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Table of Content

    05 August 2018, Volume 38 Issue 8
    Down regulation of lmna gene promotes the apoptosis of zebrafish embryo cells
    2018, 38(8):  1059-1063. 
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    Objective The mechanism of apoptosis of zebrafish embryo cells after lmna was down regulated by morpholine oligonucleotides. Methods Select the appropriate target, design for lmna morpholino oligonucleotides sequence (lmna-MO),microinjection of lmna-MO into wild type zebrafish embryos to down regulate LMNA. Detection of cell apoptosis by flow cytometry and detection of apoptotic protein p-AKT,AKT and BCL-2 expression by Western blot.Results Early apoptosis of 24 h and 72 h zebrafish embryos was observed after administration of lmna-MO, There was correlation with the phase of drug exposure(p<0.01); The expression of p-AKT protein is higher than that of wild type embryos(p<0.01);The expression of AKT was increased compared with wild type embryo cells(p<0.05), the expression of BCL-2 protein in embryo cells decreased after lmna-MO injection of 24 h and 72 h compared with wild type embryo cells(p<0.05).Conclusions lmna may be involved in the regulation of zebrafish embryonic cell apoptosis, and its mechanism may be related to the expression of AKT protein and BCL-2 protein; p-AKT(S473)participates in the activation of AKT pathway. Down regulation of lmna may be mediated by the promotion of phosphorylation of AKT,activation of P13K/AKT signaling pathway inhibits apoptosis and promotes cell survival, but it is not the only regulatory mechanism.
    Adiponectin inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high concentration of insulin in rats
    2018, 38(8):  1064-1068. 
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    Objective To investigate whether adiponectin (APN) inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high concentration of insulin by up-regulating AdipoR1 / AMPK / PI3K / AKT. Methods The cardiomyocytes of neonatal SD rats were isolated and cultured continuously for 9 days. Cardiomyocytes were divided into 4 groups according to different intervention conditions: control group (medium), model group (1×10-6 mol/L insulin), intervention group (1×10-6 mol/L insulin+7.5 mg/L adiponectin) and transfection group (AdipoR1 siRNA insulin + adiponectin processing after transfection). After 48 h, the average protein content, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) content and myocardial cell surface area of each group were detected. Western blot was used to detect the expression of AdipoR1, AMPK, PI3K and AKT proteins. Results Compared with the control group, the average protein content of myocardial cells increased (P<0.05, n=3), the content of 3-MH decreased (P<0.05, n=10). Compared with the model group, the above changes in the intervention group were significantly reduced, while the expression of AdipoR1, AMPK, PI3K and AKT in the intervention group was increased (P<0.05, n=3) . Conclusion Adiponectin may inhibit rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high concentration of insulin by up-regulating AdipoR1 / AMPK / PI3K / AKT.
    Viperin is induced following Poly(I:C) stimulation in human ovarian granulosa cells
    2018, 38(8):  1069-1073. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of Poly(I:C) on the expression of a virus responsive protein, viperin. Methods Human granulosa cells were obtained from patients who underwent in vitro fertilization. After incubation with FSH or Poly(I:C), the proliferation of granulosa cells were detected by CCK8 method. The expression of viperin, IFN-? were examined by real time PCR after a certain period of time after Poly(I:C) stimulation within 24 hs. The protein expression of viperin were examined by Western blot analysis. Results Ten μg/mL of Poly(I:C) has no significant influence on GCs’ proliferation. Poly(I:C) significantly induced mRNA expression of IFN-? (2 to 4 hs after stimulation) and viperin (8 to 12 hs after stimulation) (P < 0.05). Viperin expression was induced by Poly(I:C) in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Poly(I:C) induced IFN-? and viperin expression in human granulosa cells, which indicate that granulosa cells play an active role in anti-virus response upon infection.
    Effect and mechanism of an N-substituted isatin derivative on hepatocellular carcinoma cells
    2018, 38(8):  1074-1079. 
