Table of Content

    05 July 2018, Volume 38 Issue 7
    IL-6 and TNF-α promote the differentiation of human BMSCs to TFAs by mimicry inflammatory environment
    2018, 38(7):  901-906. 
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    Objective To observe whether BMSCs differentiate into TAFs in theinflammatory microenvironment simulated by IL-6 and TNF-α. Methods:The experiment was divided into 9 groups:The BMSCs group、The 50ng/ml 、100ng/ml IL-6 intervention group, The 50 ng/mL、100 ng/mL TNF-α intervention group, The 50 ng/mL IL-6+50 ng/mL TNF-α intervention group、The 50 ng/mL IL-6+100 ng/mL TNF-α intervention group、The 100 ng/mL IL-6+50 ng/mL TNF-α intervention group and The 100 ng/mL IL-6+100 ng/mL TNF-α intervention group; Continuous inducting for 42 days, detecting the changes of the BMSCs cell morphological and cycle、TAFs-tagged α-SMA and FAP protein by Phase-contrast microscope、Flow Cytometry Method and Western blot Method. Results Compared with the normal control group, The 100 ng/mL IL-6+50 ng/mL TNF-α intervention group significantly promoted BMSC cell proliferation;G1 phase decreased in proportion and S phase increased;α-SMA and FAP protein expression was significantly increased (P<0.05);Conclusions Microenvironment simulated by the 100 ng/mL IL-6+50 ng/mL TNF-α could induce the abnormal change of the BMSCs morphological and proliferative characteristics. TAFs reference molecule α-SMA sum FAP table Proportion amount high.
    Cell autophagy attenuates PM2.5-induced apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line H441
    2018, 38(7):  907-912. 
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    Objective To investigate the function of autophagy in the process of PM2.5-induced apoptosis. Methods PM2.5 was obtained from Zhanjiang in 2016. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells H441 were treated with PM2.5 at different concentrations for different times. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay; Cell apoptosis was assessed by PI and Annexin V double staining and TUNNEL assay. The expression of autophagy marker LC3II, AKT and P-AKT protein was examined by Western blot (WB). H441 cells were treated with PM2.5 following treatment with rapamycin or 3-MA, Cell viability was evaluated by trypan blue staining. Results Compared with the control group, cell proliferation was significantly inhibited at 100 μg/mL or more PM2.5 treated for 24 and 48 h. With the increase of PM2.5 concentration, the cells apoptotic rate increased significantly, the protein expression of LC3II was increased as well as the P-AKT was decreased; and the protein expression of LC3II was increased significantly after AKT inhibitor treatment. Moreover, rapamycin could decrease PM2. 5-induced cell apoptosis, and 3-MA can promotes PM2.5-induced cell apoptosis. Conclusions In H441 cells, PM2.5 activates autophagy by inhibiting activation of AKT pathway, and autophagy can mitigate PM2.5-induced apoptosis.
    Genetic polymorphism of 19 X-STR loci for forensic application in China‘s three ethnicities
    2018, 38(7):  913-921. 
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    Objective To investigate the genetic data of the 19 X-STR loci in three ethnicities of China ( Han,Gelao,Miao) and to assess the application value in forensic science. Methods The DNA samples of unrelated individual in Han ( n = 308),Gelao ( n = 398),Miao ( n = 323) populations were amplified using Microreader? 19X ID System kit, and the PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis through 3500XL genetic analyzer. The fragment sizes of alleles were taken subsequently by GeneMapper? ID-X.Allele frequencies and population genetics parameters of the 19 X-STR were analyzed by statistics. The allele frequencies were compared among the three nationalities and were compared with available data of other Han populations from different regions. Results After the Bonferroni correction at a 95% significance level (p=0.0026), no significant departures from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed. Linkage disequilibrium test showed no significant allelic association between all 19 X-STR loci after Bonferroni’s correction. The cumulative discrimination power in females and in males were greater than 0.999 999 999 99 and 0.999 999 999 94,respectively. The combined power of exclusion in trios and in duos were greater than 0.999 999 999 36 and 0.999 999 52,respectively. The p values,calculated throuth Arlequin v3.5 software,there were statistically significant differences detected at loci of X-STR among the different nationalities. Conclusions This panel of X-STR is highly polymorphic in three Chinese populations and can be served as a supplementary to the current STR system for individual identification.
