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Table of Content

    05 April 2013, Volume 33 Issue 4
    Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Promotes the Anti-tumor Cytotoxicity Against Breast Cancer Cells by Human Lymphocyte In Vitro
    2013, 33(4):  387-390. 
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    Objective To explore whether superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO) will influence the anti-tumor immunity triggered by tumor lysate protein against human MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in vitro. Methods SPIO was covalently conjugated with tumor lysate protein to form SPIO-protein complex. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated by tumor lysate protein, SPIO, or SPIO-protein complex separately. The treated PBMC were mixed with MCF-7 cells, and tumor inhibition was evaluated by MTS assay. Results The SPIO conjugated with 60% of tumor lysate protein and formed a larger nano-structure. Compared with tumor lysate protein, SPIO-protein complex significantly enhanced the anti-tumor response by PBMC, whereas SPIO alone produced no cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Conclusions The SPIO-protein complex is capable of enhancing the anti-cancer immune reaction against MCF-7 cancer cells by PBMC in vitro.
    Erythropoietin inhibition of expression of NF-κB P65 and ICAM-1 in renal tissue of rats undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass
    2013, 33(4):  391-395. 
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    Objective Acute renal dysfunction is a frequent complication after cardiacsurgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This experiment was designed to investigate the expressions of NF-κB P65 and ICAM-1 in renal tissue of rats undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, and the protective mechanisms of erythropoietin(EPO). Methods 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham, CPB, EPO (3000U/kg EPO). Blood samples were collected at the beginning(T0) and the end of CPB(T1), and 0.5(T2), 1 h(T3), 2 h(T4) and 24 h(T5) after CPB for assays of serum creatinine. Renal samples were obtained 24 h after the operation for the determination of NF-κB P65, ICAM-1,and for histologic examination. Results Compared with those of the CPB group, the levels of serum creatinine were lower in EPO group (P<0.05 ).EPO had effective inhibitory effects on the expression of NF-κB P65 and ICAM-1 in renal tissues 24 h post-CPB (P<0.05 ), Histopathologic ?ndings of the CPB group con?rmed that there was renal impairment by cast formation and tubular necrosis in the tubular epithelium.These changes were markedly reversed in EPO group. Conclusion The expression of NF- B and ICAM-1 increased obviously in renal tissue of rats undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, EPO can attenuate renal injury by inhibiting the activation and expression of NF-κB P65 and reduce the expression of ICAM-1.
    Xinjiang kazak atrial fibrillation and potassium ion channel KCNE1-G38S genetic polymorphism of relevancy
    2013, 33(4):  396-399. 
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    Objective Research in xinjiang region kazak atrial fibrillation and potassium ion channels KCNE1-G38S genetic polymorphism of relevancy. Methods Collect the xinjiang region kazak atrial fibrillation (af group) and the crowd of people atrial fibrillation (control group) the 100 cases of peripheral blood sample specimens, extract DNA, the polymerase chain reaction-extinction enzymes fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), agarose electrophoresis analysis method appraisal KCNE1-G38S genotype and allelic distribution. Results KCNE1-G38S gene AA, AG, GG genotype frequency respectively in atrial fibrillation group 0.13 (13/100), 0. 34 (34/100) and 0.53 (53/100), in the control group were 0.10 (10/100), 0. 57 (57/100) and 0.33 (33/100), two groups of genotype distribution are statistically significant differences (P<0.05), and atrial fibrillation group G allele frequency (0.70) was much higher than those in the control group (0.515) (P<0.001). Conclusion Xinjiang region kazak the occurrence of af and KCNEl-G38S gene polymorphism related, KCNEl-G38S gene polymorphism site may exist race, regional differences.
    Enhanced expression of calcineurin in podocytes in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease
    2013, 33(4):  400-405. 
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    Objective To investigate whether calcineurin is upregulated along with podocytes injury in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease, and the relationship with the clinicopathological characters and the kidney survival. Methods The expression of α isoform of calcineurin A subunit (CnAα) and synaptopodin was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, respectively, in renal biopsy tissues from 29 patients with anti-GBM disease compared with 8 cases with glomerular minimal lesion as control. And we analyzed the relationship between CnAα expression and the clinicopathological manifestations and outcome of anti GBM disease. Results CnAαwas upregulated in all anti-GBM disease patients, with the positive area significantly larger than that of glomerular minimal lesion (21.63%±14.27% vs 2.21%±1.41%,p<0.01). The expression of CnAα, with loss of synaptopodin, correlated well with anti-GBM antibody titer, SCr, HGB, crescents, cellular/fibrocellular crescent proportion and the renal outcome. Conclusion It was found for the first time that the overexpression of CnAα showed good correlation with anti-GBM disease activity, severity and prognosis, which may indicate that podocyte injury take part in crescents formation. The mechanism involved requires further research.
