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Table of Content

    05 May 2013, Volume 33 Issue 5
    Anatomy surgical demonstration as a supplementary course in the teaching of human anatomy
    2013, 33(5):  515-518. 
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    As part of the educational reformation in the Peking Union Medical College,an Anatomy Surgical Demonstration (ASD) course was initiated to supplement the regular anatomy teaching.The clinical cases were carefully selected,and students were divided into small groups. The ASD course includes the following steps:students preparation for the course together with faculties from clinical and basic medical departments,clinical lectures,demonstration of surgical operation or video,students practicing,after-class summary,etc.The students not only reinforced their knowledge in anatomy,but also further understood the clinical application of the knowledge.During the meantime,their motivation and teamwork collaboration behavior were adopted.
    The relationship between MyD88 and Paclitaxel-resistance of A2780/Taxol cell line
    2013, 33(5):  519-524. 
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    Objective The study aimed to make clear the relationship between MyD88 and the resistance of ovarian cancer cell to paclitaxel. Methods After knocking-down and over-expressing MyD88 in A2780/Taxol cell line, qRT-PCR and western blot were performed to test the expression change of MyD88 on mRNA and protein level compared with control group, respectively. CCK-8 assay was executed to detect the change of resistance to paclitaxel in A2780/Taxol cells. Flow cytometry was performed to test the affection to Cell cycle and apoptosis of A2780/Taxol cell line. Results By means of inhibiting MyD88, we observed that resistance of A2780/Taxol to paclitaxel declined obviously, and anti-apoptotic significantly weakened. Inversely, over-expression of MyD88 increased cells resistance to paclitaxel. Conclusion Down-regulation of MyD88 increased sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell to paclitaxel, which provide new ideas and targets of gene therapy for the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer resistant patients.
    Correlation of SIL-6R/GP130 and oncological transformation of MSCs in C6 glioma microenviroment
    2013, 33(5):  525-530. 
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    Objictive To determine the role of the over-expression of SIL-6R and GP130 on oncological differention of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell(MSCs)by indirectly co-culturing MSCs and C6 glioma cells. Methods The combination of transwell insert culture dish and 6-well plates was used to build indirectly co-cultured system to simulate the microenvIronment of MSCs growth. GP130 in each group was measured by RT-QPCR and immunofluorescence, STAT-3, CyclinD1 and BCL-xl in each group was measured by RT-QPCR and Western blot, SIL-6R in each group was measured by ELISA, the cell morphological changes were observed by the phase contrast microscope. Results Experimental group cells showed tumor cell-like morphology. Compared with negative control group and blank group, GP130, STAT-3, CyclinD1 and BCL-xl mRNA and protein in experimental group were significantly increased (P<0.05), and there were no significant differences between experimental group and positive control group. The expression rate of GP130 reached 93%±5% in experimental group, while in both negative control and blank group was 0%(P
    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 regulates the cross-talk between breast cancer cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro
    2013, 33(5):  531-536. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 9(BMP9) on osteogenic differentiation of HS-5 cells and the expressions of metastasis-related factors of MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods The co-culture system with Transwell chamber was exposed to the conditioned media containing BMP9. Then the changes in the activity and expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium deposition in HS-5 cells were observed by chemiluminescence assay、cytochemical staining and Alizarin Red S staining respectively. RT-PCR and Western blot were carried out to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of osteocalcin(OCN) in HS-5 cells、parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) and interleukin-6(IL-6) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Results The ALP activity was increased in a time-dependent manner and reached the peak on the ninth day in HS-5 cells,and the cytochemical staining further confirmed that. Compared with the control group,BMP9 increased calcium deposition and the mRNA and protein expressions of OCN in HS-5 cells(P<0.05),but decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of PTH-rP and IL-6 in MDA-MB-231 cells(P<0.05).Conclusion BMP9 could regulate the cross-talk between breast cancer cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
    Effect of mifepristone on the survival, proliferation and differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem cell in vitro
    2013, 33(5):  537-541. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of mifepristone on the survival, proliferation and differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro and then to investigate its effect on neural development. Methods Different concentrations of mifepristone were used to treat the cultured rat embryonic NSCs. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), growth curve, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry staining were used to investigate the viability, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of NSCs. Results NSCs viability and proliferation significantly reduced after treatment of 10-5 mol/L mifepristone (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed after the treatment with mifepristone at 10-6 and 10-8 mol/L. Mifepristone at 10-7 mol/L enhances the proliferation of NSCs, but did not affect its mitochondrial membrane potential and the multiple differentiation. There is no significant difference in the ratio of differentiated β-tubulin Ⅲ+ neurons and GFAP+ glia. Conclusion Effect of mifepristone on NSCs is dosage dependent. Mifepristone at high concentration (10-5 mol/L) attenuates the survival and proliferation of NSCs. However, 10-7 mol/L mifepristone does not affect NSCs apoptosis and differentiation but enhances their proliferation.
