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Table of Content

    05 September 2017, Volume 37 Issue 9
    Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in Kunming, Yunnan Province
    2017, 37(9):  1211-1214. 
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    Objective To know the prevalence of COPD in patients with OSAHS in Kunming Yunnan Province, and the clinical symptom of OS. Methods Retrospective study of 4 636 cases of patients with snoring, excluding COPD in addition to chronic respiratory disease and assess the patient's condition. The test included AHI, BMI, Epworth sleepiness scale, lung function. The index of OS was confirmed by AHI>5 times/h and FEV1/FVC<70%. Results During the period of 2006~2012, the prevalence of COPD in patients with OSAHS was 10.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1%-11.1%) in Kunming Yunnan Province. And male's OS prevalence rate is higher than the female(male 10.2%; female 9.7%). The OS patients' average age was (56.9±14.1 )years old, the mean AHI was (47.46±26.79) times/h, and the average FEV1/FVC was (60.09±23.57)%. Polysomnography results show that patients suffered obvious hypoxia at night in both only OSAHS group and OS group, but it was more significant in OS group. Pulmonary function test showed that OS patients have more serious chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion The prevalence rate of COPD in OSAHS patients was high in Kunming Yunnan Province, and the prevalence rate of age>60 years old group reached more than 24%. In addition, patients with OS were more severe than those with only OSAHS or COPD in lung function and hyoxemia, but the nosogenesis was not clear.
    Resveratrol up-regulates the alveolar epithelial sodium channel in acute lung injury mice via activation of SGK1
    2017, 37(9):  1215-1219. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of Resveratrol on alveolar epithelial sodium channel in acute lung injury mice and the potential mechanism. Methods twenty-four C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, LPS group, RES group and PP242 (mTORC inhibitor) group with 6 mice in each group. The pathological changes in lung tissue were evaluated by HE staining; the concentrations of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assessed by BCA (bicinchoninic acid). The levels of inflammatory cytokines in BALF were determined by ELISA. The proportions of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) in BALF were detected by Flow Cytometry. The transcription levels of α-ENaC mRNA were assessed by qPCR while the protein levels of α-ENaC and p-GSK1 were measured by Western blot. Results:1) Compared with mice in Control group, severe pathological lung injury changes were observed in mice of LPS group, with increased total protein levels, PMN proportions, levels of inflammatory cytokines in BALF (P<0.05), accompanied by down-regulated levels of α-ENaC and p-SGK1 in lung tissues (P<0.05). 2) Compared with mice in LPS group, Resveratrol significantly reversed lung injury triggered by LPS, decreased total protein levels, PMN proportions, levels of inflammatory cytokines in BALF (P<0.05), with down-regulated levels of α-ENaC and p-SGK1 in lung tissues (P<0.05). 3) However, PP242 canceled the beneficial effects of RES on ALI. Conclusions:Up-regulation of α-ENaC via activation of SGK1 takes part in the protective effects of RES on LPS-induced ALI in mice.
    OAZI-1 enhances the immunogenicity of Melan-A vaccine in mice
    2017, 37(9):  1220-1225. 
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    Objective To investigate whether ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor-1(OAZI-1) can enhance the immunogenicity of Melan-A and induce antitumor immune effect in the experimental animals or not. Methods The eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(-) /OAZI-1, pcDNA3.1 (-)/Melan-A and pcDNA3.1(-)/ Melan-A-OAZI-1 were constructed and used to immune BALB/c mice. The spleen lymphocytes were prepared from the immunized mice and then used to determine the lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry assay and tumor-killing activity by LDH release assay. The blood samples were collected from the immunized mice and used to test the serum INF-γ levels by ELISA. Results The eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(-)/OAZI-1, pcDNA3.1(-)/Melan-A and pcDNA3.1(-)/ Melan-A-OAZI-1 were constructed successfully. All three gene vaccines could increase CD4+ T cell ratio (p<0.05), among of them, the ratio in the pcDNA3.1(-)/Melan-A-OAZI-1 and pcDNA3.1(-)/Melan-A immune groups increased more significantly than other groups but no obvious differences was observed between these two groups. Similarly, all three gene vaccines could also increase CD8+T cells ratio significantly (p<0.05), but, comparing with all other groups, the highest increase was observed in the pcDNA3.1(-)/Melan-A-OAZI-1 immune group (p<0.05). The pcDNA3.1(-)/ Melan-A-OAZI-1 gene vaccines could significantly increase cytotoxic activity of the spleen lymphocyte in the immune mice(p<0.05). Among the three gene vaccines only pcDNA3.1(-)/Melan-A-OAZI-1 could significantly increase the INF–γ level in the mice serum (p<0.05). Conclusion OAZI-1 can increase antitumor immunity by promoting tumor antigen presentation.