    HCV Core protein inhibits SFRP1 gene promoter activity
    2013, 33(4):  406-411. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of HCV Core on SFRP1 gene promoter activity. Methods Different lengths of the 5’-flanking region of SFRP1 promoter were amplified from hepatoma cell line Huh7 genome DNA by PCR methods. The products were cloned into pGL3-Basic vector. The recombinant reporter plasmids and control plasmid pRL-TK were cotransfected into HEK293 to determine the strongest activity area of SFRP1 promoter. To examine whether HCV Core could inhibit SFRP1 promoter activity, hepatoma cell line SK-Hep1 were transfected with reporter plasmids and then infected with AdCore or AdGFP control. The promoter activity was measured by luciferase activity. Results The strongest activity area of SFRP1 promoter was -407~-27nt . Compared with pGL3-Basic negative control, the relative luciferase activity increased by 37.31±4.45 folds (P<0.01). And other reporters(pGL3-S2~S5) increased by28.74±2.47, 13.56±2.52, 12.97±0.87and 8.29±0.09 folds respectively(P<0.01). HCV Core protein could inhibit SFRP1 promoter activity. The inhibitory effect on pGL3-S1 was the strongest, with inhibitory rate 63.8%±1.0% (P<0.01). Conclusions HCV Core protein inhibits SFRP1 promoter activity, resulting in down-regulation of SFRP1 mRNA expression level, thus participating in HCC carcinogenesis.
    Isolation and identification of adult stem cells from articular cartilage
    2013, 33(4):  412-417. 
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    Objective To observe whether there are mesenchymal stem cells in the articular cartilage, and identify the cartilage-derived stem cells. Methods The isolated single chondrocytes digested from cartilage tissue were seeded onto the fibronectin coated plates .After 20 mins, media and non-adherent cells were removed, fresh media were added to the remaining adherent cells. 2 weeks after plating , colonies were selected and isolated using sterile cloning rings. Then we detected the surface markers with flow cytometry and verified the ability of adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiations of the cells. Results The morphological feature of the third passage’s cartilage-derived stem cells displayed an uniform fibroblast-like phenotype. The cells were positive for many stem cells markers, including CD44、CD29、CD73、CD90 、CD166, and negative for CD45 、CD34and CD133,as shown by flow cytometry. Adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiations were revealed in cartilage-derived stem cells when cultured in specific medium. Conclusion There are mesenchymal stem cells in human articular cartilage, and we have isolated and identified the cartilage-derived stem cells successfully.
    Construction of CHD5 gene lentiviral vector and its expression in colorectal cancer cells
    2013, 33(4):  418-422. 
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    Objective To construct the recombinant lentiviral vector containing human CHD5 gene and measure the expression level of CHD5 in LOVO cell. Methods The CHD5 fragment was amplified by PCR and cloned into the lentiviral vetor TREAutoR3.The lentiviral voter TREAutoR3 CHD5 was identified by restriction enzyme and DNA sequencing. Recombinant lentiviral was produced by 293FT cells following co-transfection of TREAutoR3 CHD5 with the packaging plasmids pCMV-VSV-G, pRSV-Rev and pMDLg-pRRE. Human Colorectal cancer LOVO cell were infected by the recombinant lventiviruse. The expression of CHD5 was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the proliferation of LOVO cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Results The recombinant lentiviral vecor carried the CHD5 gene was successfully constructed. RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that the CHD5 can be correct transcript and translated in human colorectal cancer LOVO cell which infected by the recombinant lentiviral lenti CHD5. After infected, the growth of LOVO cell is inhibited obviously. Conclusion It can be deliver target gene CHD5 to human colorectal cancer LOVO cell, and CHD5 can inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer LOVO cell.