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    Objective To investigate the mechanism of a N-substituted isatin derivative (3MMIS) that can induce the cell cycle arrest and death of HepG2 cells. Methods Antitumor activity was detected by acid phosphatase (APA) method. The morphological changes of cells were observed under a light microscope at different time intervals. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle. Western blot was used to detect the effect of 3MMIS on cell cycle - related proteins. The effect of 3MMIS on microtubule assembly was detected . Results The IC50 of 3MMIS-treaded HepG2 cells was 0.4mg/L. Light microscopic observation showed that the cells through the drug treatment became rounded, up and developed a lot of vesicles in the cells. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was blocked in M phase after drug action. Western blot showed abnormal expression of cycle related proteins.3MMIS treatment increased soluble and free tubulins but decreased insoluble and polymenized tubulins in HepG2 cells.Conclusion 3MMIS can induce cell death in HepG2 cells by affecting the polymeratin of tubulins and casing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase.
    NR5A2 attenuates cerulein-induced inflammatory response in pancreatic acinar cells
    2018, 38(8):  1080-1087. 
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    Objective To study the protective role of NR5A2 to acinar cells under acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis model was created by stimulating AR42J cells with cerulein. Virus vectors and shRNA were respectively used to upregulate or downregulate NR5A2 expression, and NR5A2 changes were verified by Western blot. Quantification of cell apoptosis was tested by flow cytometry. IL-1 and TNF-α expression were detected by ELISA. Results The apoptosis rate was significantly elevated under 100 nmol/L cerulein until the peak at 6 hours, meanwhile NR5A2 level was decreased until 24 h stimulation, and then gradually recovered to basal level after 48 h. NR5A2 overexpression further increased the apoptosis rate under cerulein stimulation (P<0.05), and reduced IL-1 and TNF-α levels (P<0.01, P<0.05). On the other hand, NR5A2 inhibition by shRNA led to decreased apoptosis rate (P<0.05) and increased IL-1 and TNF-α levels (P<0.05, P<0.01).Furthermore, silencing β-catenin attenuated the effects of NR5A2-overexpression, that the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced (P<0.05), while IL-1 and TNF-α levels were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusions NR5A2 induces apoptosis and inhibites inflammatory reaction in AR42J cells under cerulein stimulation, and such effects are mediated by β-catenin.
    PTF-a combined with BMP-2 induces differenciation of rat BMMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro
    2018, 38(8):  1088-1093. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of PFT- and BMP-2 on the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) into heart like cells. Methods Cells were isolated from rat bone marrow and cultured, passaged and purified method, PTF-a, BMP-2 and both were used to induce the second generation BMMSCs, and the inducer was not used as the control group.The application of inverted to observe the changes of growth and morphology of cells cultured by flow cytometry microscope, identified by BMMSCs combined with surface markers were detected by immunohistochemical method cTnI, Cx43 and TPM expression and ultrastructural changes were observed in the differentiated cells by transmission electron microscope.Results After induction, BMMSCs was spindle shaped, the volume of cells became larger.CD29(+)86.5%,CD45(-)0.3%, CD90(+)84.7%.The expression of cTnI,Cx43 and TPM in the induced group was positive. The expression of Cx43 in the cytoplasm of the induced group was red, and the expression of cTnI immunofluorescence staining was green.oval nucleus is located in the central cell, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome subcellular structures located in cytoplasm,parallel arrangement of filaments.Conclusions Both PFT- and BMP-2 can induce BMMSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, and the combination of these two methods is safer and more efficient.