    Alterations of Sirt1 and mTOR activities in mouse gastrocnemius muscle with sarcopenia
    2018, 38(7):  922-927. 
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    Objective To observe the alterations of Sirt1 and mTOR activity in gastrocnemius muscles of mice with sarcopenia. Methods aged (26 months old) and young (6 months old) male C57BL/6J mice (n=16,respectively) were randomly arranged into 2 groups respectively,n=8 in each group: middle-aged control(MC), middle-aged suspension(MS), aged control(AC) and aged suspension(AS). Aged mice were hindlimb suspended for two weeks to establish a sarcopenic model. Kits and Western blot were used to determine related factors and protein expression of Sirt1 and mTOR pathway. Results 1.the content of NAD+ and the ratio of NAD+/NADH: AC group was significantly lower than MC group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), HLS group was significantly less than the control group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). 2. Sirt1 expression: AC group were significantly higher than MC group (P<0.05), and HLS group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05).3. Sirt1 downstream substrates (PGC-1α, FOXO1 and P53), NAMPT protein expression and Sirt1 activity: AC group was significantly lower than MC group (P<0.05 or P<0.05 or P<0.01), HLS group was significantly less than the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.05 or P<0.05). 4. phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K and 4E-BP1: AC group was significantly higher than MC group (P<0.05), HLS group was significantly less than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions Sirt1 and mTOR are involved in the pathogenesis of mice with sarcopenia.
    Effects of metformin on insulin sensitivity and islet beta cell secretion in obesity patients
    2018, 38(7):  928-932. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of metformin on insulin sensitivity and secretion in patients with obesity and insulin resistance. Methods This study enrolled the obese patients with insulin resistance who were regular followed-up in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from September 2012 to May 2016 . They were divided into two groups according to their different status of glucose metabolism: normal glucose tolerance(NGT) and impaired glucose regulation(IGR).Life style intervention and metformin were given to all these patients. The antropometric and metabolic data were collected at baseline (before treatment) , 3 months and 6 months after treatment respectively. Results: 42 patients (aged 23.6±6.5 years) including 11 males and 31 females were enrolled. 19 of them were NGT and 23 were IGR ( 8 of IGT and 15 of IFG). Among all these patients, fasting insulin was significantly higher at 3 months after therapy than the baseline(P<0.05).The same situation were observed in Group-NGT(P<0.05). Fasting insulin was significantly lower at 6 months after therapy than at baseline among all patients(P<0.05). HOMA-IR showed no significant difference between the baseline and 3 months after therapy, but significantly higher at baseline and 3 months after therapy than 6 months after therapy(P <0.001). HOMA- beta was significantly(P <0.001)lower at baseline and 6 months after therapy than 3 months after therapy among all patients. HOMA- beta was significantly lower at baseline in Group-IGR than at baseline in Group-NGT (P<0.05). Conclusions The effect of metformin on insulin secretion is earlier than that of improving the insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity and insulin resistance. Metformin is more likely to promote insulin secretion in patients with normal glucose tolerance than those with IGR within 3 months of intervention.
    Exploration of possible different molecules between EBV associated and non-associated gastric cancer by omics
    2018, 38(7):  933-937. 
