Table of Content

    05 February 2013, Volume 33 Issue 2
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis EIS gene inhibited autophage in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line A549
    2013, 33(2):  129-132. 
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    Objective To identify the role of EIS gene of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the process of autophage in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line A549.Methods Recombinat plasmid pcDNA3.1-EIS-3flag was constructed and contransfected with GFP-LC3 which is a flurescent autophagosome expression plasmid in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells A549. At 24 h after contransfection and treated with rapamycin which is a classical autophage inducer,the Autophagy fluorescent dots were observed and counted under the fluorescence microscope.We further detected the EIS protein and autophagic protein by Western blotting. Results The recombinant plasmid Pcdna3.1-EIS-3flag was successfully constructed ,and it decreased the fluorescene dots of autophage . Moreover,the EIS protein could inhibit autophagical protein by Western blot result. Conclusion EIS gene of mycobacterium tuberculosis can inhibit the initiation of autophage,which plays a key role in the persistency of tuberculosis.
    Role of Müller cell-specific reactive gliosis in acute ocular hypertension-induced retinal damage of rats
    2013, 33(2):  133-138. 
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    Objective To observe Müller cell-specific reactive gliosis in rat retina following acute ocular hypertension (AOH) and its effect on AOH-induced retinal damage. Methods The AOH rat model was established, and animals were divided into control (Ctrl), AOH and AOH+α-aminoadipic acid (AAA, intravitreal injection) treated groups (1, 3 and 5d subgroups according the reperfusion time), and AAA treatment or AOH+PBS control group. TUNEL assay was used to detect cell apoptosis, GFAP immunofluorescent staining was performed to respond Müller cell-specific reactive gliosis, and Thy-1 staining was applied to mark retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Results AOH could attenuate the thicknesses of inner plexiform layer (IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL), and cause cell disorganization and cell loss in ganglion cell layer (GCL) as well as the Müller cell-specific reactive gliosis (enhanced GFAP-immunoreactivity) in rat retina. In addition, we found that the inhibition of Müller cell-specific reactive gliosis by AAA intravitreal injection could significantly relief RGCs loss and cell apoptosis in GCL layer of AOH rat retina. Conclusion Müller cell-specific reactive gliosis was involved in AOH-induced retinal damage and its inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for improving glaucomatous retinopathy.
    The role of KIF1B in the upregulation of MMP-2 by leptin in the first trimester trophoblasts
    2013, 33(2):  139-143. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of leptin on the expression of MMP-2 and KIF1B in first trimester trophoblastic cells, and explore the role of KIF1B in the regulation of leptin on MMP-2 secretion. Methods First trimester trophoblasts were isolated by conventional methods from the villi (6 to 9 weeks) of normal pregnant women by artificial abortion, and then divided into 6 groups: control, leptin (100 and 500 μg/L), KIF1B-siRNA, leptin (100 and 500 μg/L) + KIF1B-siRNA. After 24 h, we employed zymography for detecting the level of MMP-2 in supernatant, RT-PCR for the change of MMP-2, OB-Rl and KIF1B mRNA expression, and Western blot for the change of KIF1B protein expression. Results MMP-2 expression in trophoblasts was significantly enhanced by leptin (100 and 500 μg/L) compared with the control group (100 μg/L: from 0.11±0.02 to 0.18±0.05 at mRNA level, P<0.05). The up-regulation of OB-Rl and KIF1B depended on leptin (P<0.05). KIF1B-siRNA partially inhibited the up-regulation of MMP-2 secretion by leptin. Conclusion Leptin up-regulates MMP-2 secretion by the pathway of leptin R-KIF1B, consequently enhances the invasion of first trimester trophoblasts, which offers new basal data for elucidating the mechanism of invasion regulation of trophocytes.
    Expression of H2-Calponin protein in four cancerous tissues and its clinical significance
    2013, 33(2):  144-148. 