    Effects of miR-26b on the migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer cell line
    2018, 38(8):  1094-1098. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-26b on the migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer cells. Methods miR-26b mimic was transfected into C33A cervical cancer cells by liposome-mediated method. The experiment was divided into negative control group, scramble control group and miR-26b mimic group. The expression of miR-26b and its target genes mRNA were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The cell migration ability was examined by scratch-wound assay. The expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin proteins were detected by Western blot. Dual luciferase gene reporter assays were used to examine whether miR-26b regulates the expression of Smad4. Results Compared with normal cervical epithelial cells, expression levels of miR-26b mRNA were all lower in SiHa, HeLa, Caski and C33A cells, among which C33A cells were the most obvious. mRNA expression levels of miR-26b were significantly increased in C33A cells by transfection of miR-26b mimic. Over-expression of miR-26b can significantly inhibit the migration of C33A cells, increase the expression of E-cadherin protein and reduce the expression of N-cadherin protein, and inhibit the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition. The potential target genes of miR-26b were predicted by TargetScan, PicTar and miRDB software. Based on the annotated functions for these genes, CXCL14, Smad4, TRAF5 and EphA2 were speculated to be the major potential target genes of miR-26b. Dual luciferase gene reporter assays confirmed that miR-26b can directly regulate the expression of Smad4. Conclusions miR-26b may inhibit the migration of cervical cancer cells and the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition by regulating the expression of Smad4.
    Ulinastatin down-regulating miR-21 expression in the lung of mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury
    2018, 38(8):  1099-1104. 
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    Objective: To investigate the effect of ulinastatin(UTI) in lipopolysaccharide(LPS) -induced acute lung injury (ALI) and its potential regulation on miRNA21 in mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice(n=40) were randomly divided into control group, LPS group、UTI-L group and UTI-H group with 10 mice in each group using random number table. The pathological changes of lung tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The concentrations of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) were assessed by bicinchoninic acid(BCA) method. In BALF, the activity of myeloperoxidase(MPO) was detected by an MPO assay kit and the levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β)、tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The total cell counts and polymorphonuclear(PMN)counts in the BALF were analyzed by Giemsa staining. The levels of miRNA21 and mRAN levers of PDCD4 were assessed by qPCR, while the levels of PDCD4 were determined by Western blot. Results: Compared with control group, the classic ALI pathological changes were observed in the mice in LPS group ,manifesting by increases in W/D weight ratio ,total protein levels, cell counts、 IL-1β、TNF-α levels and MPO activities in the BALF, accompanied with up-regulated levels of miRNA21,down regulated levels of PDCD4 proteins in the lung tissues(P<0.05).The deteriorating effects triggered by LPS were significantly reversed by administration of UTI. UTI displayed beneficial effects on LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by alleviated lung injury, decreased levels of W/D weight ratio , protein levels, cell counts ,MPO activities and IL-1β、TNF-α levels in the BALF(P<0.05),and decreased levels of miRNA21, increased levels of PDCD4 proteins in the lung tissues(P<0.05).Meanwhile, LPS-induced enhanced levels of miRNA21 was dose-dependently inhibited by UTI. However, the levels of PDCD4 mRNA have no difference among the four groups. Conclusions: UTI protects against LPS-induced ALI in the mice by down-regulating miRNA21 and enhancing levels of PDCD4 proteins.
    Significance of SOX2 and CTBP1 interactions in metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer
    2018, 38(8):  1105-1110. 
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    Objective To investigate the mechanism and expression of SOX2 and CTBP1 protein in the metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer( NSCLC). Methods Western blot was used to detect the expression of SOX2 and CTBP1 in fresh lung cancer tissues and corresponding paraneoplastic tissues. Immunoprecipitation was used to analyse the interaction between SOX2 and CTBP1 in the cells and tissues of non-small cell lung cancer. SOX2 and CTBP1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 114 paraffin-embedded sections. The regulatory mechanism of SOX2-CTBP1 interaction and its effect on metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer were assessed by plasmid transduction. Results The expression of SOX2 and CTBP1 were was significantly higher in NSCLC tissues than that of paired paraneoplastic tissues(P<0.05). CTBP1 could interact with SOX2 in NSCLC tissues and cells. The expression of SOX2 and CTBP1 were higher in tumor metastasis group compared with non-metastasis group(P<0.05). The high expression of CTBP1 protein is remarkably related with NSCLC clinical stage, histological differentiation, SOX2 expression and Ki-67 expression (P<0.05). At the cell level, interfering with CTBP1 expression can down regulate the expression of SOX2 and its downstream target gene Snail, so that the migration ability of H1299 cells is inhibited in vitro. Conclusions CTBP1 or SOX2 abnormal expression is potentially relevant to occurrence and development of NSCLC,and the interaction of them may promote the invasion and metastasis of NSCLC.