    Reversion of Oxaliplatin resistance in colon carcinoma cells by REV3L gene intefering
    2013, 33(5):  542-547. 
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    Objective To assess the effects of down-regulating a human translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) gene REV3L on sensitizing drug-resistant tumor cells for chemotherapy. Methods The study experimentally suppressed the REV3L expression in human Oxaliplatin resistant colon cancer cells (THC8307/L-OHP) by the interference RNA technology (RNAi).Real-time qPCR and Immunocytochemistry can be used for judging the transfection efficiency by RNAi. The level of drug sensitivity was measured by MTT(Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide ). The resistance index (RI) and relative reversion of drug resistance are calculated by statistical methods. The cell apoptosis of was determined by flow cytometry and cytomorphology. Results THC8370/L-OHP cells transfected with mU6pro-siREV3 significantly reduced the cellular REV3L mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05), as judged by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry respectively. The IC50 (Inhibitory Concentration 50) by Oxaliplatin and the RI were markedly decreased (P<0.05). Depletion of cellular REV3L also enhanced apoptosis (P<0.05). Conclusions Depletion of REV3L from Oxaliplatin-resistant human colon cancer cells enhances the drug-sensitivity and induces apoptosis. Hence, REV3L is a potential target for tumor gene therapy.
    Pulse Pressure And Influencing Factors in Healthy Adults In Yunnan Province
    2013, 33(5):  548-551. 
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    Objective To know about the status and influencing factors of pulse pressure among healthy adults in Yunnan Province. Methods The 8 300 samples were selected by cluster, stratified and random sampling. Data were collected by questionnaire survey. Using EpiData3.0 to establish database, and inputting valid data 2 times. Pulse pressure over 50 mmHg was categorized as increased pulse pressure. The SPSS 17.0 software is used to process and analyze data. Results The pulse pressure increased rate of healthy adults was 36.2% in Yunnan Province.Univariate analysis showed that these factors to pulse pressure have influence as follows: gender, age, smoking, drinking, regular physical examination, physical exercise, sleep quality, nap habits and BMI (P<0.05~0.01); Non-conditional Logistic Regression Analysis showed that smoking (OR=1.84, 95%CI: 0.39~2.17), over 65 years old (OR=1.01, 95%CI: 0.31~1.86 ) were the risk factors for increased pulse pressure of adults. Conclusion The pulse pressure increased rate of healthy adults was relatively high. The main influencing factors was the daily life habit.
    Nesfatin-1 suppresses gastric acid serection in rat
    2013, 33(5):  552-556. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of nesfatin-1 on gastric acid secretion in rats, meanwhile its possible mechanism is also been investigated. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, and after ICV cannula implanted, the rats were randomly divided into control group and nesfatin-1 group, and the nesfatin-1 group was injected intracerebroventricularly with different concentrations(1、5 and 50pmol/rat) of nesfatin-1, control group was treated with the same amount of distilled water (5μl/rat). Optimum concentration of nesfatin-1 is used for the next subjects, then rats were sacrificed at different time points (20min,1,2,4 and 6h). The acid content of gastric juice were detected as before. The expression of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA and protein was examined by real-time PCR and Western blot. The changes in histamine in the gastric mucosa was detected by ELISA. Results ICV administration of nesfatin-1 significantly inhibited gastric acid output, the maximum inhibitory effect on gastric acid output was detected at the dose of 50 pmol/rat, and the optimum time for the gastric acid inhibition occured at 2 hours after ICV administration of nesfatin-1. Furthermore, nesfatin-1 decreased histidine decarboxylase (HDC) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels in gastric mucosal tissue compaired to the control group .. Conclusions Our results suggest that nesfatin-1 dose and time dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion by ICV injection in rat, the histamine signaling may involve in this process.
