Table of Content

    05 June 2018, Volume 38 Issue 6
    NO donor V-PYRRO/NO inhibits expression of leukotriene C4 synthase in early stage of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
    2018, 38(6):  745-750. 
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    Objectives: To explore the mechanism underlying a selective liver nitric oxide donor V-PYRRO/NO effects on the gene expression of LTC4 synthase (LTC4S) during hepatic I/R. Methods: Adult male SD rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (Sham), ischemic-reperfusion group(I/R) and V-PYRRO/NO groups. Liver subjected to 1h of partial hepatic ischemia followed by 5 h of reperfusion, saline or V-PYRRO/NO(1.06mmol/kg/h) administered intravenously. The mRNA expressions of LTC4S in rat liver tissue were examined by RT-PCR method, the protein expressions of NF-κB p65, p50 and IκB? in liver cell lysates and nuclear extracts were detected by western blot analysis. Results: hepatic mRNA expression of LTC4S in I /R group was higher (P<0.05) than that in sham group whereas it was lower in V-PYRRO/NO group than that in I /R group (P<0.05). Moreover, compare with sham group, the protein expressions of NF-κBp65 and p50 in nucleus extract were markedly increased(P<0.01) but significantly decreased in cytoplasm(P<0.01) in I/R group. V-PYRRO/NO reversed completely the increase of these protein expressions in nucleus extract (P<0.05) and the decrease of them in cytoplasm (P<0.01, P<0.05) during hepatic I/R injury. However, IκB? protein in three groups not changed. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed that no marked positive staining for NF-κB p65 was presented in sham liver, I/R liver exhibited strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positive staining for NF-κB p65, but V-PYRRO/NO I/R group liver presented slight cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. Conclusions: V-PYRRO/NO might down-regulated LTC4S mRNA expression by inhibiting NF-κB activation independent of IκB? during hepatic I/R injury.
    Endothelial progenitor cells with overexpressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 reduce monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats
    2018, 38(6):  751-758. 
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    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) overexpressing angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on rat models of monocrotaline (MCT) induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods EPCs were extracted, purified and identified from the very beginning. The lentivirus vector carrying ACE2 gene was infected with EPCs in order to prepare the ACE2- EPCs. Besides, the expression levels of ACE2 and proliferation as well as tube function of EPCs were detected before and after the transduction. The SD rat were randomly divided into control group, MCT induced pulmonary arterial hypertension group (PAH group), ACE2 transduction of endothelial progenitor cells group (lenti-ACE2-EPCs group) and endothelial progenitor cells group (EPCs group). The mean pulmonary artery pressure of rats (mPAP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RV/LV+S) were determined in the third week after the molding; the lung tissue specimens were stained with HE and the pulmonary arterial wall thickness index (TI) as well as area index (AI) were also calculated; The expression levels of ACE2 in lung tissue were detected by Western blot. Results The mPAP, RV/LV+S, TI and AI detected in PAH group in the third week after the molding were markedly lower than those in control group (P<0.01); The mPAP, RV/LV+S, TI and AI detected in lenti-ACE2-EPCs group in the third week after the molding were markedly lower than those in PAH group and EPCs group (P<0.01); The expression level of ACE2 in lung tissue of lenti-ACE2-EPCs group was significantly higher than that in PAH group (P<0.01); The mPAP, RV/LV+S, TI and AI detected in EPCs group in the third week after the molding were markedly lower than those in PAH group (P<0.01), while higher than that when compared with control group and lenti-ACE2-EPCs group (P<0.01). Conclusions ACE2 overexpressing in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can effectively reduce the mean pulmonary arterial pressure in PAH rat models, and the therapeutic effect of ACE2-EPCs is generally better than that of EPCs.
    FGF9 and CHIR99021 induce embryonic stem cells forming kidney-like structure
    2018, 38(6):  759-763. 
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    Objective To induce embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to differentiate into the renal cells in vitro and to spontaneously formed the kidney-like structure including glomerular, proximal tubules, distal tubules and vascular network. Methods ESCs were cultured to 40-50% of confluence. Under the action of cytokine FGF9 and CHIR99021, the differentiation of ESCs was induced to form the kidney-like structure, which was examined by immunofluorescence staining and electron microscopy to observe its internal structures and take images. Results Through the action of cytokine FGF9 and CHIR99021, ESCs can be induced to differentiate into renal like structures, including glomerular, proximal tubules, distal tubules and vascular network, which was confirmed by the structural identification. Conclusions The kidney-like structure generated by the differentiation of ESCs contains complete renal units and vascular network, which is similar to the normal kidney.