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    Objective EBV associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC), also called EBV positive gastric cancer had been paid much attention due to the possible suitable group for immunotherapy, which was different with EBV non-associated gastric cancer (EBVnGC) in various characteristics. This study aims to explore the molecular differences between them by omics in order to provide a basis for treatment options. Methods Chromogenic in situ hybridization was used to detect EBV-RNA status of surgical specimens and PDXs from patients. Targeted capture sequencing and protein mass spectrometry were implented to analyze the different molecules, further verify the PD-L1 expression by immunochemistry in EBV positive and negative tissues. Results Compared with EBVnGC, the higher PIK3CA mutation rate and lower TP53 mutation rate were detected in EBVaGC. Post-transcriptional regulation molecules were up-regulated and molecules associated with metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation were down-regulated in EBVaGC. PD-L1 expression in EBV positive PDXs was significantly higher than that in EBV negative (76.92% vs 25.0%, P<0.05). Conclusions There is a great difference between EBVaGC and EBVnGC on genetic variation and expression, which provides the basis for further exploration of the molecular mechanism and treatment strategy of EBVaGC.
    Knockout of IgG receptor FcγRIIB aggravates systemic and adipose tissue inflammatory responses in mice
    2018, 38(7):  938-943. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of IgG receptor FcγRIIB on systemic and adipose tissue inflammation and fat tissue lipid metabolism treated with high-fat diet (HFD). Methods We used 10 male mice with IgG receptor FcγRIIB knockout (FcγRIIB-/-) and another 10 male FcγRIIB+/+ mice as control, and treated them with HFD. At the end of the 17th week, mice were weighed, and the blood was taken by cardiac puncture after sacrifice. Adipose tissue was collected to measure inflammation and lipid metabolism. Results Compared with FcγRIIB+/+ mice, FcγRIIB-/- mice had significantly increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in the serum, and increased macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. M1 polarization gene MCP-1 and TNF-α increased (P<0.05) and M2 polarization gene ARG and IL-10 did not differ significantly. However, there was no significant difference in body mass, adipocyte size and lipid metabolism related genes PPARG, CEBPα, FASn, HSL, ATGL, UCP-1, GLUT4 expression. Conclusions Under HFD treatment, knocking out the IgG receptor FcγRIIB aggravates the inflammatory response of the whole body and adipose tissue, but cannot influence lipid metabolism of adipose tissue and body weight.
    IFNα induces cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2 expression in hepatocarcinoma cell line to activate macrophages of mice
    2018, 38(7):  944-949. 
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    Objective To explore the role of CMPK2 in the immune-mediated antitumor effect of IFNα in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to analyze the expression of CMPK2 in Huh7 after the treatment of IFNα. The CMPK2 overexpressing Huh7 cells were generated by stably infecting with lentivirus. The ATP levels in the cells and the supernatant of CMPK2 overexpressing Huh7 cells were measured by the CellTiter-Glo ATP fluorescence assay. RT-qPCR was applied to test the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages under the treatment of the supernatant of CMPK2 overexpressing Huh7 cells. Results The transcription and protein level of CMPK2 was significantly enhanced after the treatment of IFNα for 6 hours (P<0.01). CMPK2 increases the ATP level in the cells and supernatant of Huh7 cells(P<0.01). The supernatant of CMPK2 overexpressing Huh7 cells activates the expression of IL1β, IL6 and CCL5 in macrophages(P<0.01). Conclusions IFNα increases the expression of CMPK2 in Huh7 cells to activate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages.
    MGST1 overexpression promotes hepatocellular carcinoma development
    2018, 38(7):  950-956. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its significance in the development of HCC. Methods Western blot was used to measure MGST1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent tissues and HCC cell lines. Furthermore, shRNA targeting MGST1 was constructed and transected into MHCC97H and HCCLM3 cells to deplete MGST1 expression. MGST1 was over-expressed in SK-Hep-1 cells using pCDH lentivirus system. Cell proliferation and migration were analyzed by colony formation assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The subcutaneous xenograft model of MHCC97H cells in nude mice was established to check tumor development and mouse survival. Results MGST1 was higher in 71% (17/24) of HCC tissues compared with their adjacent liver tissues. Cell proliferation and migration were significantly decreased by MGST1 knockdown, while they were increased by MGST1 overexpression (P<0.05). Furthermore, mice implanted with shMGST1 MHCC97H cells exhibited retarded tumor formation and tumor progression compared with control group. Conclusions MGST1 overexpression promotes hepatocellular carcinoma development and can be targeted for HCC treatment.