    N-acetyl-L-tryptophan alleviates the apoptosis induced by H2O2 of mice PHNs
    2013, 33(4):  423-428. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (L-NAT) on H2O2-induced apoptosis of primary hippocampal neurons (PHN). Methods The apopotosis modle of PHN, a cellular model of cerebral ischemia, was made by H2O2. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of caspase-3, Rhodamine 123 staining was used to detect mitochondrial membrane potential changes, trypan blue staining was used to detect survival rate, the colorimetric assay was used to detect the activity of caspase-3 and LDH, Western blot was used to detect the expressions of caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome C and other mitochondrial pro-apoptotic factor in the cytosolic proteins and mitochondrial proteins. Results L-NAT inhibits H2O2-induced cell death, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, downstream release of LDH and mitochondrial factors, and activation of caspase-3 in primary hippocampal neurons. Conclusions L-NAT had effectiveness on cerebral ischemia/hypoxia injury though caspase-independent and caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.
    Association between ACE, CYP11B2 and α-ADDUCIN gene polymorphisms and hypertension in fujian chinese population
    2013, 33(4):  429-433. 
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    Objective The aim was to investigate the association between ACE, CYP11B2 and α-ADDUCIN gene polymorphisms and primary hypertensive subjects. Methods A total of 1380 essential hypertension and 888 normal controls were surveyed in Fujian Chinese population. The genotype for ACE、CYP11B2 and α-ADDUCIN were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results In multigene analysis,the frequencies of ACE-DD +ADDUCIN-TT genotype and ACE-DD + CYP11B2-TC/CC genotype were significantly higher in hypertension group than control group(P< 0.05),OR(95% CI)were 1.81(1.09, 3.01)(P< 0.05) and 1.61(1.15,2.27)(P <0.01)respectively;the frequencies of ACE-DD+CYP11B2-TC/CC +ADDUCIN-TT genotype was significantly higher in hyperten- sion group than control group(P< 0.05),OR(95% CI) was 2.82 (1.41-5.65),(P<0.01). Conclusion The combined genotype ACE-DD、ADDUCIN-TT and CYP11B2-TC/CC might be related with hypertension.It was possible that multigenes were interacted in the etiology of hypertension.
    Ethanol inhibits the activities of P70S6K and ERK1/2 in rat primary hepatocytes
    2013, 33(4):  434-438. 
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    Objective To study the effect of ethanol on the activity of P70S6K and ERK1/2 in rat primary hepatocytes. Methods Primary hepatocytes were isolated from adult male Sprague-Dawley rat and then treated with increased concentrations of etnanol (0, 50, 100 and 200 mmol/L) for 4h, respectively, or with increased duration of treatment with 200 mmol/L ethanol ( 0, 1, 2 or 4h). P70S6K activity was then evaluated by Western blot. Primary hepatocytes were also treated with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (100nmol/L) or MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10μmol/L) for 24h and then analyzed for the activity of P70S6K and ERK1/2 and the expression of PPARγ by Western blot, and PPAR? activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results The activity of P70S6K decreased with the increased concentration of ethanol and duration of ethanol exposure. Ethanol also inhibited activity of ERK1/2. Rapamycin inhibited the activity of P70S6K and enhanced the activity of ERK1/2. But U0126 inhibited both the activation of P70S6K and ERK1/2. Ethanol did not affect the expression and activity of PPARγ. Conclusion Ethanol inhibited the activity of P70S6K in primary hepatocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The activity of P70S6K was regulated by ERK1/2 but P70S6K also negative regulate ERK1/2 in rat primary hepatocytes.
    Relationship between MYH7 gene mutation and the ACE /DD genotype and LVH in essential hypertension
    2013, 33(4):  439-443. 
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    Objective To investigate whether MYH7 gene mutation and the ACE /DD genotype was associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in Chinese essential hypertension . Methods We conducted a case-control study on 303 volunteers, 102 hypertensive with LVH and 101 hypertensive without LVH and 100 normal controls . Echocardiography measurement and calculation of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) . Polymerase chain reaction (PCR),restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) detection ACE/DD genotype , double deoxidizing end sequencing method to detect MYH7 genetic mutations . Results with LVH group ACE gene frequency DD genotype significantly higher than the hypertensive without LVH group, the normal control group (P<0.01); MYH7 gene mutation is not found . Conclusion ACE gene polymorphism have significant relationship with high blood pressure LVH, DD genotype vulnerable to left ventricular hypertrophy . MYH7 gene mutations and hypertensive with LVH have no significant relationship , no evidences are found to support the association between the ACE /DD genotype as well as MYH7 gene mutation and LVH in essential hypertension.
    Differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells induced by bFGF and EGF
    2013, 33(4):  444-449. 
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    Objective To investigate the neural differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) induced by bFGF and EGF.Methods BMSCs were harvested from Sprague Dawley rats. Flow cytometry was used to assay cell surface marker CD90 and CD45 of BMSCs at passage 3.BMSCs at passage 3 were divided into 4 groups: control group(1% fetal bovine serum + DMEM/F-12), EGF group(20ng/mLEGF), bFGF group(20 ng/mLbFGF) and EGF+bFGF group (20ng/mLEGF+ 20ng/mLbFGF), Then the cellular morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast microscope. Western blot was used to detect neuron specific enolase(NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP),and RT-PCR used to detect these mRNA.Results BMSCs present a single long spindle or flat-shaped morphology,grow with close whirlpool-like arrangement, the CD90 express up to 98.72%, while CD45 only 1.05%. BMSCs become shrinkage, enhance refraction,display simple bipolar to complex multi-polar, extend distinct processes around cell body,exhibit typical neuron-like morphology after induction.The expression level of NSE and GFAP in group EGF、bFGF and EGF+bFGF was significantly higher than that in control group, significantly higher group bFGF and EGF+bFGF than in group EGF, significantly higher in group EGF than in control group, and significantly higher in group EGF+bFGF than in group bFGF(p<0.0 5).The changes of mRNA was similar to the proteins changes.Conclusion bFGF and EGF are able to promote rat BMSCs to differentiate into neuron-like cells, combined application has the most significant effect.The ability of bFGF to induce BMSCs differentiation into neural cells is stronger than EGF.The present study provide a theoretical basis for the BMSCs transplantation in the treatment of peripheral nerve disorders.
    Repairing larynx cartilage defects with rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected by CDMP1
    2013, 33(4):  450-457. 
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    Objective To explore the clinical application of BMSCs in PLGA scaffold transfected by CDMP and to make a preliminary assessment on the repairing effect. Methods Using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) and Western blot for detection of hCDMP1mRNA and protein expression; using immunohistochemistry for detection of collagen type II ( Col II ) as well as glycosaminoglycan ( GAG ) expression. The transfected and untransfected cell scaffold culture systems were implanted into the rabbit thyroid cartilage defects and the culturing systems were analyzed at the gross level as well as at the histological level to observe the ability to repair cartilage defects. Results Adenovirus infection could be successfully transfected into BMSCs of exogenous hCDMP1gene, and obtained the stable expression; as compared with the control group, the BMSCs transfected by hCDMP1 gene enhanced the secretion of type II collagen, GAG and cartilage specific matrix ability; transfected cell scaffold complex could effectively repair laryngeal cartilage defects. Conclusion BMSCs / PLGA 3D scaffold composite transfected by hCDMP1 gene can repair laryngeal cartilage defects more effectively.
    Effect of protease inhibitors MG132 on skeletal muscle consumption and expression of TRAF6 in cancer cachexia in mice
    2013, 33(4):  458-462. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of protease inhibitors MG132 on skeletal muscle consumption and the expression of TRAF6, Beclin-1,MuRF1 and MAFbx in cancer cachexia. Methods Murine colon 26 adenocarcinoma cells were inoculated into male BALB/c mice to induce cancer cachexia.24 male BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups: healthy control group(HC);cancer cachexia group (CC)and MG132 treatment group (MG). Body weight and spontaneous activity were detected. Equal amount of physiological saline and 0.1mg/kg doses of MG132 were given intraperitoneally daily to CC and MG groups, respectively, on day 12 after tumor inoculation. All mice were sacrificed on day 19. Tumor and the left gastrocnemius muscle were accurately weighed. crosscut area of gastrocnemius muscle were measured. MRNA and protein levels of TRAF6,Beclin1, MuRF1and MAFbx were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results on-tumor body weight, spontaneous activity gastrocnemius muscle weight and crosscut area of CC group lower than HC group (P < 0.05), these indexes bounced significantly of MG group (P < 0.05), but still lower than the HC group (P < 0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of TRAF6, Beclin1, MuRF1and MAFbx in the gastrocnemius muscle of CC group were significantly higher HC group (P < 0.05), these indexes of MG group were significantly lower than CC group (P < 0.05).Conclusion The improvement of skeletal muscle consumption in cancer cachexia by MG132 may involve its inhibition of TAF6 expression, thus suppressing autophagy-lysosome pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
    The effect of tourniquet pain on attentional bias in healthy individuals
    2013, 33(4):  463-466. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of experimental tourniquet pain on attentional bias towards pain-related words. Methods The tourniquet was tied to the left upper limb of 32 healthy college students, while tourniquet inflating (experiment 1) or not (experiment 2), all subjects were asked to finish the modified Stroop tasks including five kinds of pain-related words. The reaction time, the error rate of recognition task and the pain intensity and distress were recorded. Results Moderate to severe pain was induced by tourniquet inflating. In experiment 1, the reaction time for positive words of male was significantly shorter than female (P<0.001). In experiment 2, for sensory pain words, affective pain words and positive words, the reaction time of female was shorter than male significantly (P<0.001). This showed that pain has accelerated the cognitive reaction speed of male. The error rate was increased obviously in the condition of tourniquet pain (P<0.05), particularly for social threaten words (P<0.05). The bias index showed significant cognitive bias for the social threat words under condition of pain (P<0.05). Conclusion An attentional bias was found towards to social threat words in healthy subjects in moderate pain condition.
