Table of Content

    05 March 2013, Volume 33 Issue 3
    Prognostic analysis of early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma
    2013, 33(3):  257-263. 
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    Objective To evaluate the relative risk factors and impact of adjuvant treatment on the disease recurrence of early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma. Methods One hundred and eighteen FIGO Ia2-IIa2 patients diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from Nov, 1995 to Feb, 2012. The demographic, treatment and survival information were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up and survival data was also collected. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results The mean age of the patients was 41 years (19-74years). 102 of 118 patients (86.4%) were given radical hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and/or lymphadenectomy during the primary treatment. With the mean follow-up time 29.8 months (2-132months), 19 patients developed disease recurrence and 7 patients died of the disease. In the univariate analysis, old age (p=0.008), late-stage disease (p=0.008), large tumor (p=0.006) , pelvic nodal metastasis (p=0.001) and deep stromal invasion(p=0.016)were related to tumor recurrence. While in the multivariate analysis, pelvic nodal metastasis was the only independent risk factor. For the patient with high-risk factors, chemoradiation after radical hysterectomy could prolong the disease free survival but have no statistical significance (P = 0.201). Conclusion Adenocarcinoma is a kind of poor survival cervical cancer in early-stage patients. Pelvic nodal metastasis is the independent risk factor. Adjuvant chemoradiation after radical hysterectomy may prolong the disease free survival in patients with high-risk factors.
    Clear cell carcinoma of the cervix: a report of twenty-eight cases
    2013, 33(3):  264-269. 
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    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of clear cell carcinoma of the cervix(CCCC). Methods Retrospective review was conducted on twenty-eight cases of CCCC and the features of age distribution , histopathology, prognosis and related factors were observed. Results The mean age was 38.1 years (12~74 years ), ten cases (35.7%) with age less than thirty years. Ten cases (35.7%) had not given birth. No diethylstilbestrol exposure was confirmed. Patients mostly presented abnormal bleeding and vaginal discharge. Elevated ca125 was detected in 55% of patients. The stage distribution was 53.8% stageⅠ,32.1% stageⅡ,7.1% stageⅢ,and 3.8% stageⅣ. Four cases had normal cervix, two presenting endocervical neoplasm and two showing pelvic lumps. Five cases had barrel cervix. Seventeen patients had exophytic neoplasm. Surgical treatments were performed in nineteen cases among whom seven had deep cervical infiltration , one having vascular invasion, one with positive lymph node and none with parametrial invasion. After a follow-up of 33.3 months one was uncontrolled, two relapsed and one died. Patients stagingⅠorⅡ had superior five year free survival compared to the whole patients(80.8%vs74.6%). Three cases had fertility-preserving operations and none suffered recurrence after eight to fifty-four months 'follow-up. Conclusion CCCC tend to affect young patients and often presented endocervical neoplasm. The early stage CCCC patients which account for the most of the cases had favorable prognosis. Fertility-sparing treatment is applicable in selected cases.
    Clinical analysis of cervical small cell carcinoma
    2013, 33(3):  270-274. 
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    Objective To evaluate the relative clinical characteristics, therapy and prognosis of cervical small cell carcinoma. Methods Fourteen patients diagnosed with cervical small cell carcinoma were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from Apr, 2006 to Mar, 2012. The demographic, treatment and survival information were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up and survival data was also collected. Results The median age of the patients was 38 years (26-66years). 13 patients were premenstrual, and the other one was postmenstrual. 5 patients were FIGO stage Ib1, 3 were Ib2, one was IIa2, 2 were IIb, and 3 were IVb. 10 patients were given radical hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and/or lymphadenectomy, and one FIGO stage IVb patient was given hysterectomy. All the patients received platinum-based chemotherapy. 4 patients with stage Ib1—IIa2 were given adjuvant radiation after radical hysterectomy and 2 patients (stage IIb and IVb) were given radical radiation. With the follow-up time of 3-51months, 7 of 9 patients with stage Ib1—IIa2 alived without disease recurrence, and the other 2 patinets with stage Ib1 and Ib2 developed pulmonary metastasis with disease-free survival (DFS) 10 and 9 moths respectively. One stage IIb patient developed pelvic recurrence at 19 months. The other 4 patients with stage IIb—IVb died of the disease with the overall survival 5—12 months. Conclusion Cervical small cell carcinoma is a kind of highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma and prone to metastasize early. The patients should be treated by multidisciplinary therapy, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
    Expression of truncated ALT1 protein and preparation of its polyclonal antibody
    2013, 33(3):  281-285. 