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    Objective To explore the expression and distribution of H2-Calponin mRNA and protein in four cancerous tissues and its clinical significance. Methods In situ RT- PCR was used to detect the expression and distribution of H2-Calponin mRNA in four different cancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of H2-Calponin protein in lung cancer, gastric carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) and hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). Results H2-Calponin protein was mainly expressed in cytoplasm by immunohistochemistry.The positive rates of H2-calponin protein in lung cancer, gastric carcinoma,nasopharyngeal carcinoma and HCC were 30.0%,27.5%,45.0% and 51.8%,respectively.The expression positive rate of H2-Calponin in HCC was the highest. The expression of H2-Calponin mRNA was showed near the nucleus by in situ RT- PCR.The mRNA expression rates of H2-Calponin in lung cancer,gastric carcinoma,nasopharyngeal carcinoma and HCC were 17.5%,10.0%,20.0% and 50.0%,respectively.The positive rate of H2-Calponin in HCC was the highest(P<0.05). The positive rate of H2-calponin protein in HCC with metastasis was higher than that without metastasis.The expression of H2-Calponin protein in four different cancerous tissues had no statistically significant with patient gender,age and pathologic differentiation grade. Conclusions H2-Calponin protein is a correlated with HCC, specially positive correlated with HCC with metastasis.
    Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector interfering the expression of human BMP9 and promote the proliferation of breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells
    2013, 33(2):  149-155. 
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    Objective To screen specific small interfering RNA(siRNA) target human BMP9 gene and prepare recombinant adenovirus vector AdsiBMP9 then investigate its effects on the proliferation of breast cancer SK-BR-3cells. Methods Three pairs of double-stranded DNA fragments for silencing human BMP9 were designed and synthesized, then subcloned into the shuttle plasmid Pses-Hus. The recombinant plasmids Pses-Hus-siBMP9 were transfected into the breast epithelial cells HBL-100 by using lipofectamine transfection reagent, Screened the effective interfering plasmid, constructed AdsiBMP9 and infected SK-BR-3 cells. The expression level of BMP9 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. The proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells were observed with MTT assay. Results The recombinant plasmid Pses-Hus-siBMP9 and recombinant adenovirus AdsiBMP9 were successfully constructed and its titer was 1×1010IU/ml. Compared to the negative and non-infected controls, the expression of BMP9 gene was significantly inhibited after the SK-BR-3 cells were infected by AdsiBMP9(P<0.05). SK-BR-3 cells infected with AdsiBMP9 showed a promoted proliferation effect. On the fifth day, the growth rate of experiment groups was significantly higher than that of negative groups(P<0.05). Conclusion Specific siRNA targeting human BMP9 gene was successfully constructed, which can effectively inhibit endogenous expression of BMP9 in SK-BR-3cells and promote its proliferation.
    Isolation and Purification of HMGN2 from Human Monocyte Cell line THP-1 and its antimicrobial activity
    2013, 33(2):  156-160. 
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    Objective To isolate and purify antimicrobial polypeptides HMGN2 from human monocyte THP-1 and detect its antimicrobial activity of HMGN2 by agar diffusion test. Methods: HMGN2 antimicrobial polypeptide were purified by the Reverse Phase HPLC and HMGN2 molecular weight were detected by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and the mass spectrum. The antimicrobial activity of HMGN2 was detected by agar diffusion test. Results HMGN2 had potent antimicrobial activity against E.coli ML-35p, some extent against E.Coli ATCC 25922 and clinical isolate 54080. However, its was inactive against S.aureus ATCC25923. Conclusion HMGN2 protein is an antimicrobial molecule and it is probably involved in the defensive of the innate immunity.
    P38MAPK signaling pathway is involved in BMP-13-induced cardiomyocyte-like differentiation from C3H10T1/2 cells
    2013, 33(2):  161-165. 