    Resveratrol alleviates ISO-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in rat
    2017, 37(9):  1226-1230. 
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    Objective: To explore the role of resveratrol (RES) on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy of rat induced by isoproternol (ISO) and the effect of Res on the expression of GRP78 and GRP94 in endoplasmic reticulum stress of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods: Hypertrophic model of cardiomyocytes was induced by ISO. Cardiomyocytes can be divided into four group: control group, the model group, RES+ISO group and RES group. Hypertrophy status of cardiomyocytes was determined by Leica 2Q500 image analysis system measuring the cell surface area and the gene expression of ANP. The content of LDH and MDA was measured in different groups, and the protein expressions of GRP78 and GRP94 were detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with control group, ISO induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, endoplasmic reticulum stress related factors GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression were increased, compared with ISO group, RES intervention could effectively suppress the cardiomyocytes hypertrophy induced by ISO, reduce the protein expression of GRP78 and GRP94, at the same time, reduce lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) release in cell medium. Conclusion:The results suggest that treatment of RES may protect cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, which is partially mediated by inhibiting the expression of ERS factors GRP78 and GRP94 . .
    Rubia cordifolia L. aqueous extract reduces visceral fat mass of HFD-induced obese rats
    2017, 37(9):  1231-1236. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine Rubia cordifolia L. aqueous extract (RCAE) on body weight, fat mass and parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats and its mechanism. Methods pGL3-Enhancer-PPARγ2 (625bp)-Luc plasmid, a luciferase reporter gene expression plasmid which contained PPARγ2 promoter, was constructed and stably transfected 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were established. PPARγ2 promoter’s activities in these cells were detected after administration with different concentration (0.1 mg/L~1000 mg/L) of RCAE or with 100 mg/L RCAE for different action time. PPARγ2 mRNA expression in human adipocytes were detected after administration with 100 mg/L RCAE. Meanwhile, HFD-induced obese rats were administrated with low or high dose RCAE to investigate the effects of RCAE on serum glucose, lipid and insulin levels, body weight, visceral fat mass and so on. Results 10 mg/L RCAE could increase luciferase expression in 3T3-L1 cells to 1.43 folds of that in control group (P<0.01) and it reached 3.24 folds of that in control group when the concentration of RCAE was 1000 mg/L (P<0.01). With the administration with 100 mg/L RCAE, the luciferase activity of 3T3-L1 cells peaked at 28 h where it was 2.72 folds of that in control group (P<0.01), and the expression of PPARγ2 mRNA in human adipocytes increased to 2.27 folds of that in control group (P<0.01). Compared with HFD group, low dose RCAE significantly reduced the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR and visceral fat mass (P<0.05). Conclusions Low dose RCAE significantly reduces the visceral fat mass and ameliorates insulin resistance in HFD-induced obese rats. The potential mechanism may associate with the stimulation of PPARγ2 promoter activities and the increased expression of PPARγ2 gene.
    α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist inhibits bone cement particles stimulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood monocytes of mice
    2017, 37(9):  1237-1242. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonists agent PNU282987 on bone cement particles stimulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines in blood monocytes and its molecular mechanism. Methods Mouse peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and the inflammatory response were induced by PMMA particles. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 concentration in culture supernatant were measured by ELISA. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression were measured by RT-PCR. P-p65, p65, p-JAK2, JAK2, p-STAT3, STAT3, and β-actin expression were detected by Western blot. NF-?B DNA binding activity were measured by ELISA. Results After stimulation of PMMA particles, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 concentration in culture supernatant were significantly increased (P<0.05), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression were significantly increased (P<0.05), p-p65, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 expression and NF-κB DNA binding activity were also increased significantly (P<0.05). However, after PNU282987 treatment, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 concentration in culture supernatant were decreased in a concentration gradient way (P<0.05), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression were decreased in a concentration gradient way (P<0.05), p-p65, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 expression and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity were also decreased in a concentration gradient way (P<0.05). Conclusion A7nAChR agonist PNU282987 significantly inhibited PMMA bone cement particles induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines in blood mononuclear cells of mice.
    The risk factors of perhypertension in postmenopausal women in Inner Mongolia
    2017, 37(9):  1243-1246. 