    LncRNA Neat1 is upregulated in P19 cell line processed with all-trans-retinoic acid
    2018, 38(7):  957-960. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of Neat1 in the differentiation of P19 cells induced by all-trans-retinoic acid and explore the effect of histone modification on its expression. Methods The differentiation of P19 cells were induced with the α-MEM culture media containing 0.5μmol/L all-trans-retinoic(atRA) acid and the expression Mash1 which is the neural differentiation maker gene was measured. The expression of Neat1 was measured with RT-qPCR. The cells were treated with TSA, NAM or AdOx respectively to investigate the effect of the histone modifier inhibitor on the expression of Neat1. Results The model of differentiation of P19 cells induced by atRA was constructed successfully. Mash1 was upregulated significantly in the process of P19 cells differentiation.Neat1 was upregulated significantly with the induction of P19 cells treated with atRA(P<0.01). The TSA but not the NAM or AdOx could induce the expression of the Neat1.Conclusions The expression of Neat1 is upregulated significantly in the process of P19 differentiation induced by atRA and the the high level of histone acetylation maintained by TSA could induce the expression of Neat1.
    Comparison of anterograde tracing methods of mouse corticospinal tract with adeno associated virus and biotinylated dextran amine
    2018, 38(7):  961-966. 
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    Objective To compare the differences between Adeno Associated Virus (AAV) and Biotinylated Dextran Amine (BDA) in anterograde tracing of mouse corticospinal tract (CST), and to explore the advantages of the application of AAV in anterograde tracing of mouse CST axons as a neural tracer. Methods AAV8-CAG-GFP-2A and BDA were stereotactically injected into the mouse sensorimotor cortex of normal and spinal cord injury mice respectively, and immunohistochemistry was employed to observe the distribution of the labeled CST axons. The relative fluorescence of axon bundles and branches was analyzed. Results It was shown that both AAV and BDA could label the bundles of corticospinal tract and surrounding axon branches projecting into the gray matter of cervical and thoracic cords in both coronal and saggital sections of normal and spinal cord injury mice. Meanwhile, more axon branches were labeled in the AAV injected mice compared with those in the BDA injected ones. Conclusions AAV exhibits more superior performance in mouse CST axon tracing in comparison with BDA, and can be applied as a better neural tracer for the morphological study of mouse CST and related neural circuits.
    Dexmedetomidine mitigate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice by inhibition of TLR4 activation
    2018, 38(7):  967-972. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective mechanism of dexmedetomidine (Dex) hydrochloride to lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) in mice. Methods The wild type (WT) and toll-like receptor 4 knockout (TLR4?/?) C57BL/6 Balb/c female mouse randomly divided into four groups (n=10), including sham group (S group), Pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group), Normal saline group (NS group) and Dex group (D group). In S group, the chest was opened only, but in I/R group, NS group and D group, Model of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice was made by clamping left pulmonary hilum for 30min, and then reperfusion for 3 h. The lung tissue was observed by HE staining. RT-qPCR detected the expression of TLR4 mRNA, and ELISA measured the TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1, including WT and TLR4?/?, levels. WB measured the expression of NLRP3 in lung tissue in both WT and TLR4?/?. Results Dex significantly improved the pathological damage of LIRI, reduced the expression of levels of TLR4 mRNA and the production of inflammatory cytokines (P<0.01), and also suppress production and activation of NLRP3 (P<0.01)in lung ischemia-reperfusion tissue in WT mice. But this study did not found these cytokines was inhibited in TLR4?/? mice. Conclusions Dex may decrease the release of a variety of pro-inflammatory factors and inhibit production and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by TLR4, thereby protecting lung from LIRI.