    Status of hepatitis C virus infection among children of Children’s Hospital in Beijing
    2018, 38(8):  1111-1114. 
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    Objective To describe the positive rate of anti-HCV among children in Beijing and explore the status of anti-HCV reexamination for anti-HCV positive children. Methods Patients under 18 who had visited the Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from September 1st in 2013 to August 30th in 2015 and had tested the anti-HCV were selected as targeted population to collect the demographic characteristics, the diagnostic information, and the results of anti-HCV tests. For anti-HCV positive hospitalized children, telephone interviews were conducted with guardians to inquire whether the parents know their children’s results of anti-HCV and whether the children had reexamined the anti-HCV. Results A total of 25 748 children with a median age of 2.9(1.3, 6.1) were selected and the positive rate of anti-HCV was 0.04%. Among the HCV screened children, 98% were tested anti-HCV on account of routine examination before operation, routine examination before endoscopy or blood transfusion/administration of blood product. The positive rates of anti-HCV among anti-HCV screened children on account of routine examination before endoscopy or blood transfusion/administration of blood product were both 0.08%, higher than that of routine examination before operation. Through the telephone interview with 51 anti-HCV grey/positive children’s guardians, only 58.8% parents knew their children’s results of HCV test. 41.2% anti-HCV positive children reexamined anti-HCV. Conclusions The infection rate of HCV among children in Beijing is low. The awareness of anti-HCV screening for parents and physicians need to be strengthened.
    miR-34a inhibits the invasion and metastasis of glioma cells through MMP2
    2018, 38(8):  1115-1120. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of miR-34a on the invasion and metastasis of glioma cells by regulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), which is a target gene of miR-34a.Methods Compared with human normal brain glial cells (HEB),U87 and A172 with MMP2 high expression were selected to transfect miR-34a mimics and miR-34a inhibitors.To observe the expression of miR-34a and MMP2 in the multiple glioma cell lines by RT-qPCR and western blot.After predicting the regional of miR-34a and MMP2 with microRNA database, construct MMP2 3'UTR wild-type and mutant luciferase plasmids and miR-34a plasmids, to observe the wild type and mutant luciferase activity changes by the luciferase reporter gene experiments. The invasion and migration abilities of U87 in blank control group, MMP2 group and miR-34a /MMP2 group were measured by Transwell and wound healing assay. Results To select U87 and A172 , MMP2 protein and mRNA levels were decreased after over-expression of miR-34a, and were increased after decreasing miR-34a,compared with the normal group, the p value of protein and mRNA was less than 0.05; miR-34a combined with MMP2 mRNA 3 'UTR region to reduce the MMP2 the level of mRNA, miR-34a inhibited cell migration and invasion by down-regulating MMP2.Conclusion miR-34a can down-regulate the invasion and migration ability of MMP2 in glioma cells.
    Annexin 1 inhibits inflammatory response and cell apoptosis in BCG-infected macrophage cell line RAW246.7
    2018, 38(8):  1121-1126. 
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    Objective To investigate the role of Annexin 1 (ANXA1) on inflammatory response and cell apoptosis induced by BCG in a macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Methods The RAW264.7 cells infected by BCG were established. RT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expression of ANXA1, IL-6 and TNF-α. The protein expression of ANXA1, Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blot assays. The expression level of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using ELISA analysis. Cell viability was assayed by MTT assay. ELISA assay was used to determine the cell apoptosis. Results The expression level of ANXA1 was downregulated in a time-dependent manner in RAW264.7 infected with BCG. Additionally, overexpression of ANXA1 notably downregulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α induced by BCG infection. Moreover, overexpression of ANXA1 remarkably elevated the cell viability, and suppressed BCG-induced macrophage apoptosis as reflected by increasing the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreasing expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, accompanied by the downregulation of Caspase-3 expression in RAW264.7 in response to BCG. Conclusion ANXA1 modulated the innate host defense by suppressing inflammatory response and cell apoptosis against M.tb infection, which may provide a promising therapeutic target for tuberculosis.
