response of professional competency in candidates. Conclusions Based on the analysis of the OSCE examiners, we believe that the standardized training system of OSCE examiners could train qualified examiners and provide a foundation of nationwide OSCE examination for radiology residents in the future.