    Sympathetic excitation and dendritic cell activation aggravates myocardial injury in LPS-induced rats
    2018, 38(7):  973-977. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of sympathetic excitation and dendritic cell activation on myocardial injury in LPS-induced rats. Methods:The rats were randomly divided into control group, LPS group (intraperitoneal injection of LPS :10 mg/kg), the intervention group was given beta receptor blocker Ate (5 mg/kg) and DC inhibitor VAG539 (30 mg/kg gavage 2 times a day for 2 days) respectively after LPS administration. The powerlab system was used to record the hemodynamic and sympathetic data. The concentration of norepinephrine (NE) in plasma was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the expression and positive cells of TNF-αand DCs in myocardium were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the control group, the plasma NE level significantly increased(P<0.05);The expression of TNF-αand DCs in heart tissue significantly increased (P<0.05);the renal sympathetic nerve activity(SNA) significantly increased between the three groups after LPS administration for 24h. Compared with the LPS group, the plasma NE level significantly decreased(P<0.05);The expression of TNF-αand DCs in heart tissue significantly decreased (P<0.05);the renal SNA significantly decreased after Ate and VAG539 administration(P<0.05).Conclusions Excessive activation of sympathetic nervous system and activation of DC aggravate myocardial injury induced by LPS in LPS-induced rats.
    Auditory brainstem response may predict behavior threshold of children with hearing loss
    2018, 38(7):  978-982. 
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    Objective To investigate the impact of degree of hearing loss on auditory brainstem response predictions of behavioral thresholds. Methods During January 2012 to January 2016 period in Affiliated Hospital of Yan'an University, a total of 179 patients with different hearing loss degree (a total of 311 ears) patients were treated with auditory brainstem response (ABR), performed threshold behavior test, analyed the auditory brainstem electric response and behavioral threshold correlation and the factors that affect the ABR thresholds and behavioral threshold value and the threshold of ABR and correction factor and linear regression equation for different frequency stimulation. Results ABR threshold was positively related to threshold behavior for the different frequencies stimulation, ABR threshold could predicte threshold behavior(P<0.05); ABR threshold value to predicte behavioral threshold difference error and the degree of hearing loss(P<0.05), through the relevant correction factors can reduce the prediction error. Conclusion Auditory brainstem responses could effectively predicte the hearing loss in children with behavioural thresholds, differences between the degree of hearing loss influence auditory brainstem response and behavioral threshold value and constant correction coefficient was conducive to auditory brainstem electric response. The accuracy of the behavior threshold should be predicted.
    Effect of microecological therapy on rotavirus diarrhea immunologic function in infants
    2018, 38(7):  988-992. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of microecological therapy on rotavirus (RV) diarrhea in infants and influence of it on the infants’ immunologic function. Methods 150 infants with RV diarrhea were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group, each with 75 cases. The control group was given the treatment of montmorillonite powder. While the experimental group was given live combined bifidobacterium and lactobacillus tablets based on the application of montmorillonite powder. The clinical efficacy and the improvement of clinical symptoms were compared between the two groups. To detected RV antigen and immunologic function with colloidal gold method. Immune function was detected by flow cytometry and ELISA.Results The total effective rate of the experimental group were 74.7%,and it was significantly higher than that of the control group which was 90.7% (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the antidiarrheal time, fever clearance time and disappearance time of vomiting symptoms in the experimental group were shorter (P<0.05). The negative conversion rate of RV virus antigen in the experimental group after 1 and 2 weeks treatment were significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). After 3 weeks treatment, RV virus antigen in the experimental group all turned negative, but the control group still had a positive rate of 12.0% (P<0.05). The peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in the experimental group after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment and those in the control group after treatment (P<0.05), as well as the levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM (P<0.05). No adverse reactions occurred during the treatment period in the two groups. Conclusions Microecological therapy has an exact curative effect and high security in the treatment of infantile RV diarrhea. And it could effectively improve the immunologic function of the infants.