    Sp1 inhibits the erythroid differentiation of K562 cells
    2013, 33(5):  557-561. 
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    Objective To study the expression profile of transcription factor Sp1 during erythroid differentiation and meanwhile to explore the function of Sp1 on the globin gene expression and erythroid differentaiton. Methods Q-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of Sp1 during erythroid differentiation. Sp1 was knocked down through RNAi in K562 cells which were further checked by Benzidine staining. Q-PCR was performed to measure the hemoglobin expression. FACS was also used to identify the CD71 and CD235a positive cells. Results Both the mRNA and protein level of Sp1 are down-regulated during hemin-induced K562 cell and EPO-induced HPCs (hematopoietic progenitor cells) erythroid differentiation suggesting its negative roles in erythropoiesis. Knock down of Sp1 in K562 cells can improve the expression of ε-, γ-globin, CD71, CD235a and also the hemoglobin-containing cell percentage. Meanwhile, CD71 or CD235a positive cells are also increased in Sp1 down-regulating K562 cells. Conclusions Sp1 is a negative regulator of erythroid differentiation. Knock down of Sp1 in K562 cells can improve the expression of hemoglobin meanwhile accelerate the erythroid differentiation process.
    MicroRNA-29 suppresses glucose uptake stimulated by insulin in L6 myotube cells
    2013, 33(5):  562-566. 
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    Objective To evaluate the expression profile of miR-29 family in the skeletal muscle of GK rats and to further probe the function of miR-29 family in glucose uptake in L6 cells induced by insulin. Methods The expression of miR-29 family was detected by using real-time PCR. miR-29 levels in L6 cells treated by glucose and insulin were measured by using real-time PCR and Northern Blot. Gain of- or loss of- function of miR-29 was achieved by a recombinant adenovirus system and the effect of miR-29 on insulin resistance was measured by insulin-induced glucose uptake assay. Results miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c expression was upregulated in the skeletal muscle of GK rats and miR-29b and miR-29c expression levels were elevated in L6 cells treated by glucose and insulin. Moreover, enforced expression of miR-29 significantly suppressed insulin-induced glucose uptake in L6 cells and loss-of-function of miR-29 by using Ad-sp-miR-29 led to an increase of glucose uptake. Conclusion miR-29 family is involved in the glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of GK rats and targeting miR-29 maybe provide a novel strategy for Type II diabetes therapy.
    The effect of sevoflurane in myocardial ischemia and intraoperative hemodynamics for elderly patients with coronary heart disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery
    2013, 33(5):  567-571. 
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    Objective To evaluate the myocardial protective effects of sevoflurane in elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Methods It was a multicenter prospective randomized evaluator-blinded controlled clinical study, including 165 ASAⅡ~Ⅲ elderly patients with CHD undergoing elective major noncardiac surgery in 4 medical centers in China. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane-air-O2 ( Group S, n=83) or propofol (Group P, n=82). Blood pressure, HR, and 12-lead ECG were recorded at baseline, during the surgery, immediately after the surgery, and on post-operative day 1 and day 2. ECG ST-T segment abnormalities was analyzed. Patients were followed up 30 days after surgery to record cardiac adverse events (including unstable angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and cardiac death). Results The incidence of new occurring myocardial ischemia observed by 12-lead ECG for group S was significantly lower on postoperative day 1 (16.9% VS 30.5%, P<0.05) and postoperative day 2 (12.0% VS 31.7%, P<0.05) compared with group P. Conclusions Sevoflurane could reduce the occurrence of postoperative myocardial ischemia for elderly patients with CHD undergoing non-cardiac surgery. However, it did not change the cardiac outcomes in terms of perioperative cardiac adverse events and mortality.
    Construction of hGHp-regulating TNFα-expression vector and its therapeutic effect on in vitro pituitary growth hormone adenoma
    2013, 33(5):  572-577. 
