Table of Content

    05 November 2012, Volume 32 Issue 11
    Long way to go--medical education reform in China
    2012, 32(11):  1243-1243. 
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    The comparison of medical education in America with that in the mainland of China
    2012, 32(11):  1244-1251. 
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    The global medical education has experienced about-100-year development, and achieved greatly, but it hasn’t completely met the needs of the health system and the populations. Consequently, the Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21st Century calls for the global medical education system to move the medical education in the world into the third generation reform——Systems-based Education. In this paper, we compare the medical education between the mainland in China and the United States, analyze the differences of the educational programs、curriculum designing、evaluation system、management system between the two countries, and then introduce the 3 future educational measures in America, to provide reference for our educators and welcome the third generation reform.
    The absence of humanities and its return in medical education
    2012, 32(11):  1252-1255. 
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    Humanistic knowledge and humanistic spirit are embodied in biomedical research and clinical practice. However, most Chinese medical school curricula consist of few courses on medical humanities and social science. The medical humanistic research and teaching ought to be improved. Many medical students are lack of critical thinking. The author suggests that medical schools should create a humanistic climate with qualified teachers to dissemination of a broad range of humanistic knowledge by using a problem-based teaching style. Medical students arm the instilled humanistic knowledge into both humanistic and scientific spirit and strengthen the ideal of medical profession.
    To quantitatively study the current status of the medical management system of the universities in the Mainland of China
    2012, 32(11):  1256-1258. 
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    “Evidence-based” practice has been popular. So is evidence-based education. This paper studies quantitatively the current status of the medical management system of the universities all over the Mainland of China, and analyzes their problems, in order to provide evidences for the third generation reform——systems-based education.
    Construction and functional analysis of siRNA expression vector of HO-1 gene in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells
    2012, 32(11):  1259-1263. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and function of HO1 gene in its human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line by constructing the eukaryotic siRNA expression vector of HO1 gene and to explore its potential role in gastric carcinogenesis. Methods A recombinant plasmid carrying siRNA specific for HO1 gene expression vector was constructed and transfected into SGC-7901 cells by lipofectin-mediated method. Cells (SGC-7901-pS/HO1) stably expressing siRNA specific for HO-1 gene were selected using G418. SGC-7901 cells untransfected and those transfected with empty pS plasmid (SGC-7901-pS) were used as controls. The expression levels of HO1 gene were detected by real-time PCR and Western bloting in stably transfected-SGC-7901(SGC-7901-pS/HO1) cells, biological function of HO1 gene was analyzed by cell growth activity and soft agar colony formation assay. Results Compared with SGC-7901-PS cells, the expression of HO1 protein of SGC-7901-pS/HO1 cells was an average 5.58-fold decrease(0.321±0.051 vs 1.675±0.153, P <0.05). The colony formation rates of SGC-7901-pS/HO1 cells were significantly reduced compared to that of control group (p < 0.05). The cell growth activity showed same tendency in SGC-7901-pS/HO1 group, SGC-7901-pS cells group and SGC-7901 cells group. Conclusion the eukaryotic expression vector of siRNA specific for HO1 gene was constructed successfully,which might contribute to probe the functions of HO1 in human gastric cancer in depth.
    Effect of oestrogen on the expression of Rho-kinase in the vaginal smooth muscle cells of rats
    2012, 32(11):  1264-1268. 
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    Objective To determine the expression of RhoA/Rho-kinase in the vaginal smooth muscle cells of castrated rats and the effect of estrogen on the expression of RhoA/Rho-kinase. Methods 30 female SD rats of 10 weeks were randomly divided into groups C4(4-week control group),C6(6-week control group),OE4(4-week bilateral ovariectomy),OE6(6-week bilateral ovariectomy),E4(4-week bilateral ovariectomy and oestrogen replacement) and E6(6-week bilateral ovariectomy and oestrogen replacement). 4 and 6 weeks after surgery, the serum estradiol level was determined and the expressions of Rock1 and Rock2 in the vaginal smooth muscle were detected by western blot. Results Serum estradiol was significantly lower in group OE4 and OE6 than in groups C4 and C6( P < 0. 01) .RhoA/Rho-kinase was expressed in the vaginal smooth muscle cells of the rats. The protein expression of Rock1 was significantly more in groups OE4 and OE6 than in groups C4 and C6(0.261±0.039 vs 0.207±0.032;0.270±0.037 vs 0.208±0.032,P<0.05), and so were Rock2 in groups OE4 and OE6 in comparison with groups C6 and E6(0.377±0.035 vs 0.294±0.033;0.388±0.038 vs 0.300±0.034,P<0.05). Conclusion The replacement of oestrogen may inhibits the expression of RhoA/Rho-kinase in the vaginal smooth muscle cells of the rats,E2 may regulate the function of vaginal smooth muscle through regulate the expression of RhoA/Rho-kinase.