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    Objective To express and purify tag free truncated ALT1 protein by prokaryotic expression system, and prepare its polyclonal antibody through immunizing rabbits with this protein. Methods The gene coding sequence of ALT1 N-terminal 1~115 amino acids was inserted in pCold TF vector, and this vector was transformed to E.coli BL21(DE3) for expression under induction of IPTG at low temperature. The recombinant protein was purified successively by Ni-Sepharose 6FF affinity chromatography, HRV 3C protease digested, Ni-Sepharose 6FF affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. New Zealand rabbits were immunized with the truncated protein and the antiserum was obtained. Results The truncated ALT1 expression vector pCold TF-ALT1 was constructed and identified by sequencing. The truncated ALT1 protein were prepared and it reached a purity of 90% after purification, The polyclonal antibody to this protein was also prepared and the titers of antiserum reached at 4.0×106. Western blot identified that the antiserum can specially recognize lysate of HepG2 and human serum with hepatitis B. Conclusion High qualified ALT1 protein and its specific polyclonal antibody were prepared, which laid a foundation for the development of immunological reagent of ALT1.
    Ubiquitin ligase LNX1 promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of exogenous PBK
    2013, 33(3):  286-290. 
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    Objective To study the role of LNX1 in the ubiquitination of PBK, a reported LNX1 interactor. Methods A series of recombinant human LNX1 truncations and full-length LNX1 proteins were cloned, bacterial expressed, and purified. In vitro ubiquitination system was used to study the ubiquitination of PBK by LNX1. The ubiquitination and degradation of exogenous PBK was studied in mammalian cells. Results LNX1 promoted the ubiquitination of PBK in in vitro ubiquitination system and the impact of LNX1 truncations to the ubiquitination of PBK was also studied. LNX1 promoted the ubiquitination of exogenous PBK in mammalian cells, leading to its proteasome dependent degradation. Conclusion This research found that ubiquitin ligase LNX1 promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of exogenous PBK, which provides important clues for study the physiologic function of LNX1.
    Enhancing TNF-α expression is induced by an increased interaction between α-synuclein and Nurr1 in microglial cell line
    2013, 33(3):  291-296. 
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    Objective To investigate the interaction between ?-synuclein and Nurr1 and its influence on the production of TNF-?. Methods The association between ?-synuclein and Nurr1 was observed with Co-IP. The co-localization and the nuclear translocation level of Nurr1 was observed by immunocytochemistry. The BV2 cells were transfected with plasmid encoding pCMV-Myc-vector, pCMV-Myc-?-synuclein with/without Nurr1-pAAV for 24 hours, Media were collected and used Elisa to quantify the level of TNF-?. Result Immunocytochemistry images have shown that ?-synuclein was co-locolization with Nurrl, meanwhile, Co-IP results further showed that ?-synuclein may interacted with Nurr1. Nurr1 nuclear translocation level decreased and TNF-? production increased significantly in ?-synucein overexpression BV2 cells. However, Nurr1 could attenuate the increase of TNF-? induced by ?-synucein in double-transfected BV2 cells. Conclusion ?-Syn associated with Nurr1 and this association contributed to Nurr1 inactivation and its downstream gene TNF-?. The results may suggest that one of mechanisms of inflammation with glia activation induced by ?-synuclein, which might provide critical insights into the pathogenesis of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
    Sodium Selenite Induces NB4 Cells apoptosis through AMPK/mTOR Pathway
    2013, 33(3):  297-302. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of sodium selenite on AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway and its regulation of apoptosis in leukemia cells NB4. Methods NB4 cells were treated with sodium selenite with different concentrations or in a time dependent manner, then the phosphorylation level of AMPK, mTOR and P70S6K were detected by Western blot. To investigate the effect of AMPK on mTOR and apoptosis in NB4, cells were treated by AMPK activator AICAR and siRNA which targeted AMPK. The phosphorylation level of AMPK, mTOR and P70S6K were detected by Western blot, and apoptotic rates were analyzed by Annexin V/PI double staining. The interaction between AMPK and mTOR was evaluated by co-immunoprecipitation assay.Results Sodium selenite can activate AMPK, inhibit mTOR and promote apoptosis in NB4 cells. When NB4 cells were treated with AICAR alone, an activator of AMPK, apoptosis was induced which was similar to that of selenite. When AMPK was knocked down with specific siRNA, phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K increased and selenite-induced apoptosis was attenuated in NB4 cells. Results of co-immunoprecipitation show there is a direct interaction between AMPK and mTOR. Conclusion Sodium selenite can activate AMPK, inhibit mTOR and P70S6K, thus promote apoptosis in NB4 cells.