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    Objective To construct a gene therapy system regulated by human growth hormone promoter and evaluate its inhibitory effect on pituitary growth hormone adenoma in vitro. Methods To obtain pSNAV2.0-hGHp-TNFα via enzyme digestion and linker reaction on the basis of pSNAV2.0-hGHp-EGFP and pSNAV2.0-TNFα,then authenticate the targeting ability of hGHp through transfection with Lipofectamine, detect TNFα gene expression with ELISA kit and explore the inhibitory effect of TNFα expression on in vitro pituitary GH adenoma with MTT kit. Results The sequence of pSNAV2.0-hGHp-TNFα is proved correct. Green fluorescence is only detected in GH3 cells but not in control cells after transfection of pSNAV2.0-hGHp-EGFP. The proliferation of GH3 cells transfected with pSNAV2.0-hGHp-TNFα is obviously suppressed compared with control group(P value<0.05). Conclusions We successfully construct pSNAV2.0-hGHp-TNFα for the first time and this hGHp regulating gene therapy system can specifically and effectively suppress the proliferation of in vitro pituitary GH adenoma.
    Down-regulation of Notch-1 signaling contributes to cell growth inhibition in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells
    2013, 33(5):  578-583. 
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    Objective To investigate whether Notch1 gene leads to change of proliferation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Methods Notch1 gene activation of SH-SY5Y cells was blocked using γ-secretase inhibiter DAPT or knockdown with recombination lentivirus which express Notch1-shRNA. RT-PCR and Western Blot were applied to monitor the validity of down-regulation of notch1 and Hes1 expression. MTT assay was performed for examining cell proliferation in vitro. The influence of Notch1 RNAi on the implanted tumor growth was observed. Results DAPT and the lentiviral vectors expressing Notch1-shRNA were confirmed to be efficient in down-regulating notch1(NICD) and Hes1 expression. The down-regulation Notch1 gene inhibited cell proliferation significantly (P<0.01). The implanted tumor weight in Notch1-knockdown group was markedly lower than that in control group (0.20±0.13g vs. 0.89±0.58g, P<0.01). Conclusion Notch1 gene activation, which can lead to the change of proliferation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, is likely to be potential molecular target for neuroblastoma in gene therapy.
    Zinc deficiency down-regulates Bcl-2 expression in kidney of mice at age of 3 weeks
    2013, 33(5):  584-587. 
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    Objective To observe the expression of Bcl-2 in growing mouse kidney under the condition of zinc deficiency and investigate the effect of zinc on the apoptosis of kidney. Methods To evaluate activity, diet intakes, weight and plasma zinc concentration of mice in order to determine whether the model succeeded or not. Immunofluorescence and Western blot were applied to observe and measure the expression of Bcl-2 in kidney of growing mice of zinc deficiency. Results Zinc deficient mouse displayed typical symptoms of zinc depletion, body weight, and food intake had obviously reduced. Plasma zinc concentration of Zinc deficient mouse had obviously reduced. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Bcl-2 was expressed in the intracytoplasm of epithelial cell of renal tubules and collecting ducts. Western blot showed that, compared with control groups, the expression of Bcl-2 was obviously decreased in zinc deficient mouse. Conclusion Zinc deficiency down-regulates expression of Bcl-2 protein and promotes apoptosis of renal cells.
    The expression of miR-184 on the alkali burning induced rat cornea neovascularization and the target genes analysis
    Cheng-Gang LIU
    2013, 33(5):  588-592. 
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    Objective To investigate the function and mechanism of miR-184 on cornea neovascularization induced by alkali burning. Methods cornea neovascularization(CRNV) was induced by alkali burning. HUVEC was cultured on Three-dimensional Matrigel. qRT-PCR was performed to analyze microRNA-184 expression in vivo and in vitro. Predicted and analyzed the target genes of microRNA-184 by bioinformatics method. Results Delvelop a model for angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-184 on CRNV (0.145±0.013) was sigificantly less than transparent cornea (1.015±0.189) (P <0.01), and was just absolutely miniscule on HUVEC(0.007±0.004 ) (P <0.05). The targets of miR-184 predicted was associated with VEGF singaling pathways. Conclusion The marked decrease of miR-184 expression during angiogenesis and target prediction suggest a potential role and mechanism of miR-184 played by VEGF singaling pathways on CRNV.
    RT-PCR and In Situ Hybridization Have Consistent Result in Detecting HPV16/18 DNA Infection in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Tissues
    2013, 33(5):  593-596. 