    MMP-9 R279Q polymorphism and susceptibility to coronary heart disease: A Meta-analysis
    2013, 33(4):  467-471. 
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to coronary heart disease. Methods A Meta-analysis on MMP-9 R279Q polymorphism and susceptibility to coronary heart disease was performed by searching for studies included in PubMed before January 1, 2012. For each study, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated to assume homozygote comparison, dominant and recessive genetic models. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs was calculated and publication bias was assessed. All statistical analyses were conducted by STATA 11.0 software. Results A total of 5 case-control studies were analyzed in the study. The MMP-9 R279Q QQ genotype was not associated with the risk of coronary heart disease compared with R279Q RR genotype (QQ vs. RR: OR=0.866; 95%CI=0.713-1.052). Effect estimates from a dominant model [(QQ + RQ) vs. RR: OR= 0.909; 95%CI=0.809-1.020] or a recessive model [QQ vs. (RQ + RR):OR=0.902; 95%CI=0.750-1.086] suggest that the MMP-9 R279Q variants are not associated with coronary heart disease risk. Conclusion MMP-9 R279Q gene polymorphism may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to coronary heart disease.
    Pravastatin decreases Ito expression after acute myocardial infarction in rat
    2013, 33(4):  472-475. 
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    Objective To investigate pravastatin effects of Ito after acute myocardial infarction(AMI) in rat. Methods AMI model induced by the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD )ligation in rats,randomly divided into 24-hour group, 1-week group, 4-week group and pravastatin group(20mg/kg).Accordingly,the sham-operation group was established. Kv1.4、Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 mRNA and protein were measured with free right ventricular wall of each group using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real time-PCR) and western blot.Results The expression of Kv1.4 mRNA and protein was up-regulated after 24 hours in AMI; the expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 mRNA and protein was down-regulated, the former lowest in 4-week group and the latter lowest in 24-hour group; Kv1.4 mRNA(P<0.01) and protein(P<0.05) of pravastatin group was lower than 4-week group, Kv4.2(P<0.05,P<0.05) and Kv4.3(P<0.01,P<0.05) mRNA and protein of pravastatin group were higher than 4-week group. Conclusion The expression of Kv1.4 mRNA and protein increased while Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 mRNA and protein depressed after AMI in rat, pravastatin may decrease the variance of Ito.
    Expression and significance of HMGB1 and TLR2/TLR4 in rheumatoid arthritis
    2013, 33(4):  476-479. 