    Functional analysis of the lymphocytes transduced with NY-ESO-1 specific T cell receptor
    2013, 33(3):  303-307. 
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    Objective: NY-ESO-1-specific TCR gene was transduced into human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to improve its ability of specifically recognizing and killing tumor cells. Method: pCDNA3.1-ESO-TCR plasmid was electroporately transferred into PBLs separated from healthy people in vitro and confirmed by RT-PCR. The phenotype analysis after eletroporation was measured by flow cytometry method. The NY-ESO-1 specific peptide (p157-165) was added in the culture of electroporated PBLs, the IFN-γ level secreted by electroporated PBLs was detected by ELISPOT assay. Result: The NY-ESO-1-specific TCR fragments in electroporated PBLs were detected by RT-PCR. The specific expression of NY-ESO-TCR in transferred PBLs is significantly higher than that in untransferred PBLs (P<0.05). The positive dots of IFN-γ secretion in transferred PBLs stimulated by peptide p157-165 was significantly more than that in untransferred PBLs (P<0.05). Conclusion: The NY-ESO-1 specific TCR expression in PBLs was elevated by optimized electroporation, which could improve the efficiency of IFN-γ secretion in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and provide the possibility for cancer immunotherapy.
    Role of cPKCγ in HPC protects N2a cells against OGD-induced injury and its molecular mechanism
    2013, 33(3):  308-313. 
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    Objective To explore the role of conventional protein kinase C (cPKC) γ in hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) protecting mouse N2A neuroblastoma cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced ischemic injuries in vitro and its possible molecular mechanism. Methods By establishing hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) N2a cell models, and using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and Western blot for LC3 II/I to detect the levels of N2a cell injury, necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy, respectively. Results OGD 2 and 4 h could significantly affect the viability and mortality of N2a cells, respectively (P<0.05, n=6 per group); HPC (20 min) could protect the N2a cells against OGD 3 h-induced ischemic injuries, but the cPKCγ inhibitor Go6983b (6 nmol/L) abolished this neuroprotection of HPC (P<0.05, n=16); OGD 3 h significantly increased the apoptosis numbers(P<0.05, n=6), but both HPC and HPC+Go6983 did not affect OGD 3 h-induced cell apoptosis of N2a cells; OGD 3 h could enhance the autophagy level of N2a cells, but both Go6983 and HPC+Go6983, not HPC alone, could inhibit OGD 3 h-induced cell autophagy (P<0.05, n=6); HPC could significantly inhibit OGD 3 h-induced cell necrosis, but cPKCγ inhibitor Go6983 (HPC+ Go6983) abolished this HPC-induced neuroprotection (P<0.05, n=16). Conclusion These results demonstrated that cPKCγ plays an important role in HPC protecting N2a cells against OGD-induced ischemic injuries, and this neuroprotective effect of HPC is mainly due to the reduction in necrosis of OGD treated N2a cells.
    In vitro nucleosome positioning features of DNA repeats sequence associated with human genetic disease
    2013, 33(3):  314-319. 
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    Objective To investigate the nucleosome positioning of DNA repeats sequence in vitro which can cause human genetic disease. Methods The recombinant plasmids containing (GAA) 42, (ATTCT)43, (GCCT)18 and 601 sequence were cloned.The histone and plasmids were used to assemble chromatin structure in vitro,and then analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis after micrococcal nuclease digestion. Results The plasmid containing ATTCT repeats sequence was more easy to form nucleosome than containing GAA repeats sequence in vitro. Conclusion The recombinant plasmids’ ability to form chromatin structure were changed because of the insert of the different repeats sequence fragment.