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    Objective To investigate the role of P38MAPK in BMP-13-induced differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Methods The four parts of experiment are grouped as follows:1.BMP-13 adenovirus (Ad-BMP-13) on the role of P38MAPK:Ad-BMP-13 transfection group, Ad - GFP transfection group and C3H10 blank group. The phosphorylated P38MAPK (p-P38MAPK) and total P38MAPK (t-P38MAPK) were detected by Western blot . The positioning of p-P38MAPK was detected by immunofluorescence technique;2. P38 MAPK interference adenovirus (Ad-si-P38) on the role of P38MAPK:si-P38 interference group,si-NC control interference group and C3H10 blank group. The t-P38MAPK was detected by Western blot.3. The influence of BMP-13 induced differentiation after Ad-si-P38 blocking P38MAPK signal pathway:si-P38+Ad-BMP-13 transfection group,si-NC+Ad-BMP-13 transfection group,si-NC+Ad-GFP transfection group and C3H10 blank group.The cTnT and Cx43 were detected by Western blot and the GATA-4 and MEF-2C were detected by fluorescent quantitative PCR.4. The influence of BMP-13 induced differentiation after SB203580 blocking P38MAPK signal pathway: DMSO+Ad-BMP-13 transfection group,SB203580(2,5 and 10μmol/L)+ Ad-BMP-13 transfection group.The GATA-4 and MEF-2C were detected by by fluorescent quantitative PCR.Results BMP-13 promoted the P38MAPK phosphorylation. Ad-si-P38 can effectively lower the P38MAPK expression. Ad-si-P38 which can block P38MAPK signal pathway significantly inhibited the BMP-13-induced expression of cTnT,Cx43 (P<0.05) and GATA4,MEF-2C (P<0.05). With the increased concentration of P38MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580, expression of GATA-4,MEF-2C was reduced significantly (P<0.05).Conclusions P38MAPK signal pathway can be activated by Ad-BMP-13 to promote cardiomyocyte -like cells differentiation from C3H10T1/2 cells.
    Down Expression of Angiotensin Receptor─Mas Receptor In Rat Pancreas With Diabetes
    2013, 33(2):  166-171. 
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    Objective Using the diabetic animal model, we aimed to investigate the putative role of angiotensin receptor─Mas receptor in diabetes pathogenesis. Methods Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in age-matched LETO and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats at the age of 48 weeks. The following items including blood glucose, serum insulin, serum levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were determined in all rats. Detection of the expression of Mas and ACE2 proteins in rat pancreas using immunohistochemistry. Pancreas were procured from rats. After the digestion phrase, the islets were purified by Lymphoprep. The protein levels of Mas and ACE2 from the rats’ islets were detected by Western blotting analysis. In addition, Mas and ACE2 mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR. Results The body weight, serum levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, OGTT2h blood glucose and fasting insulin levels in OLETF rats were all significantly higher than those in LETO controls (P<0.05~0.01). Mas protein and ACE2 protein were detected in both endocrine tissue and exocrine tissue of pancreas. Compared with LETO controls, the mRNA and protein levels of Mas in islets of OLETF rats showed down-regulated (P<0.05). Conclusion During the development of diabetes, the changes of Mas in rat pancreas islets were detected earlier than ACE2.These findings might be an important therapeutic target in pancreatic disease.
    Oxidation low density lipoprotein induces aging of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by oxidative stress
    2013, 33(2):  172-178. 
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    Objective To explore the underlying mechanism that Oxidation low density lipoprotein(ox-LDL) induced aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vitro. Methods Mouse HSCs were isolated by magnetic cell sorting and was cultured with ox-LDL. Cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry and identify aging HSC. CFU-Mix cultivation was used to evaluate the potency of differentiation in HSCs. The production of reactive oxygen specie (ROS )in HSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis and laser scanning confocal microscope assess, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD )and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of malondialdehyde(MDA)in supernatant that HSC cultured IMDM were detected by chemical colorimetric method. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining was used to detect aging HSCs. Southern blotting and TRAP-PCR were used to evaluated the length of telomere and the activity of telomerase in HSCs, respectively. Results Exogenous ox-LDL induced HSC aging was compared to HSC without ox-LDL treatment group. Biological feature of aged HSC as follows:1)The percentage of SA-β-Gal positive cells was significantly increased; the ratio of G0/G1 stages was strikingly increased , while the ratio S stage was decreased; the number of CFU-Mix was also notably decreased. 2) The length of telomere was remarkedly Shortening in aged HSC, and the activity of telomerase of aged HSC was also reduced. 3) The content of ROS was increased significantly and the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px was decreased in aged HSC, while the content of MDA in supernatant that aged HSC cultured IMDM was increased . Conclusions ox-LDL could induce mice HSC aging by oxidative stress, which maybe partly ascribed to the length shorter and the activity of telomerase slower.
    Effect of testis highly expressed protein HSD13 on CHO cell cycle
    2013, 33(2):  179-183. 