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    Objective To compare the effectiveness of two different methods, real time PCR (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization, in detecting human papillomavirus 16/18(HPV16/18) infection in head and neck squamous cell cancer tissues. Methods The level of HPV16/18DNA was measured by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization in the tissues from head and neck squamous cell cancer (n=78).Results The incidence rates of HPV infection were 62.8% by RT-PCR and 47.4% by in situ hybridization (ISH). By the way of RT-PCR, the incidence rates of HPV16/18 DNA positive in lip, oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx were 33.3%, 66.7%, 70% and 57.1%, respectively. By the way of ISH, the incidence rates of HPV16/18 DNA in corresponding location were 33.3%, 43.8%, 60.0% and 57.1%, respectively. In general, these two methods had a high consistency in detecting HPV infection (kappa=0.595, P<0.001). Conclusions RT-PCR and in situ hybridization have a high consistency in detecting HPV16/18 DNA infection in head and neck squamous cell cancer tissues. Either of them can be chosen for evaluating HPV16/18 infection status in head and neck squamous cell cancer tissues.
    Surgical Treatment of Primary Tracheal Tumors
    2013, 33(5):  597-600. 
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    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of primary tracheal tumors. Methods The clinical data of 30 cases with primary tracheal tumors admitted in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1991 to February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. 28/30 of cases were malignant, 18/30 of cases were adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) , 5/30 were squamous cell carcinoma and 7/30 were other tumors. The survival rates were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. The possible prognostic risk factors were tested by Log-Rank test. Results The 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 56.0% and 18.7%. The R0 resection rate of ACC group was significantly lower than the non-ACC group(Χ2=7.667,p<0.011). Positive margin showed no significant relationship with survival rate. Post-operation radiation therapy showed no significant relationship with survival rate. Conclusion Primary tracheal tumors are difficult to diagnose at the onset of the disease and the incidence of the disease is low. Surgical treatment is the first choice.
    Gender differences of cardiovascular involvement in a Han population family with Marfan Syndrome caused by FBN-1 mutation
    2013, 33(5):  601-604. 
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    Objective To recognize the gender differences in cardiovascular presentation of Marfan syndrome by investigating a Han family of fibrillin-1(FNB1) mutation. Methods Cardiovascular involvement of all family members were collected and analyzed. Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and his family members with informed consent. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. The full 65 coding exons and their relevant exon-intron boundaries of the FBN1 gene were amplified using primers designed according to the published sequence of FBN1. After purification, the PCR products were subjected to automatic DNA sequencing. Results 13 patients were identified. All affected individuals carried mutation of c.5431G>A (p.Glu1811Lys)in FBN1, however, normal members had no mutation. Four male patients suffered from sudden death, one has dilated cardiomyopathy and the other 4 males have ascending aorta (AA) dilation. One female patient died of heart failure and the other three females have severe mitral valve regurgitation without AA dilation. Conclusions Significant gender differences on cardiovascular presentation may exist even in one family of Marfan syndrome with the same FBN1 mutation.
    Comparison the performance of laryngeal mask airway ProSeal, Supreme and i-gel in clinical anesthesia
    2013, 33(5):  605-608. 
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    Objective To illustrate the selection preference and corresponding influence factors of different laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in clinical anesthesia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the change of clinical consumption of LMA ProSeal, Supreme and i-gel, and analyzed the difference of surgical subspecialties, patients’ gender and age among three LMAs using Chi square test or t test. Results Altogether 13,494 patients who received LMA-assisted general anesthesia were enrolled, with most of them using LMA Supreme. The number of patients who received LMA-assisted general anesthesia kept increasing from 2010 to 2012. As compared with the number of LMA ProSeal used, those of LMA Supreme and i-gel increased more rapidly, and major of them were used for female patients (P<0.001). LMA i-gel was preferred in mastectomy (P<0.001), while LMA Supreme in gynecological procedures (P<0.001). No statistical difference existed for patients’ age between group LMA Supreme and i-gel, but female patients were younger than male (P<0.001). Conclusion The surgical subspecialty and surgical sites were major influence factors of the selection preference of different LMAs
    Inhibitory effect of gitoxin on non-small cell lung cancer with gefitinib resistance
    2013, 33(5):  609-613. 
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    Objective To evaluate the inhibitory effect of gitoxin on non small cell lung cancer with drug-resistance in vitro and in vivo and explore the underlying molecular mechanism Methods Survival and apoptosis rates of H1975 were measured by MTS assay and flow cytometry respectively after gitoxin and gefitinib treatments. Tumor volumes of gitoxin treated xenograft nude mice were calculated by measuring the lengths and widths of these tumors. The phosphorylation of Erk1/2 was analyzed by Western blot. Results Gitoxin can inhibit the growth of H1975 and induce its apoptosis more effectively than gefitinib. It can also inhibit growth of transplanted tumors in nude mice. In addition, gitoxin can inhibit the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in a dosage and time-point dependent way. Conclusion Gitoxin may offer a potential treatment for drug resistant NSCLC.