    Angelica sinensis polysaccharides regulate aging of mice hematopoietic stem cell through cell cycle protein
    2013, 33(3):  320-324. 
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    Objective The effect of angelica sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) on the expression of contol cell cycle protein in mice hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were observed to explore the underlying mechanism that ASP delay aging of HSCs in vivo. Methods C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, ASP regulate control group, aging group, ASP regulation aging group. Mice were uniformly explored in X-ray to erect model of aging. ASP regulation aging groups mice were treated with ASP by intragastric administration during X-ray irradiation. While control and ASP regulation control groups were treated with equal-volume NS and ASP by intragastric administration. Mouse HSCs were isolated by magnetic cell sorting and cultured in vitro. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining was used to detect aging HSCs. Cell cycles analysis and CFU-Mix cultivation were used to evaluate the capability of colony forming in HSCs. Cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of p16, p21,CDK2,CDK6, cyclinD and cyclinE were determined by western blot analysis. Results Exogenous X-ray irradiation induced HSCs aging was compared with control group. Biological feature of HSCs in aging group as follows: The percentage of SA-β-Gal positive cells, the ratio of G1 stages and the expression of p16 and p21 protein were significantly increased , the expression of CDK6、CyclinD、CyclinE, the ratio of S stages and the capacility of colony forming in HSCs were decreased. ASP could significantly decrease the number of SA-β-Gal positive cells, the ratio of G1 stages and downregulate the expression of p16 and p21 protein in HSCs contrast to aging control group. In addition, ASP could remarkably increase the ratio of S stages, the capacility of colony forming and upregulate the expression of CDK6、CyclinD、CyclinE in HSCs compared with aging group. There was no significant difference in the protein expression of CDK2 in HSC. Conclusions ASP could delay senescence HSCs aging which maybe partly ascribed to the regulation of o cell cycle control gene.
    The space-specific expression of HSD1 protein during spermatogenesis
    2013, 33(3):  325-329. 
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    Objective To study the space-specific expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSD1 in different spermatogenic cells. Methods Mouse spermatogenic cells were isolated and endogenous positioning of HSD1 was observed by immunofluorescence assay. pEGFP-C1-HSD1 expression plasmid was constructed and transfected into CHO cells. Confocal and electron microscopy were used to observe the positioning and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSD1 in cells. Results HSD1 was expressed in the cytoplasm of primary spermatocytes and round spermatids; while it is mainly expressed in the acrosome and tail of mature sperms. There were three distribution forms of HSD1 protein in CHO cells: the nucleus type, the cytoplasm type and the nucleocytoplasmic type. Further study found that distribution of HSD1 was dynamic, and it existed nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in CHO cells. Conclusion HSD1 protein was space-specifically expressed in spermatogenic cells, and had the ability of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling.
    Genotyping of CYP2C19 with allele-specific fluorescent polymerase chain reaction
    2013, 33(3):  330-334. 
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    Objective To explore the distribution of CYP2C19 genotype in the population and evaluate the method of allele specific fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CYP2C19 genotyping. Methods Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 356 donors as samples. The techniques of allele specific fluorescent PCR and gold standard DNA direct sequencing were used for CYP2C19 genotyping with a blind synchro-method. Results PCR assay detected 46.6% (166/356) CYP2C19*1/*1 types, 33.2% (118/356) CYP2C19*1/*2 types, 10.7% (38/356) CYP2C19*2/*2 type, 2.0% (7/356) CYP2C19*2/*3 types, 0.8% (3/356) CYP2C19*3/*3 types, and 6.7% (24/356) CYP2C19*1/*3 types. DNA sequencing detected 46.3% (165/356) CYP2C19*1/*1 types, 33.4% (119/356) CYP2C19*1/*2 types, 11.0% (39/356) CYP2C19*2/*2 type, 2.0% (7/356) CYP2C19*2/*3 types, 0.8% (3/356) CYP2C19*3/*3 types, and 6.5% (23/356) CYP2C19*1/*3 types. It is consistent for the two methods detecting CYP2C19 genotype (χ2=3.000,P=0.392), and in good agreement (Kappa = 0.987); The coincidence rate was 99.2% for genotyping results by two methods. Conclusions CYP2C19 genotype testing should be carried out in the clinical laboratory for the medication safety; fluorescent PCR assay for CYP2C19 genotyping is simple and reliable.