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    Objective To investigate the risk factors of prehypertension among postmenopausal women. Methods 2 592(43±12) health records of non hypertensive population women as the research object in Saihan District of Hohhot in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in April 2015,including 697(58±6) postmenopausal subjects and 1 895(37±8) premenopausal subjects.T test was used to compare means of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood lipid, and body massive index (BMI) between postmenopausal group and premenopausal group. testwas performed to compare prevalence of prehypertension, hyperglycemias, dyslipidemias, overweight, and obesity between two groups. Logistic Regression was implemented to analyze the relativities between different risk factors and prehypertension among postmenopausal women. Results Compared with premenopausal women, the levels of systolic pressure, diastolicpressure, BMI, FBG, triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) in postmenopausal womenwere significantly higher(P<0.05). Prevalence of prehypertension, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes, TG abnormalities, LDL abnormalities, overweight, and obesity in postmenopausal women were significantlyhigher than in premenopausal women(P<0.05). Age 55 to 59 , 60 to 64 and above 65 years overweight, obesity, IFG, and diabetes were the independent risk factors of prehypertension among postmenopausal women. Conclusion Age 55years and above, overweight, obesity, IFG, and diabetes are the independent risk factors of prehypertension among postmenopausal women.
    Multiple lipid derived cytokines are associated with insulin resistance of patients with type 2 diabetes
    2017, 37(9):  1247-1250. 
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    Objective To explore the relation of fat cells factor and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Method We selected 60 patients divided into obesity group, Non-obese group and Normal control group. To detect the FINs, FPG, TG, TC, LDL,HDL,APN,CTRP3,Leptin and TNF-a, according to the formula of HOMA ,to analyze the correlation between indicators. Results 1). Compared with Normal control group, DM group significantly lower serum APN, CTRP3 level, compared with Non-obesity group, obesity group APN, CTRP3 level significantly decreased(p<0.05 or p<0.01). The Leptin levels elevated (p<0.05). 2). The analysis results found that: APN concentration and Age, BMI, FPG, TG, TC, LDL, FINs, HOMA-IR has significant negative correlation; CTRP3 and FPG, FINs, HOMA-negative correlation IR(p<0.05), TG were positively correlated (p<0.05); TNF-a and FPG and positively correlated (p< 0.05).Conclusion:T2DM patients serum APN, CTRP3 and high Leptin levels are closely associated with obesity, HOMA-IR, FPG and TG as an independent factor can be used as a new sensitive index of evaluating the degree of insulin resistance.
    Overexpression of IL-18 gene in T lymphocytes enhances their cytotoxic effect against pancreatic cancer SW-1990 cells
    2017, 37(9):  1251-1256. 
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    Objective Investigated the antitumor effects of IL-18 gene transfected T cells on pancreatic cancer SW-1990. Methods: Construction of IL-18 contained recombinant lentivirus using PCR method and packaged at HEK293T cell, then transfected the T cells and evaluated the antitumor effects when cocultured with SW-1990. Results the IL-18 gene contained recombinant lentivirus was successfully constructed and packaged, and could transfected the T cells, the LDH secretion and IL-2 and IFN-γ content were all increased significantly (P < 0.01) when cocultured with SW-1990 cell. Conclusions T cells transfected with IL-18 possessed more potent antitumor effects to pancreatic cancer SW-1990 as compared to the regular T cells.
    TGF-β1-induces activation of HSC-T6 cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in rats
    2017, 37(9):  1257-1262. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of TGF-β1 on activation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in rat hepatic stellate cell-T6. Methods Adopt the MTT method to screening the optimum concentration of TGF-β1 in vitro HSC-T6 cultured. After the HSC-T6 were stimulated by TGF-β1 of 10 μg/L for 24 hours, the morphology of the cells was observed under inverted phase contrast microscope, the expression of F-actin which on behalf of cotoskeletal structure was detected by immunofluorescence staining; the expression of α-SMA and N-cadherin,vimentin,E-cadherin was measured by RT-qPCR; The changes of α-SMA,N-cadherin,vimentin and E-cadherin were assessed by Western blot after different concentrations (0 ,5 和10 μg/L) of TGF-β1 interventing HSC-T6 for 24 h. Results It had optimal cell survival rate when 10 μg/L TGF-β1 dealt with cells for 24 h. After HSC-T6 were treated with TGF-β1,cells stretched, pseudopodia increased and turn into stellate, cells connections were looser, so that represented a significantly activated state.F-actin filaments gathered to form stress and distributed along the long axis of the cells; The expression of α-SMA mRNA and vimentin mRNA in experimental group was significantly higher while E-cadherin mRNA was obviously lower than the control group(P<0.05). TGF-β1 made the protein expression of α-SMA and N-cadherin, vimentin in dose-dependent increased while E-cadherin was decreased.Conclusion TGF-β1 might induce activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of HSC-T6.