    YAF2 promotes tumor cell proliferation via targeting cyclin D1 expression
    2018, 38(6):  764-770. 
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    Objective This study aims to explore the molecular mechanism by which YAF2 up-regulates cyclin D1 expression in tumor cells as well as the effect of YAF2-cyclin D1 regulatory loop on tumor cell proliferation. Methods Overexpression and knockdown experiments combined with Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR were used to detect the expressions of YAF2 and cyclin D1; Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to investigate the effect of YAF2 on cyclin D1 promoter activity; Flow cytometry analysis was carried out to elucidate the effect of YAF2 on cell cycle progression through targeting cyclin D1; Colony formation assay was employed to determine cell proliferation under different YAF2 and cyclin D1 expression levels. Results YAF2 upregulates the expression of cyclin D1 at both the mRNA (P<0.05) and protein levels; YAF2 activates the promoter activity of cyclin D1 (P<0.05); YAF2 silencing increases the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase (P<0.0001) and reduces the proportion of cells in S phase by regulating cyclin D1 (P<0.002); YAF2 facilitates the cell colony formation via targeting cyclin D1 (P<0.05). Conclusions In tumor cells, YAF2 promotes the expression of cyclin D1, and enhances cell cycle progression and cell proliferation.
    Twist promotes cell migration and invasion in human breast cancer cell line Hs578T
    2018, 38(6):  771-775. 
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    Objective To study the effects of Twist gene silencing on human triple-negative breast cancer Hs578T cell migration and invasion and its potential mechanisms. Methods The lentiviral vectors with Twist gene-targeted specific shRNA and the negative control were constructed, then transfected into the human triple-negative breast cancer cell line Hs578T to establish the stable cell lines of Twist gene silencing. The blank group (blank), negative control group (shNC) and Twist gene silencing group (shTwist) were set up. After screening by puromycin, the fluorescence expression and the infection efficiency of each group cells were observed by inverted fluorescence microscope. The expression of Twsit mRNA and protein level was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Transwell migration and invasion experiments were performed to measure cell migration and invasion abilities, respectively. Western blot was used to detect the levels of p-AKT, AKT, p-ERK1/2 and ERK1/2 proteins. Results Twist gene was successfully knockdown in human triple-negative breast cancer cell line Hs578T. Compared with the blank group and shNC group cells, the cell migration and invasion ability of the shTwist group cells were decreased significantly (p<0.05, p<0.05), and the expression of Twist downstream p-AKT and p-ERK1/2 proteins were also reduced notably in the shTwist group cells (p<0.05, p<0.05). Conclusions Twist promotes cell migration and invasion via AKT/ERK signaling axis in human triple-negative breast cancer cell line Hs578T.
    SIRT6 regulating IGF2 though recruiting mRNA binding protein IMP1 in 293T cells
    2018, 38(6):  776-779. 
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    Objective To investigate the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism of IGF2, which is an important tumor regulator, by SIRT6. Methods SIRT6 was overexpressed in 293T cells and IP was used to enrich SIRT6 and mass spectrometry(MS)was used to detect the protein that interacted with SIRT6.Western blot was used to validate the interacted protein and its acetylation factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1(IMP1). SIRT6 did not change the acetylation modification status of IMP1 , but the phosphorylation modification status of IMP1 was elevated in the presence of SIRT6. Conclusion SIRT6 may regulate IGF2 though promoting the phosphorylation of IMP1 in 293T cells.
    miR-210 plays a role in the transformation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)
    2018, 38(6):  780-786. 