    Probing the relationship between sialylated glycopeptides from haptoglobin-beta chain in plasma and prognosis of patients with leukemia
    2012, 32(11):  1269-1274. 
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    Object To analyze the relationship between sialylated glycopeptides from haptoglobin-beta chain in plasma at different treat time points and prognosis of patients with leukemia. Methods Plasma glycoproteins collected different treat time points, of the eight patients were enriched using lectin and then haptoglobin-beta chain were separated by gel. Resulting proteins were digested using trypsin, followed by proteinase K in gel, and the glycopeptides were enriched using liquid chromatography, followed by the structural characterization using tandem mass spectrometry. The change trends of sialylation were also analyzed. Results A decrease in the intensity of the sialylated glycopeptides of haptoglobin-beta chain was observed with disease recovery. Conclusion The changes in the level of the sialylated glycopeptides of haptoglobin were related to the prognosis of patients with leukemia. These sialylated glycopeptides may be a novel marker for monitoring the prognosis of leukemia.
    Four human population genetic characters of Gejia and Mulan population in Guizhou
    2012, 32(11):  1275-1278. 
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    Objective To understand the features of some genetic characters of Gejia groups and Mulan nationality in Guizhou. Methods A morphological survey on 342 random people of the Mulan (male156, female 186) and 412 Gejia (male217, female 195) living in Majiang and Huangping county in Guizhou respectively were carried out. Meanwhile, the frequencies of four genetic characters were calculated, and its’ correlations were analyzed. Results The frequencies of dominant characters of thumb style, hair of middle finger, style of fore and ring finger, curl of little finger in Mulan were 7.6%, 27.8%, 5.3%, and 95.0% respectively. Those of Gejia were 47.6%, 53.2%, 17.2%, 45.4% respectively. The style of fore and ring fingers was significantly correlated with the curl of little finger in Gejia, and the thumb style was significantly correlated with the curl of little finger in Mulan(P<0.01). Conclusions Four genetic characters have ethnic differences between the Mulan and Gejia in Guizhou, and these indices show a little correction.
    Keratinocyte growth factor promotes proliferation of rat pancreatic ductal epithelium cells in vitro
    2012, 32(11):  1279-1283. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) at different concentrations on the proliferation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs). Methods The PDECs were identified by immunocytochemical stain and RT-PCR. PDECs counting was carried out at different KGF concentrations. Results Nestin and CK19 were positively expressed in PDECs by RT-PCR and immunocytochemical stain; PDECs were stimulated by different concentrations of KGF after 2 days, and PDECs number stimulated by 20 mg/L KGF was 0.35±0.03,much higher than that of the control group which was 0.27±0.02. Conclusions KGF at different concentrations can significantly stimulate the proliferation of PDECs, the optimized concentration in our tests was 20μg/L.
    PPAR-α agonist Wy14643 alleviates oxidative damage in liver cells
    2012, 32(11):  1284-1287. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR)-α agonist Wy14643 on HL7702 cells injured by H2O2. Methods The mRNA and protein expressions of PPAR-α in H2O2-damaged HL7702 cells were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Pretreated with Wy14643 before H2O2 exposure, cell viabilities, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and NF-κB activation in HL7702 cells were detected. Results PPAR-α mRNA and protein expressions decreased by H2O2 exposure. After 200 and 300 μmol/L H2O2 exposure, the protein expression levels of PPAR-α reduced from 0.69±0.04 to 0.48±0.05 and 0.38±0.03 respectively (P<0.01). Pre-incubated by Wy14643, the decreased cell viabilities, SOD and CAT activities, and increased NF-κB activation in H2O2-damaged HL7702 cells were all inhibited. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that Wy14643 alleviates oxidative damage in HL7702 cells induced by H2O2 and enhances the cellular antioxidant capacity, which may be associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activation.
    SiRNA Silencing JAB1 Expression Inhibit Hepatoma Cells Proliferation
    2012, 32(11):  1288-1292. 