    Clinical analysis of 16 cases of connective tissue disease with portal venous system thrombosis
    2013, 33(5):  614-617. 
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    Objective To improve the understanding of the clinical characteristics of connective tissue disease with portal venous system thrombosis. Methods The clinical features of 16 patients of connective tissue disease with portal venous system thrombosis were reviewed. Results Among 16 patients, 6 cases were SLE, followed by 2 case of APS, 2 case of RA, 2 cases of pSS; 1 case of MCTD, 1 case of CREST syndrome and 2 cases of unspecific CTD. Two cases were male and 14 cases were female with the median age of 48 years. Eleven cases had portal hypertension, 4 patients had deep venous thrombosis. The most common thrombosis site was portal vein (9 cases). Acute PVST could be manifested with acute abdominal pain or distention, chronic PVST could have chronic incomplete intestinal obstruction, or hematemesis/melena related to portal hypertension. Conclusion Portal venous system thrombosis can be the initial or the complicated sign in the connective tissue disease, physicians should be alert to this disease.
    Clinical characteristics of thirty-nine cases of lupus nephritis with chronic histopathologic lesion of antiphospholipid antibody associated nephropathy
    2013, 33(5):  618-622. 
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    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics that distinguish chronic histopathologic lesion of antiphospholipid antibody associated nephropathy (APLN) from lupus nephritis. Methods Data of 196 cases of lupus nephritis admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital was investigated by retrospective analysis. 39 cases of lupus nephritis with chronic APLN were enrolled into the study group. The control group was composed of 119 cases of lupus nephritis without antiphospholipid antibody (APL) and APLN. Other 38 cases had negative APL and chronic lesion of APLN-like renal lesions. Results The blood pressure and the serum creatinine levels at biopsy and two years later in the study group and the control group were 138±29/85±19vs96±17mmHg, 99±39vs91±42μmol/L and 93±26vs80±18μmol/L, respectively. Estimated GFR (eGFR) at biopsy was 72.7±30.0vs87.8±24.0ml/min?1.73m2. The blood pressure including systolic, mean arterial pressure and the eGFR at biopsy was significantly higher in the study group compared with the control group. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed the serum creatinine levels two years later in the study group decreased obviously less than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions Lupus nephritis patients with chronic histopathologic lesion of APLN had higher blood pressure, lower eGFR and relatively poor renal prognosis.
    Progress in functions of axon guidance molecule Slit3
    2013, 33(5):  627-630. 
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    The axon guidance molecule Slit3 is a secreted extracellular matrix protein that was found in recent years. Genetic function studies revealed that Slit3 is dispensable for neural development but required for non-neuron-related developmental. Recent study suggests that Slit3 is a new angiogenic factor implicated in regulating a variety of life activities, such as cell migration, angiogenesis, organogenesis, reproductive regulation, tumourigenesis and mental disease.
    Effect of autophagy on diabetic chronic complications
    LIANG Xiao-chun
    2013, 33(5):  631-634. 
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    Autophagy is an important physiological process and a major defense mechanism of the body under stress such as nutrient and energy. It is able to delay the development of diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic macroangiopathy and other diabetic chronic complications.
    The expression and significance of stathmin1 in digestive system tumors
    2013, 33(5):  635-638. 
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    Microtubule unstable protein, due to its unique microtubule depolymerization activity, it plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. In recent years, it has attracted much attention on abnormal expression of microtubule unstable protein in digestive system tumors. Studies found that its over-expression was positively correlated with the degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, the presence of lymph node metastasis or advanced TNM stage in digestive system tumors.
    How to guide medical students to learn antibiotics
    2013, 33(5):  639-642. 
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    Pharmacology is an important basic course for clinical medicine students, which involves in a wide variety of drugs and the lecture contents given by teacher are usually complex. A number of main points need to be mastered and the students are afraid of difficulties seriously. In the process of teaching antibiotics within the scope of pharmacology, a variety of teaching techniques and methods can be used flexibly according to the characteristics of medical students and the teaching contents to arouse the students’interests and improve teaching quality. Illustrations are summarized in the text.