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    Objective To investigate whether miR-210 played a crucial role in the process of inducing the transformation from co-cultured adipose derived(AD)-MSCs into CAFs. Methods Co-cultured adipose derived (AD)-MSCs with breast cancer cells (BCCs) lines in vitro and detected the expression of miR-210 using RT-qPCR. The expression of CAFs characteristic markers including α-SMA and tenascin-c were measured by RT-qPCR and the expression of α-SMA and FAPA were assessed by Western blot. Co-injected MCF-7 cells transfected with miR-210 inhibitor or miR-NC with MSC at 1: 1 ratio into the immunodeficient nude mice subcutaneously and observed tumor growth in vivo constantly. Results miR-210 were all up-regulated when a variety of breast cancer cells were co-cultured with MSCs (P<0.05). Inhibition of miR-210 in tumor cell could inhibit the transformation from MSCs into CAFs (P<0.05). Animal experiments further confirmed that inhibition of miR-210 in tumor cell could reduce tumor growth (P<0.05). Conclusion As an important information molecule, miR-210 mediates the transformation from MSCs to CAFs in the tumor microenvironment.
    Screening alternative splicing on long noncoding RNAs regulated by PTB in glioma
    2018, 38(6):  787-792. 
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    Objective To further investigate the role of PTB in regulating the alternative splicing of lncRNAs in a glioblastoma tumorigenesis, we performed detailed analysis for detecting and identifying alternatively spliced lncRNAs. Methods Analyzing array data and screening a specific set of alternative spliced lncRNAs. Total RNA was isolated from PTB knockdown glioblastoma cells (U87MG) or glioblastoma and normal cell lines and tissue samples, and subjected to Real-time PCR (RT–PCR) assays to detect the expression level of spliced transcripts. Alternatively spliced lncRNAs were identified as targets gene that may be regulated by PTB protein through knocking down method. Nuclear and cytoplasmic isolation were performed on T98G cells to identify cellular location of lncRNA. Results Our results uncovered PTB which impact on the transcript levels of several lncRNAs including Linc00882. Interestingly, the lncRNA linc00882 significantly exhibited a differential splicing pattern between two splice variants in the PTB-abundant glioblastoma cells. The alternative splicing transcripts were located in cell cytoplasm. Conclusions The data suggest PTB might have effect on the alternative splicing of linc00882 in glioma.
    Phenotype change of glioma stem cells is related with the RNA binding proteins in hypoxia
    2018, 38(6):  793-797. 
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    Objective To explore the relationship between the change of phenotype of glioma stem cells and the expression of RNA binding proteins in hypoxia. Methods Glioma stem cells (U87MG-SLC and GSC5) were cultured under normoxia (20%O2) and hypoxia (1%O2). Cell proliferation was measured by MTS assay and self-renewal ability was determined by tumorsphere formation assay. The expression of RNA binding proteins and stemness markers proteins were examined by Western blot and made statistics. Results The proliferation of glioma stem cells was inhibited and the self-renewal ability was promoted in hypoxia. Meanwhile, hypoxia significantly promoted the expression of HIF-1α and stemness markers.Under hypoxia, the expression of RNA binding proteins have changed. The expression of hnRNPF, UNRIP and HuD increased . Meanwhile the expression of PCBP2 and UNR was downregulated. But, other RNA binding proteins(hnRNPK, ADAR1, PCBP1, CIRP, EBP1, eEF1A,PTBP1,PTBP2)had no significant change. Conclusions The change of phenotype of glioma stem cells is related with the RNA binding proteins (hnRNPF,UNRIP,HuD,PCBP2 and UNR) in hypoxia.
    Inhibitory effects of carboxyamidotriazole on cytokines production by peritoneal macrophages from adjuvant arthritis rats
    2018, 38(6):  798-802. 
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    Objective To explore the effects of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) on cytokines production by peritoneal macrophages from adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats in vitro. Methods Freund’s completed adjuvant was used to induce AA in rats. Peritoneal macrophages were prepared from asepsis and incubated with CAI (10, 20, 40 μmol/L) in vitro. The contents of TNF-α、IL-1β and IL-6 in the culture supernatant were measured by ELISA, and mRNA expressions of TNF-α、IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by Real-time Quantitative PCR. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity in the nuclear protein was detected with TransAM kit. Results The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the culture supernatant, their intracellular mRNA expressions and NF-κB p65 DNA-binding activity in the peritoneal macrophages of AA rats were significantly inhibited by CAI (20 and 40 μmol/L) (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Conclusions CAI could decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB, which might be associated with its anti-arthritic mechanisms.