    Etomoxir strengthens the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on lung cancer cell line A549
    2018, 38(7):  993-998. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of the combination of CPT1 inhibitor etomoxir and chemotherapy drug-- cisplatin on A549 cells proliferation and migration of lung cancer. Methods CCK8 was applied to investigate the effects of the combination of etomoxir and cisplatin on A549 survival. Transwell test was used to detect migration of lung cancer cell line A549 cells treated with the combination of etomoxir and cisplatin. Apoptosis of lung cancer cells was detected by annexin V/PI. A549 cells transplanted mice were used to test therapeutic effect of etomoxir combined with cisplatin. Results Tumor cells proliferation and migration wasinhibited by the com-bination of etomoxir and cisplatin. And apoptosis of tumor cells was enhanced by the combination of etomoxir and cisplatin can inhibit. After the treatment of the combination of etomoxir and cisplatin, tumor growth of mouse was inhibited. Conclusions The combination of etomoxir and cisplatin can decrease tumor cells survival and induce tumor cells apoptosis, and then inhibit tumor growth in mouse lung cancer model.
    Treatment of blood disease with chronic subdural hematoma
    2018, 38(7):  999-1002. 
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    Objective To understand the characteristics of patients with blood disease and chronic subdural hematoma.,and the effect of blood disease on the treatment of chronic subdural hematoma. To guide the treatment of patients who both with blood disease and chronic subdural hematoma.Methods Through a retrospective study of the cases of chronic subdural hematoma from January 1, 2000 to June 1, 2017 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, the following items were investigated. 1).According to whether or not they were associated with blood disease, the collected cases were divided into the blood disease group and the non-blood disease group. And the clinic data of the sex composition, average ages, treatment effect and mortality were compared.2). According to the treatment, the cases with Blood disease were divided into the surgical group and the conservative group. And the treatment effect and mortality were compared. Results A total of 433 patients with chronic subdural hematoma were included in this study, including 35 patients associated with blood diseases.1) . Compared to the non-blood disease group, the patients in the blood disease group were younger(P<0.01);the male ratio was lower (P<0.01); the treatment effect was lower(P<0.001) and the mortality was higher(P<0.001). 2). Within the patients with blood disease, the surgical group had the better treatment effect(78.9%vs31.3%,P<0.01) and the lower mortality(15.8%vs50.0%,P<0.01). Conclusions 1).The patients in the blood disease group are younger and the male ratio is lower than the non-blood disease group; 2). The blood disease is a risk factor for the treatment of Chronic Subdural Hematoma; 3). The patients who both with the blood disease and the Chronic Subdural Hematoma should be treated by surgery.
    Impact to life quality from treatment with microvascular decompression in patients with hemifacial spasm
    2018, 38(7):  1003-1006. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of microvascular decompression surgery on quality of life in patients with hemifacial spasm. Methods A clinical data collection of 224 adult patients with hemifacial spasm treated by the surgery was conducted between 2012 to 2017. The degree of spasm and effect of the operation were evaluated by Cohen Grading Standard before and after the surgery. The quality of life was evaluated by the HFS-8 scale. The results were analyzed statistically. Results According to Cohen Grading Standard, symptoms were improved significantly 6 months after the surgery. The effective remission rate and the total effective rate of the surgery were 92.7% and 97.6% respectively. The score of HFS-8 scale was significantly lower than before treatment (2.71±3.25 VS 18.01±4.57, p<0.05); The scores were significantly different before and after the surgery in patients with different degrees of remission, except for the “invalid” group (p=0.071); The scores of patients with different strengths of the spasm were significantly improved (p<0.05), and the Pearson correlation coefficient suggested that the HFS-8 score was significantly correlated with the severity of the spasm. Conclusions Microvascular decompression is one of the preferred treatments of hemifacial spasm, which can effectively improve the the quality of life in patients with hemifacial spasm.
    ox-LDL inhibits S1PR1 expression in murine macrophage strain cells
    2018, 38(7):  1007-1008. 