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    Objective Observe the effect of silencing JAB1 gene expression on human hepatoma cells proliferation. Methods By means of the RNA interference (RNAi) technique, the pAVU6-JAB1 siRNA interference vectors were constructed and transfected into hepatoma cell line HepG-2. The Jab1 expression was measured using real-time PCR and weatern-blot methods. The cells proliferation was measured using WST-8 methods. Results 96 hours after transfection of the PAVU6-JAB1 siRNA vectors, the proliferation of hepatoma cell line were inhibited from 99.6?1.4%(empty vector transfection group) to 70.8?1.6%(experimental group). The Jab1 expression was also inhibited,whereas the P27kip1 expression level was significantly elevated. Conclusion Inhibition of the expression of the JAB1 protein in hepatoma cells could inhibit hepatoma cell proliferation to some extent.
    Expression of ATF4 Gene in mouse endometrium during peri-implantation process of embryos
    2012, 32(11):  1293-1297. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of activating transcription factor4 (ATF4) gene in mouse endometrium during peri-implantation process of embryos, and the role in the embryonic implantation. Methods Endometrium samples were collected from Day 0 to Day 7 in early pregnant mice, and the express level of ATF4 mRNA on it was determined by RT-PCR and the expression level of ATF4 protein as determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.Polyclonal antibody of ATF4 was injected into the uterus of the early pregnant mice to observe the changes of the embryos. Results 1)It was demonstrated that the expression of ATF4 on the endometrium of pregnant mice was stronger than that of nonpregnant mice(P<0.05), and the tendency was gradually augmented as days went.It reached the highest level at pregnant d 4 and declined gradually thereafter. 2)The clearest expression of ATF4 protein was primarily limited to the subluminal stromal cytoplasm in the endometrium of mouse. Expressional mode of ATF4 protein was similar with that of the mRNA. 3)ATF4 antibody resulted in a significant decrease of embryo implantation as compared with the control group. Conclusions ATF4 gene may be involved in the decidualization, and promote the embryo implantation .
    Regulation of PES1 on estrogen receptor transcriptional activity
    2012, 32(11):  1298-1301. 
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    Objective To study the interaction of PES1 with estrogen recaptor(ER) and its effect on the transactivation activity of ER. Methods GST pull-down was used to verify if PES1 could interact with ERa and ERb in vitro after PES1 was translated and mixed with GST-ERa or GST-ERb purified. The interaction of PES1 with ER in vivo was tested by co-immunoPrecipitation(co-IP) after HA-PES1 was co-transfected with FLAG-ERa? or FLAGC-ERb in 293T cells. The effects of PES1 on ERa and ERb transactivation acitivities were analyzed with estrogen receptor element luciferase. Results PES1 interacted with ERa and ERb in vitro and vivo by GST pull-down and co-IP. PES1 binded ERb strongerly compared to ERa.E2 enhanced the binding of PES1 and ERa but had no effect on that of PES1 and ERb. PES1 raised the transactivation acitivity of ERa and inhibited the transactivation acitivity of ERb in E2-denpent manner. Conclusions PES1 may be a new ER coregulator and can inversely regulate the transactivation acitivities of ERa and ERb. Further researches are needed to elucidate its functions on the ER signaling pathway and on the tumorigenesis and development of E2- induced neoplasms.
    Apolipoprotein M mediates renal ischemia reperfusion injury probably via NF-κB in rats
    2012, 32(11):  1302-1307. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of NF-κB inhibitor—pyrrolidine dithiocarbamat (PDTC) on the expression of apoM in renal cortex of rats with ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) . Methods Seventy-five male rats were randomly divided into sham operation group、IRI group and PDTC group,five subgroups at time points of 3,6,12,24 and 48h after reperfusion were set up in each group. The expression of mRNA and protein of apoM in cytoplasm and that of NF-κB P65 protein in nucleus of renal cortex were detected at the indicated time points. Results The expression of NF- кBp65 protein in IRI group was obviously higher than that in sham operation group(sham:1.0±0.2;IRI3h:4.1±0.5,P<0.01), while the expression in PDTC group was lower than that in IRI group(PDTC3h:2.0±0.2,P<0.01), and two peaks were detected, which were respectively at 3 and 48h after reperfusion. A similar expression pattern of both mRNA and protein of apoM was found among the three groups, and there were also two peaks in expression of apoM, the expression peaks of apoM mRNA was at 3 and 48h after reperfusion, while those of apoM protein lag behind. Otherwise, a significant correlation was found between the expression of apoM mRNA and NF--κB P65. Conclusion The results indicate that apoM feasibly takes part in the pathogenesis of IRI via NF-кB.
    leanolic acid promote insulin secretion and against apoptosis induced by high glucose and fat toxicity
    2012, 32(11):  1308-1311. 