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    Objective The localization of HSD13 in tissues and its effect on cell cycle were investigated. Methods HSD13 was acquired by electronic cloning method. The expression of HSD13 in different tissues was detected by Northern blot and Western blot. The localization of HSD13 in testis was observed by immunohistochemistry. Double thymidine block method in combination with flow cytometry was used to study the effect of HSD13 overexpression on cell cycle. Results The sequence of HSD13 was obtained by electronic cloning method. HSD13 was highly expressed in testis, and was mainly located in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes. HSD13 overexpression and control CHO stable cell lines were constructed. Overexpression of HSD13 could significantly accelerate G2/M phase process in cell cycle. Conclusion HSD13 was highly expressed in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes of testis, and its overexpression could accelerate cell cycle progression.
    Comparison of the systemic vascular resistance and the correlative factors in Han and Hui populations of China
    2013, 33(2):  184-188. 
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    Objective this study on the difference in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and related factors between Han and Hui residents were explored and analyzed. Methods 2795 Hans and 1886 Huis from Yin Chuan and He Lan areas of Ning Xia province were detected with Bioz.com digital non-invasive hemodynamic monitor from the US, a lot of indicators were determined ,including systemic vascular resistance (SVR), systemic vascular resistance index(SVRI), body mass index(BMI), diastolic blood pressure(DBP),systolic blood pressure(SBP), cardiac output(CO), cardiac output index(CI), heart rate(HR), mean arterial pressure(MAP).at the same time ,the relevant factors were analyzed. Results (1)Hui aged 16~18 and 30~39 year old male SVR were significantly higher than the corresponding ages of Han males( P<0.05 ).(2) Hui aged 16~18 year old male SVRI were significantly higher than the corresponding ages of Han males( P<0.05 ).Multiple linear regression: the strength of the impact of SVR difference between the Hui and Han population is followed by MAP, CI, HR, SBP and DBP; the order of indicators of the contribution on the SVRI was consistent with the SVR. Conclusion the higher SVR/SVRI are possibly related to genetic and lifestyle of Hui , compared with that of Han residents.
    Establishment and expression of hTERT promoter modulated tumor specific expressing vector
    2013, 33(2):  189-193. 
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    Objective: To construct a tumor specific expressing GFP plasmid modulated by hTERT promoter. Method: hTERT promoter was cloned by PCR, and used to substitute the CMV promoter of pEGFP-C3 plasmid by means of genetic engineering to form recombinant plasmid(hTERTp-EGFP), which was subsequently used to transfect tumor cell and non-tumor cell respectively. Results: The recombinant plasmid hTERTp-EGFP was successfully established, and its post-transfection expression was observed in tumor cells but not in non-tumor cells. Conclusion: Recombinant plasmid hTERTp-EGFP has the potential of tumor specific expression.
    No association between mitochondrial DNA 4 polymorphisms and breast cancer in Ningxia Han Population
    2013, 33(2):  194-198. 
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    Objective To study the correlation of mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) np16 189、np16 223、np16 519 and D310 region polymorphisms as well as its interaction effects with breast cancer and its pathological features in Ningxia Han population. Method Based on case-control study design, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) was used to analyze the genotype and genotype frequency of the four polymorphisms of mtDNA among 195 sporadic breast cancer patients and 196 healthy controls from Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to analyze the correlation between each SNP and their interaction effects with breast cancer and pathological features. Result 1)The genotype frequency distribution differences of np16189、np16223 and np16519 between case and control group were show no significance (p>0.05); There was significant difference of the three genotypes distribution of D310 region between case and control group (χ2=6.629, P<0.05), individual who carry heterogeneous genotype has a lower risk to breast cancer than those carry mutant genotype (OR=0.216, 95%CI is 0.058~0.809). 2)There were no significant difference of the interactions of the four polymorphisms between case and control group (P>0.05). 3)There were no significance difference between four polymorphisms and pathological features of breast cancer (P>0.05). Conclusion There is no association between mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) np16 189、np16 223、np16 519 and D310 region polymorphisms and breast cancer in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.
    c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway mediates high glucose-induced proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts in rats
    2013, 33(2):  199-204. 