    Melatonin inhibits the intima hyperplasia in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury
    2018, 38(8):  1127-1130. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of melatonin on intima hyperplasia in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury. Methods Twenty male sprague-dawley rats were randomized into control, melatonin injected, balloon injured, and balloon injured with melatonin injected. An established balloon-induced carotid artery injury was performed. And carotid arteries were harvested 14 days later. The ratio of intima to media (i/m) were measured. And Western blot were used to detected the expression of NF-kB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Results The balloon injury could significantly induce the increasing of i/m and the expression of NF-kB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in rat carotid arteries. Melatonin could minimize this effect caused by balloon injury. Conclusions Melatonin could inhibit the intima hyperplasia in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury through alleviating the inflammation mediated by NF-kB.
    Clinical application of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol in pediatric patients undergoing Nuss repair of pectus excavatum
    2018, 38(8):  1131-1134. 
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    Objective: To evaluate the effect of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol on postoperative recovery quality of children with Nuss surgery. Methods: 120 patients undergoing elective Nuss surgery in Beijing Children's Hospital were enrolled in the study. The patients were 6-18 years old and were divided into two groups according to the operation date. There were 60 cases in each group. The perioperative management was performed using the traditional procedure (C group) and the ERAS strategy (E group), and the postoperative recovery quality scale (QoR-15) was filled by the child or its accompany for three consecutive days. Results: There were 4 uncompleted cases in E group and 1 case in the C group. The total score of QoR-15 in group E was significantly higher than that in group C at D2 and D3 postoperatively (P<0.05). The score of group A in group E was significantly higher than that of group C at D1/2/3 (P<0.05). At D1, the score of walking/comfort and self-control in group E was significantly higher than that of group C (P<0.05). At D2, the scores of good appetite / relaxation / self toileting / being walking / comfortable and self-control were significantly higher in group E than in group C (P<0.05); The scores of group E were significantly higher than those of group C in terms of feeling relaxed/self toilet/comfortable and self-control (P<0.05). Conclusion: ERAS strategy can improve postoperative recovery quality of children with Nuss surgery.
    Effect of miR-145 on EMT and proliferation of cancer stem cell in pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1
    2018, 38(8):  1135-1140. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of miR-145 on EMT and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and to explore the related mechanism. Methods miR-145 group, contral group and blank group were set up.miR-145 over-expressed lentiviral vector was constructed and transfected into PANC-1 cells. RT-qPCR was used to testify miR-145 mRNA expressions;adhesion experiments were used to detect the ability of homogeneous and heterogeneous cells intercellular adhesion of each group, which was observed under fluorescence microscopy.The characteristic changes of tumor stem cells were measured by spheroid formation assay; Meanwhile, RT-qPCR and Western blotting were performed to examine mRNA and protein expressions of E-cadherin、N-cadherin and OCT4, respectively. Results The expression of mRNA of miR-145 significantly was increased after transfecting miR-145 over-expressed lentiviral vector; Compared with contral group and blank group,the miR-145 group homogeneous cells intercellular adhesion was increased and heterogeneous cells intercellular was opposite,the number and the size of tumorspheres was obviously reduced(p<0.05). meanwhile,the expression of mRNA and protein of E-cadherin was up-regulated,and N-cadherin and OCT4 were declined(p<0.05). Conclusions Up-regulating miR-145 can reverse the EMT and inhibit the characteristic acquisition of cancer stem cell line PANC-1, its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of E-cadherin and the down-regulation of N-cadherin and OCT4.
    Massage decreases pain and depression of employees with cervical spondylosis (typeⅡ)
    2018, 38(8):  1141-1144. 
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    Objective:To assess impact of massage intervention on employees’ depression through the patients’ pain relief. Methods:71 enterprise enterprise employees who were diagnosed of cervical spondylosis (type II) were divided into the treatment group with 40 cases and control group with 31 cases. The treatment group under the guidance of a doctor for 10 times of massage treatment, the control group did not receive any treatment. Patients' depression status was evaluated before, 1 st, 4 th, 7 th and after completing the whole treatment with self-rating depression scale (SDS). Before and after treatment, A visual analogue scale (VAS) was administered to evaluate the patient's pain intensity. Results:The level of depression and pain in the treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group (P <0.001). Conclusion:Massage therapy can significantly reduce employee’s depression level originated from the pain of cervical spondylosis (type II).