    Signal molecule 3-oxo-C12-HSL of Pseudomonas aeruginosa promotes autophagy of mouse alveolar macrophages MH-S cells
    2018, 38(6):  803-808. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of 3-oxo-C12-HSL on autophagy in mouse alveolar macrophages MH-S cells. Methods: MH-S cells were treated with culture supernatants of the mutant and wild type PA strains of LasI gene (3-oxo-C12-HSL synthetic gene) and chemically synthesized 3-oxo-C12-HSL signaling molecules. GFP puncta was observed by Laser confocal fluorescence microscopy and the ratio of LC3II/LC3I was detected by western blotting to detect the formation of autophagic. Autophagic Flux was also detected by monitoring the degradation of p62 and the change of chloroquine to LC3II/LC3I ratio. Results The supernatant of the culture medium of the wild type PA strain increased the GFP puncta of the MH-S cells (P<0.05) and the ratio of LC3II/LC3I (P<0.01), The mutant PA strain of LasI gene cannot cause the above changes related to autophagy. The chemically synthesized 3-oxo-C12-HSL signal molecules can increase the number of autophagic bodies and the expression of LC3II (P<0.01). Autophagic substrate p62 is degraded by 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor, enhanced LC3II accumulation caused by 3-oxo-C12-HSL (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusions 3-oxo-C12-HSL increases the level of autophagy in MH-S cells.
    Inhibition of BCAR1 decreases p-P38 expression in lung cancer cell line A549
    2018, 38(6):  809-814. 
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    Objective To discuss the effect of breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1(BCAR1) knockdown on expression of p38 and p-p38 in lung cancer A549 cells. Methods Normal A549 cells (control group), A549 cells with RNAi letiviral vector of BCAR1 (interference group) and A549 cells with negative control letiviral vector (negative group) were cultured. Western blot was used to detect the expression of p38 and p-p38. The proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion were measured by colony formation assay, flow cytometer, Transwell experiment and scratch adhesion test, respectively. Results p-p38 expression in interference group cells was significantly lower than that in other two group cells(P<0.05).G1 phase of interference group cells was significantly increasing than that in other two group cells(P<0.05).The proliferation, migration and invasion of interference group cells were all significantly suppressed compared with that of other two group cells(P<0.05). Conclusions BCAR1 knockdown decreases p-p38 expression and inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 cells.
    Prokaryotic expression and one-step purification of soluble diphtheria toxin variant CRM197
    2018, 38(6):  815-820. 
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    Objective To construct a novel prokaryotic expression system, in which cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) can be expressed as soluble form in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytoplasm and purified by simply one-step Ni-NTA affinity purification. Methods The CRM197 coding sequence were cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+) as an fusion protein with Trx tag,and the HRV3C (human rhinovirus 3C) protease recognition sequence and 6 histidine sequence were added to the N-terminal of CRM197. HRV3C protease gene was cloned into another prokaryotic expression plasmid pGArasd. Both plasmids were co-transfected into E. coli Origami B (DE3) and induced mildly at 15℃. CRM197 recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity matrix. Results The free soluble His-tagged CRM197 protein was released by cleavage of the accompanying expressed HRV3C protease after the CRM197 fusion protein was expressed. After one-step affinity purification recombinant CRM197 protein with a purity of almost 95% was obtained. Outcoming of the final preparation incubated with DNA indicated the purified CRM197 recombinant protein has deoxyribonuclease activity. Conclusions By constructing a novel double-plasmid auto-cleavage prokaryotic expression system in this study,the production process of obtain soluble CRM197 recombinant protein in E. coli has been simplified,with expression and purification efficiency improved and the production cost reduced.
    Function of RNA binding protein KSRP in type M5 acute myeloid leukemia cells
    2018, 38(6):  821-826. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of RNA binding protein KSRP in multiple AML patients. Methods KSRP expression among AML patients and normal controls was analyzed in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. KSRP expression was inhibited by lentivirus-mediated gene transduction in THP-1 cells, and cell proliferation and apoptosis was analyzed. Results KSRP has lower expression in t(15;17) acute promyelocytic leukemia while has higher expression in MLL translocated acute monocytic leukemia or acute myelomonocytic leukemia. KSRP knock-down significantly promoted apoptosis (p<0.01), as well as suppressed cell proliferation (p<0.01). In addition, overexpression of miR-129 increased cell proliferation (p<0.05). Conclusions KSRP may regulate AML-M5 cell growth through promoting miR-129 processing.