    Analysis of the characteristics of ultrasound-assisted digestion method for in-solution protein sample
    2013, 33(3):  335-340. 
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    Objective Analyze the characteristics of ultrasound-assisted digestion for in-solution protein sample. Methods Bovine serum albumin was in-solution digested by ultrasound-assisted digestion and overnight digestion methods, and the digested peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. After database searching the identified peptides from two methods were analyzed. Results The digestion time of ultrasound-assisted method can be shortened to 10 minutes, but the peptide recovery was 8% lower than overnight method. For peptide identifications the MASCOT score, protein coverage and peptide number of ultrasound-assisted method was about 1 fold, 10% and 40% higher than that of overnight method, but the miscleavage peptide rate was 22% higher. Analysis of the peptides only identified from ultrasound-assisted method showed that molecular weight distribution was 2~3ku and most of them was miscleavage peptides. Conclusions Ultrasound-assisted digestion method can significantly shorten protein digestion time and obtain better peptide identifications, but the sample loss will be increased and part of the peptides were not completely digested.
    Spirolactone decreased transcription and expression of MMPs/TIMP-2 gene in myocardial noninfarct area of rat
    2013, 33(3):  341-345. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of the aldosterone receptor antagonism spironolactone on the relationship between MMPs/TIMPs expression and activity remodeling after myocardial infraction(MI),to explore the molecular mechanism for the prevention of heart failure after MI,and provide a theoretical basis and new ideas. Methods: Myocardial infarction model were set up by drug intervention.Histopathology was detected by HE staining. Immunohistochemical and RT-PCR were used to observe the gene and protein expression of MMP-2,MMP-9,TIMP-2. Results: Post infarction both compare MI and control MMP-2,MMP-9 ,TIMP-2 was increased significantly in 48h,remain maintain higher level in 4 weeks(P<0.01). MMP-2 and MMP-9 patency fallout ,TIMP-2 no-apparent fallout by spirolactone interference. Conclusion: Spirolactone can decreased transcription and expression of MMP-2,MMP-9 / TIMP-2 activity in myocardial noninfarct area of rat.
    CDKAL1 rs4712523 polymorphism associates with type 2 diabetes in Han population of Inner Mongolia
    2013, 33(3):  346-349. 
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    Objective To study association of alleles and genotype frequencies of rs4712523 single nucleotide polymorphism in CDKAL1 gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Han population of Inner Mongolia. Methods Using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), the rs4712523 polymorphism of CDKAL1 gene was genotyped in 382 Han population of Inner Mongolia, including 190 T2DM patients and 192 controls. Results In T2DM group, the frequencies of G allele and GG genotype of rs4712523 were 47.4%and 6.3% respectively, they were significantly higher than those (35.3%and 3.2%) in the control group (P<0.05). The risk of T2DM of G allele was 1.654 fold higher than A allele (OR=1.654, 95%CI=1.237-2.212). Conclusions G allele of rs4712523 polymorphism site in CDKAL1 gene might be a susceptible gene of T2DM in Han population of Inner Mongolia.
    Prokaryotic expression and purification of major epitopes domain of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D
    2013, 33(3):  350-355. 