    A case report of glycogen storage disease Ia with severe skeletal deformity
    2018, 38(8):  1145-1148. 
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    Objective To analyze the clinical features and treatment of a patient with glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia). Methods Medical history, physical examination and laboratory results of the patient were collected in detail. DNAs were extracted from peripheral blood of the patient and his parents. The first exon to the fifth exon of G6PC (glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit) gene were analyzed by PCR sequencing. Results The patient was a 23-year-old male Chinese with typical symptoms of hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hyperlactacidemia, hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia, at the same time he had severe skeletal deformity. Homozygosis c.648G>T(p.Leu216Leu)splice mutation in the fifth exon was detected in G6PC gene in this patient, which was separately carried in his mother and father respectively. This is a common genotype, but severe skeletal deformity is an uncommon phenotype. Conclusions GSD Ia can cause sever skeletal deformity. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve patients’ living quality and decrease organic damage.
    Evaluation od safety and effectiveness of inhalating azithromycin in mice
    Jin TONG
    2018, 38(8):  1149-1150. 
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    Prevention and treatment of heterotopic ossification
    2018, 38(8):  1153-1157. 
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    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the abnormal new bone formation in the soft tissue outside the normal skeletal system. At present, in addition to conventional drugs, it is also possible to be prevented and treated by small molecule receptor stimulants / inhibitors, gene therapy, neutralization antibodies and radiotherapy, which target the microenvironment, necessary signal pathways, key mediations and precursor cells of heterotopic bone formation. Besides, surgical resection is the most direct and effective treatment for HO. This article also summarizes the limitations of different methods, and expects to provide new ideas for clinical treatment.
    Advance in the mechanism of metformin regulating miRNAs to suppress malignant tumors
    2018, 38(8):  1158-1162. 
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    Type 2 diabetes drug metformin could inhibit proliferation, migration, epithelial mesenchymal transformation, aerobic glycolysis, angiogenesis and promote apoptosis through regulating multiple miRNAs in malignant tumors such as pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, oral cancer, stomach cancer and lung cancer. Further exploring the key miRNAs regulated by metformin, will help clarifying the underlying mechanism of metformin’s tumor inhibition effect and developing new therapies for treating cancer.
    Advances in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes with non-alcoholic fatty liver
    2018, 38(8):  1163-1167. 
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    With the change of diet structure and lifestyle, the number of type 2 diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver has been increasing. The relevant molecules in the pathogenesis include FGF21, Fetuin-A, SREBP-1, PPARα, IGFBP-1, IGF-1, TNF-α, CTRP3, and AMPK. It is expected that in the near future, highly effective drugs for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver can be developed for its molecular targets.
    Giant cell arteritis and fever of unknown origin in the elderly
    Yue Yin Xue-jun ZENG
    2018, 38(8):  1168-1172. 
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    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is common in internal medicine and rather difficult in diagnosis, which is more significant in the elderly due to their atypical presentations. Giant cell arteritis is an important cause of FUO in the elderly. Constitutional symptoms and cranial ischemic complications are the major clinical presentations. Nowadays, large vessel inflammation in elderly FUO patients were detected more with the advanced imaging techniques, which reveals the subtype of GCA named large-vessel GCA. In addition, GCA and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are often overlapping, and GCA can be the presentation of paraneoplastic syndrome.
    Research progress of antidepressant effect of ketamine on perimenopausal depression
    2018, 38(8):  1173-1177. 