    Diagnosis of two Wilson's disease patients in one pedigree and analysis of related factors of its different clinical phenotypes
    2018, 38(6):  827-830. 
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    Objective To study the clinical features of patients with Wilson's disease with different clinical phenotypes in one pedigree. To make the diagnosis and summarize the factors influencing the clinical manifestations of patients with Wilson's disease. Methods The clinical data of siblings in this pedigree were collected.The literature about the factors influencing the clinical phenotype of Wilson's disease were found. Results There were two siblings in one pedigree with Wilson's disease.The younger brother whose phenotype is liver-type,was 6 years old. His brother was 16 years old and showed mixed type (nerve + kidney) . Their genotype are exon5.c.1714delG (maternal), exon8.c.2333G> T, p.R778L (paternal). They have the same genotype but different phenotypes and different age of onset. After reviewing the literature,Some factors outside the ATP7B gene may also affect the clinical phenotype. Conclusions Genetic testing is of great importance in children with WD. Screening for hepatolenticular degeneration should be performed in children with liver disease or neurological manifestations.In addition to the ATP7B gene,the clinical phenotype of hepatolenticular degeneration may also be affected by many other factors.
    Primary culture and identification of cells from human aldosterone-producing adenoma
    2018, 38(6):  831-834. 
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    Objective To establish the primary culture of aldosterone- producing adenoma cells. Methods The tumor tissue was digested by collagen type I and cultured in complete DMEM/F12 medium. Aldosterone concentration in culture medium was detected by radioimmunoassay. The expression of aldosterone synthase in the culture cells was detected by immunofluorescence. Results Aldosterone-producing adenoma cells grew adherently in a round or approximately round shape. The cells were positively immunostained for aldosterone synthase. The aldosterone concentration in the culture medium in the 5th culture day was (300 ± 90) nmol/L. During the primary culture, aldosterone secretion was the strongest in the first day, and decreased afterwards. It kept stable in day 4 to 11. Conclusion We successfully established the primary culture of aldosterone-producing adenoma cells, which would be important for the future studying on the mechanism and function of aldosterone-producing adenoma.
    Research progress of miR-338 in tumor
    2018, 38(6):  840-844. 
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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved, endogenous, small, non-coding RNAs that regulate RNAi and are key regulators of tumorigenesis and development.MiR-338 is abnormally expressed in most tumors. Aberrant expression of miR-338 can affect the proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and other physiological activities of tumor cells and play a vital role in the regulation on one or more target-genes.
    Research progress in treatment of cisplatin resulted in premature ovarian failure
    2018, 38(6):  845-848. 
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    Cisplatin,as a first-line clinical cancer chemotherapy drug,because of its poor treatment options,when killing the target cells it can have cytotoxicity effects on the normal tissue and cells,leading the women cancer patients of gestational age to ovarian dysfunction involved,causing adverse reactions such as premature ovarian failur and infertility. Cisplatin can activate ovarian cell apoptosis,oxidative stress response and multiple signaling pathways through the interaction of more factors to induce ovarian damage. How to effectively prevent or eliminate the damage of ovarian failure caused by chemotherapy drugs has caused widespread concern and research in the medical field.
    Research progress of exosomes in treating spinal cord injury
    2018, 38(6):  849-852. 
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    Exosomes are membrane vesicles that are secreted by cells into the extracellular environment. Exosomes are a new strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury. Exosomes are secreted by mesenchymal stem cells have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects in the treatment of spinal cord injury, which play a key role in nerve cell-cell communication and can delivery exogenous genetic material. Exosomes can cross the blood-brain barrier and are more stable than their parent cells, reducing the safety risks in the administration of viable cells.
    Evaluation methods of vascular remodeling
    2018, 38(6):  853-856. 
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    Until now,the evaluation methods of vascular remodeling mainly included the related enzymes and biochemical markers,imaging feature,pulse conduction velocity measurement,etc.
    Role of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in lipid metabolism-related diseases
    Wen-Ling MA
    2018, 38(6):  857-862. 
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    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), as a major regulator of liposome in vivo, plays an important role in controlling liver lipid synthesis and inducing expression of genes involved in fatty acid, triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis. Part of the traditional Chinese medicine and its derivatives can be through the SREBP target treatment of lipid metabolism related diseases.