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    Objective: To express the major epitopes domain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) in prokaryotic expression system. The fusion protein was purified and its immunogenicity was studied. Methods: The potential epitopes of HSV-1 gD were predicted using the software Protean of Lasergen 7.0. Then gD major epitopes domain (gD MED) was chosen based on the prediction results, whose cDNA sequence was synthesized and inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-GST. The recombinant gD MED protein was expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3) pLysS with the induction of Isopropyl-β-D-1-Thiogalactopyrano -side (IPTG) and purified with GST?Bind purification kit. The immunological activity was analyzed by western blot. Results: HSV-1 gD MED was located at 266~394 region according to prediction results, whose cDNA sequence was synthesized and its prokaryotic expression vector pET-GST-gD MED was constructed successfully. The fusion gD MED protein could be expressed in soluble form, and its molecular weight (approximately 45 ku) was very close to predicted value. After purification, the purity quotient of the recombinant protein was over 95%. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant protein had immunological activity. Conclusions: HSV-1 gD MED fusion protein with immunological activity was expressed and purified, which would be helpful to prepare HSV immunologic diagnosis kit and genetically engineering vaccine.
    Two cases of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis
    2013, 33(3):  356-360. 
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    Objective To improve clinicians' awareness and the level of diagnosis and treatment of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis, in order to reduce misdiagnosis and improve the prognosis. Methods To make a literature review about the clinical manifestations, pathological features, diagnosis, treatment of chronic histoplasmosis,according to 2 cases of clinical and follow-up data in our hospital from 1980 to 2012.Results Both two cases of patients have a long course, with the first symptom lack of specific, multi-system involvement, who have no history of specific diseases. One case has gastrointestinal, lung and adrenal gland involvement, and the other one has lung and peritoneal involvement. Both of them are misdiagnosed early,with diagnosis by pathology and good effect by the anti-fungal therapy,neither relapsed. Conclusion Chronic histoplasmosis is rare and the clinical manifestations are not specific, diagnosis depends on the typical pathological morphology and special stains, prognosis is good with aggressive treatment.
    TACC proteins and Tumor
    2013, 33(3):  367-369. 
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    Members of the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) family of proteins have been implicated in tumor and are concentrated at centrosomes. TACC proteins involve in regulation of genome stability and gene transcription which could make important contributions to the development of tumor. But the existing research is not yet clear about the role of TACC proteins in tumor. This review will discuss the recent progress in their role, particularly the mechanism of regulation in tumor development.
    Recent advances in the regulation effect of TRPM family in cellular calcium / magnesium homeostasis
    2013, 33(3):  370-373. 
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    Melastatin-related transient receptor potential (TRPM) channels belong to the transient receptor potential(TRP)channel superfamily. All the members are permeable to Ca2+ and Mg2+ except TRPM4 and TRPM5. TRPM1, TRPM2, TRPM3 and TRPM8 are regulators of Ca2+ and magnesium homeostasis, TRPM6 and TRPM7 are key regulators of Mg2+ homeostasis. TRPM channels are distributed widely and activated by multiple stimuli. They play fundmental role in regulating cellular calcium / magnesium homeostasis and other various cell biological processes.
    The effect of mitochondria on the iPSC reprogramming
    2013, 33(3):  374-377. 
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    iPS provides a new way for the study of disease pathogenesis,drug discovery and regenerative medicine.Despite the rapid progress has been made in the iPS cell technology,the reprogramming of iPS is still unclear.Mitochondria is an important participant in various physiological processes in the cell.The effect of mitochondria on the iPS reprogramming and the relationship between them need to be studied.
    Expression and significance of aquaporins in glial cells
    2013, 33(3):  378-381. 
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    In the 1980s Peter Agre found water channel proteins on plasma membranes, and these proteins were named aquaporins (AQPs ). Several evidences have revealed that expression of AQPs in glial cells contributes a lot to neurological diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize the localization and significance of AQPs expression in glial cells and to provide new targets for diagnosis and treatment of central and peripheral nervous diseases.
    Clinical research progress of crizotinib in non-small cell lung cancer patients with ALK-rearrangement positive
    2013, 33(3):  382-386. 
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    Crizotinib is a selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase(ALK), hepatocyte growth factor receptor(c-Met/HGFR) tyrosine kinases and their oncogenic variants. In PROFILE 1001 and PROFILE 1005 clinical trials, the response rate of crizotinib is 50%~60% for non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) patients with ALK rearrangement. Most of the adverse events are grade 1~2. Vysis ALK breakapart FISH probe kit is the standard diagnostic test to detect ALK-rearrangement. ALK-rearrangement is more often seen in never/light smokers with lung adenocarcinomas. The mechanism of crizotinib resistance is complicated.