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    Perimenopausal depression refers to women's mood disorders developed before and after menopause. Many studies have suggested that the occurrence of perimenopausal depression is associated with the fluctuation of perimenopausal reproductive hormone, alterations of monoamine neurotransmitter levels during the period of menopausal. Although there are many traditional antidepressants, they often onset slow, limited efficacy, and a considerable proportion of patients after treatment, still have residual symptoms and persistent dysfunction. As a general anesthetic, ketamine can act as a fast and effective treatment for perimenopausal depression by antagonizing NMDA receptors, modulating monoamine neurotransmitters, increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activating mTOR pathway and other signaling pathways to exert anti-depressant effect.
    Research advance of oxytocin in Prader-Willi syndrome
    Meng-Qi zhang
    2018, 38(8):  1178-1182. 
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    Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that plays an important role in modulating emotion, appetite, social interactions, and the lack of OXT is related with poor suck, hyperphagia, behavior and social disturbances in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome(PWS). Short course of intranasal OXT administration rescues oral feeding and social skills in infants with PWS, but OXT is no use and could increase temper outburst in older PWS patients. The mechanism of OXT used in PWS patients remains to be further explored since no definitive conclusions have been reached so far. The latest progress of research is discussed in this article.
    Establishing and improving education conducting base in breast surgery department
    2018, 38(8):  1183-1186. 
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    Breast surgery department, as a rising unit, seems having simple disease sorts and knowledge. It has variable of treating regimens according to the stage and type of the disease. In a limited period of times, there is a very weak effect for learning from one lecture or one chapter of a book. So, in order to efficiently develop teaching, we established education conducting base guiding students to study with the three step ladder method. Owning to students' learning and feedback, our base is constantly improving, which has made many gains for students and teachers.
    Analysis of in-hospital consultations completed by the department of dentistry in a general hospital and its guiding role in clinical teaching
    2018, 38(8):  1187-1191. 
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    Objective To analyze and discuss the guiding role of in-hospital consultations conducted by the department of dentistry in a general hospital to the clinical teaching and resident training. Methods Data of one year in-hospital consultations conducted by the department of dentistry in Peking Union Medical College Hospital was gathered and analyzed through the hospital information system. The clinical departments, classification of consultations, related diseases and conditions, correlated dental knowledge and skill were summarized. Results 1 772 in-hospital consultations were completed by the department of dentistry within 1 year. Most of the consultations were initiated by the department of rheumatology(22.9%). Average monthly consultation quantity was 147.7 cases. There were 6 types of consultations, including facilitation in diagnose and differential diagnosis, oral clearance and evaluation before treatment, management of diseases or conditions related to primary disease, management of diseases or conditions unrelated to primary disease, management of complications and other conditions. The knowledge and skill required to complete the consultations were mapped to the textbooks of dentistry. Conclusions In-hospital consultations compose of a majority of work to the department of dentistry in general hospitals. To be qualified for such works, it is essential to conduct specific training courses to the staff and those courses should be included in the resident training programs. This study offered preliminary references in this field.
    Application of “PAD class" mode in pathology teaching in general practice education in Tibet's universities
    2018, 38(8):  1192-1195. 
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    Presentation-assimilation-discussion (PAD) class is a new teaching model based on the laws of psychology which is firstly proposed by domestic scholar. In this paper, we explored the application of PAD class in pathology teaching in clinical medicine (General Practice education) in Tibet's universities. This new method strives to improve the students' self-learning ability and culture students to analyze the practical problems using pathological phenomena and then form critical thinking on the basis of retaining the traditional teaching, PAD class can satisfy the connotation oriented development of higher education which focus on the improvement of teaching and learning quality and inject new vitality into the training of general medical personnel in Tibet.
    To construct anesthesiologists team in the Tibet Autonomous Region with multi-modal teaching methods and hierarchical training
    2018, 38(8):  1196-1199. 
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    In order to realize the main goal of "group-style" medical aid for Tibet, it is crucial to create a qualified local medical talent team. Department of Anesthesiology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) counterpart to aid the Department of Anesthesiology of Tibet Autonomous Region People's Hospital (TARPH). Since August 2015, a series of multi-mode teaching methods have been adopted. In addition, through the stratification of training, the clinical medical service capabilities of different senior doctors have been improved, and the management ability of disciplines has been enhanced through the annual study plan for management talents. These teaching practices have laid a solid foundation for the construction of an echelon of anesthesiology talents in the Tibet Autonomous Region.