    Feedback analysis of integrated medical imaging training on cultivating medical students
    2018, 38(6):  863-867. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects and acceptability of introducing integrated medical imaging training on cultivating medical students. Methods Thirty-two postgraduate students, doctoral candidates and junior residents gave feedback from 2015 to 2017.Analysis of those appraisements to understand the perspective and satisfaction of medical students on imaging learning and practicing.Results The results showed that integrated medical imaging training helps a lot in improving learning initiative and efficiency,strengthening the clinical application of basic medical knowledge for medical students. Conclusions Using innovative methods to improve teaching mode is promising for promoting the effectiveness of medical students’ cultivation.
    Bibliometric analysis of hotspots and frontiers in international translational medicine research
    2018, 38(6):  868-873. 
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    Translational medicine research, as the bridge of basic medicine and clinical medicine, has become the foci of medicine and developed rapidly. To study the research hotspots and frontiers of translational medicine in recent 20 years, Web of Science data sources, bibliometrics methods and visualization techniques were used to study the translational medicine from the aspects of time and space and subjects, which could support the translational medicine research of China.
    Training and application of standardized patients in otolaryngology
    2018, 38(6):  874-877. 
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    Objective To investigate the application of standardized patients in the Department of Otolaryngology. Methods Two Otolaryngology scripts were designed and four standardized patients were trained. Ten students were offered standardized patients teaching method twice. Students’ and clinical teachers’ feedback, as well as objective grading for each student were analyzed. Results The performance scores for all the standardized patients were more than 4 points (1-5 points). Standardized patients and clinical teachers have a high degree of consistency in grading the students. 70% (7/10) of the students considered standardized patients’ immediate comment as the most benefits. Conclusions Well trained standardized patients could competent for the role of an actor, evaluator and instructor, to teaching and assessing the students. The standardized patients teaching model should be promoted in Otolaryngology.
    Application of 3D printing models to clinical teaching in otolaryngology
    2018, 38(6):  878-881. 
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    Objective To apply 3D printing techniques to the clinical anatomy teaching of otolaryngology. Methods We reconstructed the three-dimensional models of temporal bones and paranasal sinuses based on CT scan data, and divided them into sub-models according to several interested planes on CT scan. Sub-models were printed with 3D printer. The CT images of interested planes were printed by normal printer and pasted to the appropriate sub-models. We also checked the accuracy of the anatomy models. Results We successfully made the digital and 3D printing models of temporal bones and paranasal sinuses. The CT scan images were compounded to the models. The key anatomy structures outside and inside of the temporal bone and paranasal sinuses can be shown clearly and exactly on the models. Conclusions The 3D printing models help the medical students to understand and master the clinical anatomy and radiology knowledge of otolaryngology. It’s a useful supplement for traditional teaching methods.
    Investigation of point-of-care transthoracic echocardiography education in perioperative anesthetic management
    2018, 38(6):  882-885. 
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    Objective To investigate the need , methods and effects of perioperative point-of-care transthoracic echocardiography (POC-TTE) education for anesthesiologists.Methods In 2013, forty anesthetic attendings of Pecking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) had two rounds of TTE training. In the following year, six anesthetic attendings from PUMCH experienced in intraoperative transesophageal (TEE) were trained by cardiologists as TTE instructors. In 2015, we conducted a survey about basic TTE education prevalence and need. Based on the results of the survey, POC-TTE workshops were hosted from 2015 to 2017. The didactic lecture, simulation practice, as well as hypotension differential diagnosis were included in those workshops. Different teaching methods were tested for their effectiveness. Results A total of 95 surveys were collected. Fifteen (15.8%) participants reported their hospital had the resources for perioperative POC-TTE exams; fourteen (14.7%) reported basic knowledge about ultrasound or other images techniques. Eighty (84.2%) acknowledged a lack of understanding about perioperative TTE. Four rounds of POC-TTE workshops were hosted by the anesthesia department of PUMCH and a total of 83 trainees participated. Sixty three participants finished all training and testing sessions. Forty eight percent of the participants voiced the need for more hand-practice opportunities, 39% suggested that training covering more basic ultrasound knowledge, 22.5% wished for more frequent training and testing. Conclusions The POC-TTE education program of PUMCH hospital, anesthesia department included didactic lecture, simulation practice and hypotension differential diagnosis. These training methods might be useful for increasing the prevalence and acceptance of perioperative POC-TTE application. Further education program of perioperative POC-TTE training could positively influence patients’ prognosis.