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    Objecive To explore the expressions of HMGB1 and TLR2/TLR4 in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods To select 29 active RA, 20 inactive RA and 18 controls.The expression of HMGB1 in serum of these cases were detected by ELISA. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on CD14+ monocytes in peripheral blood were detected by FCM. Results The HMGB1 content and the expression rate and relative protein quantification of TLR2 and TLR4 on CD14+ monocytes in active RA was significantly higher than inactive group and controls; The expression of and relative protein quantification of TLR4 CD14+ monocytes in inactive group is higher than controls. The level of HMGB1 in serum in active RA was positively correlated with the relative protein quantification of TLR2 and TLR4. Conclusion The expression of HMGB1 and TLR2/TLR4 in RA may be associated with the occurrence and development of RA and synchronous in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Effect of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC on the expressions of angiogenic factors in colon carcinoma in vitro
    2013, 33(4):  480-484. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC on the expressions of angiogenic factors in colon carcinoma Lovo cells in vitro. Methods NF-κB inhibitor PDTC was used to treat colon carcinoma Lovo cells. Untreated Lovo cells were served as control group, Lovo cells that were treated with PDTC were served as experimental group. The expressions of NF-κB, p-IκBα, VEGF and b-FGF in each group were detected by Western blot. The ability of HUVEC migration was observed by Transwell migration assay. The supernatant of Lovo cells in each group was respectively collected and added into HUVEC culture medium separately, then CCK-8 was used to check the ability of HUVEC proliferation. Results Western blot results showed that the expressions of NF-κB, p-IκBα, VEGF and b-FGF in the experimental group were all obviously lower than that in the control group(P<0.05). The results of migration assay showed that the quantity of migratory HUVEC through the microporous membrane was decreased in the experimental group than that in the control group(P<0.05)and migratory inhibition rate was 49.2%. The results of CCK-8 showed that the proliferation of HUVEC in the experimental group was obviously lower than that in the control group(P<0.05), and the inhibition rate was 73.2%. Conclusion In Lovo cells,the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC may inhibit the ability of angiogenesis of Lovo cells in vitro through down-regulating the activity of NF-κB.
    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the bladder(report of a single case)
    2013, 33(4):  485-487. 
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    Objective To investigate the clinical features and treatment strategy for primary SRCC of the bladder. Methods 1 case of primary bladder SRCC was studied,inc1uding clinica1 features,treatment,and review the status of the disease along with the literature. Results The case received ultrasound,CT ,biopsy and other related lab tests for diagnosis and differential diagnosis.Laparoscopic radica1 cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladders were performed.Chemotherapy was delivered after surgery. Conclusion Primary SRCC of the bladder lacks distinctive clinica1 and imaging manifestations, with high malignancy and relatively poor prognosis . Radica1 cystectomy and chemotherapy is one of the optimal approaches for the treatment of SRCC of bladder.
    Autophagy and cardiovascular diseases
    2013, 33(4):  492-495. 
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    Autophagy was originally defined as the process of sequestration of intracellular components and their subsequent degradation by lysosomal vacuoles. This process is likely the main mechanism involved in the degradation of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. Autophagy plays important roles in development of varied diseases.
    Research progress in the SVA retrotransposon
    2013, 33(4):  496-499. 
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    The SVA retrotransposon has approximately 2700 copies in the human genome,and insertes into the genome through the pathway of the DNA-RNA-DNA retrotransposition,then it changs the structure and function of the genome.SVA retrotransposon not only makes an important contribution to the human genome evolution,but also results in deseases.
    Research advances of relationships between DNA repair genes and carcinogenesis
    2013, 33(4):  500-503. 
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    Aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes may cause transcriptio-nal silence.Aberrant methylation of DNA repair genes such as MGMT,hMLH,B-RCA would result in decreased repair protein synthesis,genomic instability,decre-ased repair capacity,increased mutation rate and finally cacinogensis.
    Research progress of glucagon-like peptide-1 and analogues in the cardiovascular system
    2013, 33(4):  504-507. 
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    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) because of its hypoglycemic effect, brings a new occasion to the treatment of type 2 diabetes in clinical practice. Cardiovascular disease is a common complication of diabetes, the study found that GLP-1 and analogs can improve endothelial function, inhibit inflammation, reduce infarct size and ischemia/reperfusion injury, inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improve myocardial energy metabolism.These roles can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and provide new ways and means for clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
    miRNAs in myocardial infarction and heart failure
    Chao WANG Qi MIAO,
    2013, 33(4):  508-511. 
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    miRNAs(microRNAs,miRs) have very important role in regulating cardiac pathophysiologic progress.The expressing level and phenotype of miRNAs are different in myocardial injury, it can be regarded as sensitive and specific biomarker for diagnosis in cardiovascular diseases. According to the regulating mechanism of miRNAs,it can be used as a better and more accurate therapeutics to treat heart diseases.
    The application of PBL teaching in Stem Cell Course for graduates
    2013, 33(4):  512-514. 
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    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been the subject of considerable interest and debate in medical education in recent years. Course-based PBL has been established and applied in the course of 《Stem cell》for graduates which enhances learning by providing a highly motivational environment for acquisition of knowledge. It is satisfied that PBL can help students develop key learning skills and creative ability which make them more confident in their research role.