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    Objective To determine whether JNK signaling pathway is involved in high glucose (HG)-induced proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in rats. Methods Rat CFs were cultured in DMEM (NG: 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose; HG: 12, 18, 25 mmol/L D-glucose; OSM: 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose + 19.5 mmol/L mannitol) for indicated time periods (0, 12, 24, 48 h). Meanwhile, Rat CFs were cultured in DMEM (25 mmol/L D-glucose) with SP600125 (10, 20 μmol/L), a JNK inhibitor, for 48 h. Proliferation was measured by MTT. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), total JNK and phosphorylation of JNK were detected by Western blot analysis. c-jun mRNA expression was assessed by RT-PCR. Results Treatment of CFs with HG significantly increased phosphorylation of JNK in time- and glucose concentration-dependent manner. Compared with NG group, exposure of CFs to HG (25 mmol/L) significantly promoted the proliferation of CFs (0.44±0.02 vs 0.31±0.02, P<0.01), and upregulated c-jun mRNA expression and PCNA levels. SP600125 significantly suppressed HG-induced the proliferation of CFs and the activity of JNK in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions HG stimulates the proliferation of CFs partially through JNK pathway activation.
    Relationship between the FOS expression increasing in central nervous system in developing rats and neonatal maternal separation
    2013, 33(2):  205-210. 
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    Objective To study the correlation between neonatal maternal separation (MS) and the FOS expression in hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus(PVN) and anterior cingulated cortex(ACC) in central nervous system in developing rats. Methods According to the factorial design, 32 SD rats were divided into four groups with 8 each. Group A1B1 and group A1B2 were MS group. Group A1B1 were imposed on CRD at 6-week age, yet group A1B2 was not imposed on CRD. Group A2B1 and group A2B2 both as the control groups weren’t accepted MS. Group A2B1 was imposed on CRD at 6-week age, while group A2B2 were untreated. The rats were killed after the group A1B1 and A2B1 were imposed on CRD for 2 hours while the group A1B2 and A1B2 were not imposed on CRD. The semiquantity analysis of the FOS-Like Immunoreactivity(FLI) cell numbers of different sites(including PVN and ACC ) in central nervous system were made by immuno- hisrochemical staining. Results Both neonatal MS and CRD at 6-week age could significantly increase the of FLI cell numbers,not only in PVN (F was 7.033,35.212 respectively, p<0.01) but also in ACC (F was 22.745,15.106 respectively, p<0.01).There was no interaction between neonatal MS and infant CRD on the expression of FOS in PVN and ACC. Conclusion The increase of FOS expression in PVN and ACC in central nervous system in developing rats is related with neonatal MS obviously.
    Serum Metabonomic Profiling of Obesity-Resistant Rats with glucose metabolism disorders
    2013, 33(2):  211-214. 
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    Objective We investigated the major metabolic changes in low molecular weight serum metabolites of Obesity resistant ratsand control rats, understanding the pathogenesis of non-obese type 2 diabetes. Methods A obesity resistant rat model was constructed and the biochemical criteria were analyzed. The metabolites in the serum were exhaustively separated and detected by GC-MS. Multivariate metabonomics analysis was performed after peak alignment. Results Compared with control rats, the obesity resistant rats showed clear metabolism dysfunctions of glucose, lipid and amino acid, pyruvate, succinate, fumarat, citric acid, myristic acid, uric acid were decreased. And serum sugar, insuline,low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol was significantly increased,high density lipoprotein, triglyceride decreased significantly. Conclusions After 16 weeks of dietary intervention, the energy metabolism of obesity resistant rats show significant change. The metabolite profiling study could be helpful for understanding mechanism of non-obese type 2 diabetes.
    Down of PGC-1, NRF-2α and mtTFA Expressions in the Rat Visual Cortex after Visual Deprivation
    2013, 33(2):  215-218. 
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    Objective Observed nuclear respiratory factor-2α(NRF-2α) expression in the rat visual cortex in the normal development and visual deprivation. Methods To build visual deprivation rat model using quantitative PCR and Western blot detection PPAR γ coactivator-1(PGC-1), NRF-2α and mitochondrial transcription factor (mtTFA) expressed in the rat visual cortex. Results Data shows that of visual deprivation rat model resulted in marked reduction of NRFs’ RNA and protein expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion NRF-2α gene transcription and protein expression levels depend on the stimulation of normal visual signal, Our results proved evidence that visual deprivation has much influence on mitochondria function,resulting in a significantly down-regulated expression of NRF-2α.
    Postoperative high fever and respiratory failure of a morbid obesity patient receiving laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding
    2013, 33(2):  219-224. 