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    Progress of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell therapy for osteosarcoma
    Chen-Xi TONG Yin-Hong SONG
    2018, 38(7):  1012-1015. 
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    Osteosarcoma(OS) is one common type of bone malignancy. Conventional treatments improved survival dramatically. However, conventional therapies reveal the limited effects for patients with metastatic disease. Targeting osteosarcoma-associated antigen, chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell(CAR-T) therapy is promising treatment. Specific CAR-T treatments of osteosarcoma including targeting HER-2, IL-11Rα, ROR1 and GD2 have shown a certain therapeutic effect on osteosarcoma in some basic and clinical studies.
    Research progress of chimeric antigen receptor T cells in the treatment of primary liver cancer
    2018, 38(7):  1016-1019. 
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    CAR-T technology as a kind of immunotherapy, from the earlist generation of the first to the current fourth generation, its cytotoxic, anti-tumor immune effect greatly enhanced, but also challenged by safety issues. It shows a certain advantage in the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. It indicates that the era of precise individualized liver cancer treatment, immune therapy, especially CAR-T technology combined with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, local treatment and other comprehensive treatment will play a more powerful role.
    Research progress of macrophage autophagy in atherosclerosis
    2018, 38(7):  1020-1024. 
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    Autophagy is a self-protecting cell catabolic pathway. That macrophages involved in lipid metabolism disorders is the basis of atherosclerotic lesions. Autophagy plays an important role in the inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis and the promotion of cholesterol efflux. The macrophage autophagy can promote lipid metabolism, reduce the formation of foam cells, reduce the inflammation signal, thereby inhibiting atherosclerosis. Induction of macrophage autophagy may have far-reaching significance in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
    Research progress of Notch signaling pathway in tumor
    2018, 38(7):  1025-1028. 
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    Notch gene encodes a class of highly conserved cell surface receptors that determine the fate of cells in embryonic development and mature tissue, which is an important pathway for the communication between adjacent cells, and then regulate of cell development, proliferation and apoptosis. The occurrence and progression of multiple tumors are associated with abnormal Notch signaling pathways. For different tumors, it is important significance for anti-tumor therapy to effectively regulate the Notch participants and target molecules.
    Latest progress of the tumor suppressor gene and oncogene
    2018, 38(7):  1029-1033. 
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    Under normal circumstances, tumor suppressor gene monitors cellular proliferation signals and prevents abnormal cell proliferation through inhibiting cell cycle progress, promoting cell senescence or apoptosis, thus achieves the function of cancer inhibition. On the contrary, the function of oncogene is to facilitate cell to escape from cell cycle control and promote the cell proliferation. Oncogenes could also inhibit cell apoptosis and results in uncontrollable cell growth. However, tumor suppressor gene may be converted to oncogene in different cellular context and gene mutation status, and vice versa.
    Research progress of the association between intestinal microflora and intestinal diseases
    2018, 38(7):  1034-1037. 
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    The largest microbial community of the human microbiome is located in the digestive tract and performs vital functions. The changes in the composition and function of intestinal microflora can influence the occurrence, development and prognosis of intestinal diseases. Diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases are common intestinal diseases, and the relationship between them and intestinal microflora has attracted more and more attention.
    Interrelationship between stressors, personality characteristics and social support of medical postgraduates
    2018, 38(7):  1038-1041. 
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    Objective To explore the current sources of stress for medical graduates and their personality characteristics and social support. Methods 208 Peking Union Medical College postgraduates were surveyed by questionnaire with the Graduate Student Stressor Scale, Symptom Checking List (SCL-90), NEO Five-Factor Inventory and Perceived social support scale (PSSS). Results According to the five common stressors such as academic, economic, employment, physical and mental health, and tutor relationship, single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant differences in the composition of pressure sources between different sexes and grades. Univariate correlation analysis showed that all five dimensions of stressors had a significant positive correlation with anxiety and depression symptom. There was a positive correlation between stressor and neurotic personality, and significant negative correlation with extroversion and rigorous personality. Furthermore, the stressors were significant negative correlation with perceived social support. Conclusions Medical graduate students are under various pressures at present. It is necessary to pay more attention to the education and training in the future and adopt diversified measures to rationalize them.