    Synbiotics adjusting the intestinal microecologe to treat rats NASH and its effect on TLR4
    2017, 37(9):  1263-1269. 
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    Objective To observe the change of intestinal flora on the process of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH),and to explore the synbiotics therapeutic effect on NASH. Methods Rats were administrated with high fat diet to establish NASH model.In the process of NASH rats modeling,the level of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and fasting insulin (FINS) was tested dynamically by automatic biochemical analyzer.The changes of main intestinal flora were detected by 16 S rRNA fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction.NAFLD activity score was calculated. HE staining was used to observe the hepaticpathological changes and the TLR4 expression was detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical method. Until the 4th,8th,10th week in the process of NASH modeling, 10 rats were feeded with Synbiotics for 2 weeks, and all of above indicators were tested and observed. Results 1) With the extension of a high-fat diet feeding time, the degree of hepatocyte steatosis obviously was increased.NAFLD score was significantly heightened(P < 0.01).2)Number of independent activities of rats was significantly increased, the serological level of TG, TC, LDL, FBS and FINS were lower significantly after intervention with synbiotics for 2 weeks(P < 0.05). 3) Synbiotics intervention for two weeks could significantly increase the amount of bifidobacterium and lactobacillus and decrease the amount of enterococcus significantly(P < 0.05). 4) The expression of TLR4 was gradually increased in the process of NASH rats modeling(P < 0.05),but decreased after 2 weeks of the synbiotics-intervention (P < 0.05). Conclusions Intestinal microecology change is closely related to the development of NASH,therefor, syinbiotics could improve the quality of life and biochemical indicators of NASH rats through adjusting intestinal microecology and the expression level of TLR4 protein might been involved.
    Bifidobacteria relieve CPFX-induced testosterone reduction in mice
    2017, 37(9):  1270-1275. 
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    Objective To explore if probiotic microbes relieve CPFX-induced testosterone reduction in mouse testes. Methods Twenty-four of male mices were divided into 4 groups, then administered saline for 6 days (Sal6 group), CPFX for 6 days (A6 group), CPFX for 6 days and then bifidobacteria for the next 6 days (A6+P6 group), CPFX for 6 days and then saline for the next 6 days (A6+Sal6 group). We detected serum levels of testosterone by RIA, as well as levels of steroidogenic enzymes mRNA [cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)] and NF-E2-related factor2 (Nrf2) mRNA in testes by real-time PCR, Nrf2 , heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) by Western blotting and 4-HNE by Immunohistochemistry. Results The A6 group had significantly lower serum testosterone levels compared with the Sal6 group (P<0.001), the A6+P6 group had significantly higher compared with the A6 (P<0.001) and A6+Sal6 groups (P<0.01). The A6 group had significantly lower StAR mRNA compared with the Sal6 group (P<0.001), the A6+P6 group had significantly higher compared with the A6 (P<0.01) and A6+Sal6 groups (P<0.01). The A6 group had significantly lower P450scc mRNA compared with the Sal6 group (P<0.001), the A6+P6 group had significantly higher compared with the A6 (P<0.001) and A6+Sal6 groups (P<0.05). The A6 group had significantly lower Nrf2 compared with the Sal6 group (P<0.001), the A6+P6 group had significantly higher compared with the A6 (P<0.01) and A6+Sal6 groups (P<0.05).The A6 group higher 4-HNE expression compared with the Sal6 group, the A6+P6 group had significantly lower compared with the A6 (P<0.01) and A6+Sal6 groups (P<0.05). Conclusions Probiotic microbes can relieve the reduction of CPFX-induced testosterone reduction, and these effects might be carried out through the Nrf2 inflammatory signaling pathway.
    Up-regulation of miR-15b and miR-16 and inhibition of VEGF expression in HLF cells after hyperoxia explosure
    2017, 37(9):  1276-1280. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of miR-15b and miR-16 on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HLF) cells under hyperoxia. Methods The levels of miRNA-15b and miRNA-16 were up-regulated and down-regulated in HLF cells by transfection technology, respectively. The expression of VEGF protein in HLF cells was assessed by Western blot. Furthermore, under hyperoxia exposure in vitro, the expression of miR-15b, miR-16 and VEGF protein in HLF cells was analyzed. Results Up-regulation of miRNA-15b and miRNA-16 suppressed VEGF protein expression, while down-regulation of miR-15b and miRNA-16 promoted VEGF protein expression. In addition, hyperoxia exposure induced up-regulation of miRNA-15b and miR-16, but down-regulation of VEGF protein in HLF cells. Conclusions Hyperoxia exposure might up-regulate the levels of miR-15b and miR-16, but suppress VEGF protein expression. These might contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
    Expression changes of DNA repair enzymes and DNA damage in diabetes rat hearts
    2017, 37(9):  1281-1285. 