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    A case of morbid obesity patient who presented high fever and respiratory failure early after receiving laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding was reported in this article. Related literatures were also reviewed on the abnormal inflammatory response in obesity individuals including preoperative chronic systemic low grade inflammation and up-regulated inflammatory response due to surgical stress after surgery further to reveal the reason that obesity patients had higher postoperative complication rate, especially for respiratory complication.
    Research advance on the role of miRNA- 210 in the ischemic/hypoxic field
    2013, 33(2):  227-230. 
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    Ischemia/hypoxia is one of the common pathophysiological processes in many clinic diseases. The stabilities and diverse functions of miRNA-210 in ischemic / hypoxic state have been caused widespread concern. This article analyzes the effects of miRNA-210 on mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis in the ischemic / hypoxic state; then, attention is focus on the roles of miRNA-210 in ischemic / hypoxic diseases, such as myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer.
    Progress in treatment of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome
    2013, 33(2):  231-234. 
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    Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Therefore thiazolidinediones and metformin, which have been used in clinical therapy to treat patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, can ameliorate insulin resistance,resulting in the improvement of some metabolic abnormalities, hyperandrogenic symptoms, menses, ovulation and pregnancy rates. Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy may reduce in pregnancy complications, such as miscarriage rate, gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes.
    Cholesterol Metabolism of Macrophage Foam Cells and Atherosclerosis
    2013, 33(2):  235-238. 
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    The formation of macrophage foam cells is in the early stage of the development of atherosclerosis. The transformation of macrophage foam cell involves the disruption of a homeostatic mechanism that controls the uptake, intracellular metabolism and ef?ux of cholesterol within macrophages.The research of the mechanism of foam cells has a great significance for the prevention and the treatment for the atherosclerosis.
    Diagnostic value of mitochondrial DNA content alterations in human cancers
    2013, 33(2):  239-244. 
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    This review summarizes mtDNA content changes present in various types of common human malignancies and briefly describe its potential connections to the carcinogenic process. The review states the value of altered mtDNA content to be utilized as a diagnostic biomarker for identifying risk of cancer and early surveillance program.
    Galectin-1 and autoimmune disease
    2013, 33(2):  245-248. 
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    Autoimmune diseases arise from an inappropriate immune response of the body against the autoantigen.The pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is complicated and not well understood. However, the imbalance of T helper cell is acknowledged to be a key factor. Galectin-1, an endogenous glycan-binding protein, is known to play an important role in the T-cell survival, signaling, cytokine secretion. Recently, lots of studies demonstrate that galectin-1 also involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Treatment with recombinant galectin-1 showed to relieve the severity and progression of some autoimmune disease animal models, which suggests that galectin-1 could be a promising therapeutic target of auto immune disease.
    Molecular hydrogen - a novel perspective of medical gas research
    2013, 33(2):  249-252. 
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    Medical gas has been widely used in clinical practice. Previously considered to be a physiological inert gas, hydrogen, not only has anti-oxidation effect, but also has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect, and alleviates ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and other systemic diseases. The biological effect of hydrogen gas is worth to be further investigated, and could start a novel field of biomedical research.
    The life events and subjective well-being of long-term medical students
    2013, 33(2):  253-256. 
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    Objective To study the subjective well-being and the most impacting life events of Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). Methods Questionnaires were sent to students in PUMC. This includes Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) and General Well-Being Schedule (GWB). T tests, ANOVA and linear correlation are used to do statistics. Results 634 questionnaires were distributed, 390 are valid, accounting for 61.51 percent of the questionnaires. 155 are from male, 199 from female, 224 from premedical stage, 47 from stage of Basic Medicine, 166 from clinical stage. Premedical stage students get 74.23 ± 12.40 in the GWB scale, students in the stage of basic medicine get 72.09 ± 12.37, and clinical stage students get 79.57 ± 10.88. Different grades showed different results on ASLEC, however, in summary, they get 2.95 ± 0.93 in interpersonal relationship scale, 2.74 ± 0.81 in academic pressure scale and 2.94 ± 1.43 in lost scale. The partial correlation coefficients between academic pressure score and the GWB score is -0.317, p <0.001.Conclusion The academic pressure in the stage of basic medical is the highest, which lead to the lowest GWB score, this condition should be focused by school leaders.