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    Objective To observe the effects of Oleanolic acid on islet cell proliferation and apoptosis under high glucose and fat toxicity. Methods Mouse primary islet cell was cultivated under high glucose and fat ,then different concentration of Oleanolic acid are administrated for intervention, radioimmunoassay to detect insulin secretion , islet cell proliferative activity was determined by MTT assay; islet cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry . Results Islet cell proliferation and insulin secretion were inhibited by the mixed culture medium of glucose and palmitic acid, Oleanolic acid can against it. Conclusion Oleanolic acid can protect islet cell from high glucolipotoxicity, enhance viability of islet cell and inhibit islet cell apoptosis.
    Effect of CoCl2 on CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation of cell lines of colon carcinoma
    2012, 32(11):  1312-1317. 
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    Objective The thesis aims to observe and evaluate the effect of hypoxia on CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation of the cell lines of human colon carcinoma. Methods taking cDNA sequence of colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116 cells as the subject, the study mainly builds overexpressed lentiviral vector with Green fluorescent protein CacyBP/SIP by Molecular cloning, and then transfects it into SW480 cells of colon carcinoma. Taking CoCl2 as the Stimulating factor, it tests the location and expression of the CacyBP/SIP with Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope and Western blot. Results the construction of lentiviral vectors for the overexpression of CacyBP / SIP, was transfected into colon cancer cells successfully, and it has been found that before the stimulation of CoCl2, CacyBP/SIP is located and expressed in the cytoplasm, and both in cytoplasm and nucleus after the stimulation of CoCl2. Conclusion The stimulation of CoCl2 can lead to the nuclear translocation of CacyBP/SIP.
    Aripiprazole Combing Tandospirone can Improve Cognitive Function of Female Schizophrenic Patients
    2012, 32(11):  1318-1321. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of aripiprazole combing tandospirone in cognitive function of schizophrenic patients. Method Ninety-one patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into the controlled group(aripiprazole combing tandospirone n=47)and the matched group (aripiprazole n=44). Clinical efficacy was evaluated by Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale(PANSS)at baseline and 8 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed by Wisconsion Card Sorting Test(WCST)and Attention span test. Results The effect of these two groups has improved greatly, (P﹤0.01), At the end of the 8th week, verbal memory, sequence of number, continuous operation, categories completed improved more significantly compared with patients without tandospirone,( P﹤0.05 or 0.01). Response errors and non-persistent errors lower than patients without tandospirone, (P﹤0.05 or 0.01).The adverse reaction of the two group is few. Many patient without tandospirone caused tremor, which showed great significant differences(P﹤0.05). Conclusion Aripiprazole combing Tandospirone can improve cognitive function of female schizophrenic patients.
    Allopurinol ameliorates cardiac function in non-hyperuricemic patients with chronic heart failure
    2012, 32(11):  1322-1325. 
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    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of adding allopurinol on top of standard therapy in non-hyperuricemic patients with chronic heart failure. Methods A total of 125 patients hospitalized from July 2008 to June 2009 were randomly divided into allopurinol group (allopurinol 300 mg/d on top of standard therapy, n=62) and control group (standard therapy, n=63) and followed 6 months. The changes in cardiac function, flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of brachial artery, plasma inflammatory factors level, 1iver and kidney function were observed. Results In allopurinol treated patients, FMD of brachial artery significantly increased after 3 months. NYHA stage significantly improved, plasma BNP, TNF-α levels and LVEDD decreased and LVEF significantly increased 6 months after treatment compared to control group (all P<0.01). There were no significant differences in plasma uric acid levels between both groups. No event on liver and kidney dysfunction was noticed. Conclusion Allopurinol was effective and safe in non-hyperuricemic patients with chronic heart failure, it can significantly ameliorate left ventricular functions, reduce the levels of inflammatory factors, and may improve vascular endothelial function as well.
    Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 improved myocadial hypertrophy after myocardial infarction in rats
    2012, 32(11):  1326-1331. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects and possibLe mechanisms of Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on myocadiaL hypertrophy foLLowing acute myocardiaL infarction in rats. Methods The myocardiaL infarction modeL in rats was induced by Ligation of Left anterior descending coronary artery. TeLeves AduLt Sprague-DawLey rats that survived 24 hours after acute myocardiaL infarction were randomLy divided into myocardiaL infarction (MI) group and MG-132-treated(MG) group. Six rats were designated as sham-operated group(SH)group. Rats in MG group were treated with MG-132(0.1mg/kg, daiLy)through intraperitoneaL injection for 28 days, rats in MI group and SH group were given normaL saLine as controL. On 28th day, the vaLues of Left ventricLe posterior waLL thickness were measured by echocardiography and the Left weight index were evaLuated. The myocardiaL ceLL direct,perimeter and surface area in non-infarct area were quantified histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein LeveLs of NF-kappaB p65 and IL-1β were determined by reverse transcription–poLymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and by immunohistochemistry ,respectiveLy. ResuLts Compared with SH group,the vaLues of Left ventricLe posterior waLL thickness and the Left weight index were significantLy increased in MI group and MG group(P <0.01).Meantime, the vaLues of myocardiaL ceLL direct,perimeter and surface area in non-infarct area were significantLy increased in MI group and MG group(P <0.01).However, the vaLues of above makers in MG group were notabLy decreased than those in MI group(P <0.01).Moreover,the mRNA and protein LeveLs of NF-kappaB p65 and IL-1βin MG group were Lower than those in MI group(P <0.01). ConcLusion MyocadiaL hypertrophy foLLowing acute myocardiaL infarction couLd be improved by MG-132 through suppressing NF-kappaB activation and the expression of infLammatory factor such as IL-1β in rats.
    Hepatocyte growth factor loaded ultrasound microbubble contrast facilitates the restoration of injuried facial nerve of rats
    2012, 32(11):  1332-1336. 
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    Objective To explore the feasibility and efficacy of therapeutic role in injuried facial nerve induced by Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mediated by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction. Method Forty SD rats were divided into 4 groups after the models of facial nerve injury were established: A, PBS group, B, HGF and microbuble (HGF+MB) group, C, HGF and ultrasound (HGF+US) group, D, HGF+ultrasound+microbubble (HGF+MB/US)group. The nerve conduction velocity(NCV) and potential latency and amplitude of facial nerve were measured on 28d in all rats after transfection. HGF expression was detected by Western blot. HGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR, Results The behavioral analyses results showed that The nose tip position and vibrissae movement in D group were better than that of the other groups. The NCV and potential amplitude of the facial nerve in D group were increased, but the potential latency was decreased. HGF expressions was higher than those of other groups in D gouop. The expression levels of HGF mRNA in D group was significantly higher than that of the other groups(p<0.05). Conclusion Ultrasound-mediated mircobuble destruction could improve the transfection of HGF in injury facial nerve safely and facilitates its restoration.
    Expression of the envelope protein of Dengue virus type 4 and preparation of the polyclonal antibody
    2012, 32(11):  1337-1341. 
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    Objective To express full length (DENV4E) and domain III (DENV4EIII) of the envelope protein of Dengue virus type 4 in procaryotic cells respectively, and to prepare the polyclonal antibody against dengue virus by immunizing rabbits with the expressed proteins. Methods The sequences encoding DENV4E and DENV4EIII proteins were cloned into pET-32a(+) plasmids respectively to construct expression vectors. Then DENV4E or DENV4EIII proteins were expressed in Rosetta cells by IPTG induction and detected by SDS-PAGE. Polyclonal antibody against DENV4E or DENV4EIII proteins was obtained by immunizing rabbits with the expressed proteins and was identified by Western blot. Results DENV4E and DENV4EIII proteins were both successfully expressed in Rosetta cells mainly in the form of inclusion body. The prepared polyclonal antibody could generate obvious bands as expected when reacting with the dengue virus. Conclusion The polyclonal antibody prepared is competent for the detection of dengue virus, laying a foundation for further research.
    CO2 gas and iodine contrast agent in the Uterine fibroids artery angiography in the double-contrast
    2012, 32(11):  1342-1348. 