    Application of daily electronic assessment in standardized training of anesthesiology resident
    2018, 38(6):  886-889. 
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    Objective To study the effect of electronic daily assessment on the application of standardized training for residents of anesthesiology department. Methods Compared the feedback rate of the previous paper evaluation form and the electronic daily evaluation submission, and summarized the results of the daily evaluation of residents of different grades and different sources through the electronic system. Results The feedback rate of the paper form and the electronic for was 59.5% and 96.7% separately. Comparing the scores of different grads, the total score and sub option scores gradually increased from Grade one to Grade three. The lowest score of sub options in all grades were anesthetic plan/crisis management scores. The worst overall rating (performance worse than expected) happened in the second-year residents. The best overall rating (performance better than expected) happened in the third-year resident. The residents form other hospitals had higher scores than PUMCH(Peking Union Medical College Hospital)'s residents and graduate students except for the score of theoretical knowledge. The PUMCH’s residents got lower score in overall rating. The teaching staff rescheduled and modified the training program according to the educational defect, so as to individualize resident training. Conclusion The electronic daily assessment helps to understand the daily work of residents in a timely and comprehensive manner, adjust teaching methods, and contributes to conduct formative evaluation, which has a positive effect on improving teaching effectiveness.
    Utility of endovascular simulation to improve technical performance and stimulate interest of medical students in vascular surgery
    2018, 38(6):  890-894. 
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    Objective Endovascular simulation has been promoted as an educational tool for vascular surgeons in a safe environment and improve basic technical skills. But it has not been used in the training of medical students. We sought to determine whether an established endovascular training course for medical students could increase technical proficiency, enhance interest in vascular surgery. Methods We recruited 30 3rd year medical school students from Peking Union Medical School prospectively. We gave these students an eight-week course with a structured curriculum comprised of weekly simulator sessions and theoretical lessons. A test of iliac artery balloon dilatation was conducted in pre- and post-course. Performance was assessed by experts using a standardized global endovascular rating scale and objective procedural metrics collected from the simulator. Demographics and subjective survey data, including interest in vascular surgery were obtained pre- and post-course from the students too. Results Parameters measured on the standardized global endovascular rating scale, including angiography skills, wire handling and interventional criteria as well as simulator-generated metrics such as fluoroscopy time and volume of contrast used significantly improved from pre- to post-course values for the medical students(p<0.05) All the students agreed or strongly agreed that the simulation course increased their interest in vascular surgery. Conclusions A simulation-based endovascular course provides an educational tool that improves basic technical performance and increases interest in vascular surgery among medical students. The simulator has big potential in the medical students training programs.
    Empathy and self-efficacy with objective structured clinical examination in residents of standardized training
    2018, 38(6):  895-900. 
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    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the current situation of empathy and self-efficacy, and relation with performance of Objective structured clinical examination in residents of standardized training. Methods Questionnaire surveys with Health Professional-version of Jefferson Scale of Empathy and General Self-Efficacy Scale were conducted among residents of grade 2015 and grade 2016 from Dept. of Internal Medicine of PUMCH. Results 101 questionnaires were delivered, and 99 were effectively received. The average empathy score was 111.3 ±1.2, with that of grade 2015 slightly higher than that of grade 2016. The empathy score from residents of different degree and different sources showed no significant difference. The average self-efficacy score was 22.77±0.50. The score of residents of grade 2015 was significantly higher than that of grade 2016. The score was higher in residents with higher degree. The score of residents from PUMCH was higher than the other subgroups. The score of empathy showed no significant correlation with OSCE scores, while the score of self-efficacy of residents of grade 2015 significantly positively correlated with scores of medical recording (R=0.35, P<0.05), case analyzing (R=0.31, P<0.05) and average score(R=0.33, P<0.05) of OSCE. Conclusions The empathy and self-efficacy of residents remained to be improved, and could be improved through clinical training. Psychological evaluation could be inducted into standardized resident training system, and provide helpful supplementary to OSCE with more comprehensive evaluation of residents.