    Practice and reform of the pathological experiment teaching mode in Zhejiang University
    2018, 38(8):  1200-1202. 
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    To adaption the development of digital pathology and informatization plats under the background of “internet + ”, pathological experiment teaching mode develops from the replication experiment mode depending on the tranditional discipline system, to the fusing and opening comparative morphology experiment mode due to the integration medicine, and recently modifies to the mixed pathological experiment mode which is students based and ability training as a core, according the goal of post competency which mentioned by general office of the state council. This benefits the growing up of high quality medical doctors, and serves for the construction of double first-class university.
    Attitude towards death and its influencing factors among medical students
    2018, 38(8):  1203-1206. 
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    Objective To explore the attitude toward death among medical students and analyze the correlative factors. Methods Students from different origin were asked to fill in a questionnaire, questions include students' basic information, their experience of contact with "death" and their attitude toward death. Use Chi square test and rank sum test to analyze the influencing factors. Results The attitude towards death among medical students correlates with age, major, religion, their experience near death, education/ training: people with religious beliefs are more willing to accept the fact of death(P<0.01), people with more open atmosphere to discuss about death at home are more willing to accept the fact of death(P<0.01) and talk it with others(P<0.01), and people with experience of death education or training are more hopefully to alleviate the pain in the process of death(P<0.01). Conclusion Medical students' attitude towards death is closely related to whether they had experience toward death or education about death. It suggested that we should and we could do education about death to medical students in China by presenting more death-contact opportunities to them.
    Evaluation the application of situational design video model in examination of resident standardized training communication skills of radiology department
    2018, 38(8):  1207-1210. 
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    Objective To retrospectively analyze the assessment of the communication skills of the first-stage skills of the radiologists in Beijing from 2014 to 2016, and to compare the assessment of communication skills between standardized patient models and scenario design video models. Methods The difficulty, differentiation and average score of the scenario design video mode and standardized patient model communication ability assessment were analyzed. The average scores of the candidates were compared and the questionnaire was analyzed. Results The difficulty of the topic was higher in 2015 and 2016 than in 2014; the distinction was best in 2015 and worst in 2014. The average score of the three-year examination was the lowest in 2015 (8.37±0.73) and the highest in 2016 (8.99±1.11). Overall, doctoral graduates have the highest communication skills (8.97 in 2014, 8.66 in 2015, and 9.05 in 2016). The questionnaire shows that the awareness rate of communication skills training has increased year by year. However, the training penetration rate for communication skills is less than 50%. About 1/3 of the candidates do not understand the specific requirements for communication skills. More than half of the residents do not understand the channels for receiving communication skills training. 87.3% to 95.7% of the candidates think that Scenario design video mode is better than standard patient assessment mode. Conclusion The training of radiologists in radiologists needs to focus on the training of communication skills and promote the communication and training methods of scenario design.
    Research on the reform of medical biochemistry teaching mode based on the "Talent Doctor Education and Training Program"
    2018, 38(8):  1211-1213. 
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    Objective In order to meet the implementation of the "Excellence Doctor Education and Training Program", the teaching and evaluation methods of biochemistry in medical colleges and universities need to be innovated constantly. Methods For the present teaching situation, we have carried out the teaching reform for the corresponding biochemistry course, including the classroom teaching and experimental teaching. Results In the teaching and assessment methods, we have taken a series of measures, and achieved excellent results. Enhance the enthusiasm and initiative of students to learn, increase the students 'knowledge and cultivate a rigorous style of research and experiment, and improve students' ability of scientific research thinking and research. Conclusion In order to meet the school implementation of "excellent doctor education and training program", we provide an excellent support for implementation.
    Measures to improve the teaching quality of university teachers
    2018, 38(8):  1214-1216. 
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    The teachers are the core of improving the teaching quality in the university, and the outstanding teachers are the marks and the guarantee of the teaching quality. To become an excellent teacher, we must have some teaching abilities of teachers, as well as the flexible use of teaching skills.