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    Objective To understand the medical pure carbon dioxide gas as a contrast agent arterial image quality and clinical value. Method Application of super-selective arterial catheterization, the catheter was inserted into the internal iliac artery and in patients with uterine artery, The use of one-time medical carbon dioxide bags for carbon dioxide angiography and use iodine for angiography. Set the basic principles of image quality assessment, Develop appropriate standards for image quality assessment and two ratio of image quality rate and image efficient image. Results Internal iliac artery angiography: image quality rate and image efficient image of carbon dioxide less iodine. Uterine artery angiography: image efficient image of carbon dioxide less iodine. image quality rate of carbon dioxide better than iodine. Conclusion carbon dioxide used as contrast agents in the use of pelvic blood vessels are safe , the obtained image quality is satisfactory , fully meet the diagnostic requirements, have greater promotion of clinical value.
    Clinical and pathological features of 12 Cronkhite Canada syndrome patients
    2012, 32(11):  1349-1352. 
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    CCS is a rare clinical syndrome with unknown etiology and recommended algorithm for diagnosis and treatment has not been available yet. Objective To analyze the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, medical strategy and prognosis of CCS patients from Peiking Union Medical College Hospital. Methods Retrospective analysis, Nonparametric Spearman Correlation analysis to evaluate treatment efficacy and outcomes. Results All CCS cases hadectodermal dysplasia; 4 cases had proteinuria, including 1 case with nephrotic syndrome. The diagnostic sensitivity of CCS was 100% when abdominal pain, diarrhea and positive occult blood were present at the same time. All CCS patients had both upper and lower gastrointestinal polyps, while 40% CCS patients presented with gastric submucosal dark spots. Hyperplastic polyps and gland tubular adenomas were most common pathological patterns. Survival rate was 100% after a median follow-up of 44.7 months. Of 10 CCS patients prescribed with prednisone at the beginning or follow-up, 100% alleviated at different degrees. Restarting treatment with prednisone after withdrawal was still effective when CCS recurrent. Prednisone ≥ 40 mg/day got better prognosis than prednisone < 40 mg/day (n=10, R=-0.655, p<0.05). Amino salicylic acid medications, hydrotalcid, histamine H2 receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, intestinal probiotics, polyps electrocision, or enteral/parenteral nutrition support were not significantly effective; amino salicylic acid medications even correlated to worse prognosis (R = 0.598, p<0.05). Conclusions Gastric submucosal pigmentation and proteinuria can be seen in CCS patients; systemic strategy based on prednisone therapy get a higher clinical remission rate. The pathogenesis of CCS may involve autoimmune etiology.
    Progress in high glucose-induce glomerular endothelial cells injury in diabetic nephropathy
    2012, 32(11):  1360-1363. 
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    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most important complications of diabetes. The exactly molecular mechanism underlines that the abnormality in glucose metabolism leads to renal damages is still not completely revealed. However, it has been noticed that the renal vascular endothelial dysfunction is involved in the incidence and plays an important role in development of diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin II (Ang II), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), reactive oxygen species (ROS), advanced glycocylation end products (AGEs) are all demonstrated contribute to hyperglycemia induced renal endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we summarized the recent evidences in hyperglycemia induced renal vascular endothelial dysfunction, and development of diabetic nephropathy.
    The relationship between transforming growth factor-β and inflammatory bowel disease associated intestinal fibrosis
    2012, 32(11):  1364-1366. 
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    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role in physiological function including cell growth and differentiation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and so on. In the process of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), TGF-β can promote mesenchymal cell proliferation, migration, accumulation and increase production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, then, induce the development of intestinal fibrosis.
    The clinical communication skills course and self-assessments for medical students
    2012, 32(11):  1367-1370. 
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    Objective The purpose of this study was to improve medical students' communication skills. Methods A total of 165 medical students who were trained in Clinical communication skills course from March, 2009 to October, 2011 were investigated by self-assessment questionnaires. 152 of them finished both pre and post-course evaluation. Results According to the self-assessment of medical students, the confidence of “establish good doctor patient relationship”, “agree on a plan with patient”, “breaking bad news”, “general ability at doctor patient communication”, “practice as a holistic medicine professional”, “using knowledge and skill in doctor patient communication” were all improved after the course. The doctor-patient relationship attitude showed a more “patient centred” style after the course. 96.2% students satisfied with the whole course. Conclusion The evaluation suggested that medical students’ communication skills can be improved by this curriculum. The present evaluation calls for further development of the doctor-patient communication curriculum.