    SECTRA 3D real-time reconstruction of virtual simulation technology in the anatomy teaching of otolaryngology
    2018, 38(7):  1042-1045. 
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    Objective To explore SECTRA 3D real-time reconstruction of virtual simulation technology in the anatomy teaching of otolaryngology. Method Eighty medical students who have received traditional class teaching of otolaryngology anatomy joined the SECTRA 3D real-time reconstruction class to study the major anatomic knowledge of otolaryngology. Questionnaires and exams were provided for them before and after the SECTRA 3D real-time reconstruction class.Results The test scores were 79.19±10.39 before 3D class and 87.69±10.25 after 3D class. After teaching, the scores improved significantly.Conclusion Application of SECTRA real-time reconstruction of 3D virtual simulation technology in otolaryngology anatomy teaching, can help medical students to master the anatomical knowledge better than the traditional class teaching and can stimulate their interests to learn otolaryngology anatomy.
    Clinical application of PBL combined with multiple pedagogical methods in training of communication between doctor and patient in pediatrics
    Ji Li
    2018, 38(7):  1046-1049. 
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    Objective To investigate the application effect of PBL combined CBL and scene simulation teaching method in pediatrics communication course of doctor and patient. Methods 53 students from chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were selected, 26 students received regular PBL teaching method as the control group, Another 27 students received PBL combined with CBL and scene simulation teaching method as the observation group. Score assessment score, related knowledge, classroom teaching effect and learning promotion among the two groups were compared. Results Students in the observation group had a higher assessment score, related knowledge in pediatrics score, teaching effect score and learning promotion score (P<0.05). Conclusion PBL combined with CBL and Scene Simulation teaching method can optimizing the learning atmosphere in pediatrics, improving communication skills between medical students and children and family members, promote learning,it is worthy of clinical application.
    Practical exploration of multi-teaching model in pediatric teaching among undergraduate medical students
    2018, 38(7):  1050-1052. 
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    Objective To compare the effectiveness of implementation of multi-teaching model (MT) and case based teaching (CBT) in pediatric teaching among undergraduate medical students. Methods Eighty one trainee students were divided into CBT and MT groups. Scenario based teaching (SBT), sandwich teaching (ST) and CBT were given to students of MT group. Results The self evaluation scores of “how much have you grasp before the class”by students after class in MT group were higher than those of CBT group[5.0(2.5,7,5) vs 4.0(3.0,5.0),Z=2.011,P<0.05]. The scores of obstructive structured clinical examination after training of MT group were higher than those of CBT group[ 93.0(90.3,97.0) vs 83.25(78.3,86.4),Z=7.752,P<0.001]. Conclusions MT is better than CBT in pediatric training among undergraduate medical students.
    An analysis based on network reports of workplace violence on healthcare providers in China, 2013–2016
    2018, 38(7):  1053-1058. 
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    Objective: To explore the distribution characteristics and potential causes of workplace violence on medical workers which were represented in reports, thus providing measures for prevention of medical violence. Methods: We collected the data of medical violent events that were reported from 2013 to 2016 by searching the Internet, and then analyzed geographical distributions, temporal distributions, causes and consequences of these reported events. Results: These reported violent events mainly occurred in the eastern part of China, tertiary grade A hospital and emergency department. There were highest incidences in summer from May to August. Assaulters were mainly young men and unsatisfaction of therapeutic results was the main cause. Conclusion: The occurence of medical violent events is related to area, time, the level of hospitals and department. Analysis of background and the cause might provide the basis for the prevention and intervention of the medical violent events.