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    Objective To identify if there was increased DNA damage in cardiomyocytes of rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy and also to evaluate the changes in gene expression of DNA repair enzymes 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) and AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). Methods Total DNA,RNA and proteins of hearts were isolated in diabetes rat hearts. DNA damage was examined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assay. mRNA and protein expressions of OGG1 and APE1 were detected with real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) and Western blot analysis. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) in DNA were studied with ELISA. Results The damage of mtDNA was increased in rat hearts(P<0.05) and there was not significant damage in nDNA. The amount of 8-OHdG in DNA was significantly increased(P<0.05),mRNA and protein expressions of OGG1 and APE1 were increased in diabetic rat hearts(P<0.01). Conclusions The damage of mtDNA increased in diabetic rat hearts. Although the expression of OGG1 and APE1 increased in diabetic rat hearts,which can not repair the damage of the mtDNA. The increased mtDNA damage may contributes to myocardium damage.
    CNTN-1 promotes the invasion and migration of human esophageal cancer cell line EC9706
    2017, 37(9):  1286-1291. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of CNTN-1 on the invasion and migration of human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells and the possible mechanism. Methods The expression of CNTN-1 in human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells was measured by qPCR and Western blot. After transfection with CNTN-1 siRNA or CNTN-1, the cells were divided into control group, scrambled siRNA group, CNTN-1 siRNA group, pcDNA3.1-vector group and pcDNA3.1-CNTN-1 group. Cell proliferation, invasion and migration were respectively analyzed by BrdU assay and Transwell test. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected by qPCR and Western blot. Results The mRNA and protein expression of CNTN-1 were significantly upregulated in EC9706 cells. Compared with control, cell proliferation, invasion and migration, as well as the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly decreased by CNTN-1 siRNA, while they were increased by CNTN-1 overexpression (P<0.05). Conclusions CNTN-1 can influence the invasion and metastasis of esophageal cancer cells through the regulation of the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.
    Chronic renal failure promotes intimal hyperplasia of arteriovenous fistula in mice
    2017, 37(9):  1292-1296. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of chronic renal failure on the development of neointimal hyperplasia and the role of monocyte chemokine -1 (MCP-1) after arteriovenous fistula in mice. Methods we created AVF (common carotid artery to jugular vein in an end-to-end anastomosis) in mice with or without chronic renal failure (renal ablation or sham operation). The outflow of AVF was harvested at 3 weeks postoperative the vascular tissue. The pathological changes were observed. The level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and the degree of intimal hyperplasia were analysed . The protein and mRNA expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA), Ki-67 ,NF-κB and MCP-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry , RT-PCR and Western blotting . Results 1) Compared with the control group, the blood BUN level of the experimental group was significantly higher and the intimal hyperplasia was more serious, meanwhile, the lumen was more narrow (P<0.05). 2) In the experimental group, the expression of α-SMA, ki-67, NF-κB and MCP-1 was significantly increased (P<0.05). 3) MCP-1 promoted the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Conclusion Chronic renal failure promote the development of neointimal hyperplasia, which may be related to the increase of MCP-1 expression.
    Piperine inhibits Ang II-induced cell proliferation and migration in airway smooth muscle cells
    2017, 37(9):  1297-1302. 
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    Objective To explore the effects of piperine on cell proliferation and migration in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated rat airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Methods The primary ASMCs of rats were cultured by improved tissue-piece digestion inoculation and trypsin digestion. MTT assay was used to detect the effects of Ang II and Ang II receptor antagonist losartan on cell proliferation activity. After treatment with Ang II and piperine, the cell proliferation activity, the cell cycle distribution and the cell migration were detected by MTT, flow cytometry and Transwell assay, respectively. ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 and losartan were then introduced to determine the expression of cyclin D1, MMP-9, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, and β-actin proteins by western blot assay. Results After 24 h culture, Ang II treatment dose-dependently promoted the cell proliferative activity in rat ASMCs (P<0.05), and the promotive effect of 10-7 mol/L Ang II was the most significant. Additionally, losartan blocked the Ang II-induced cell proliferative activity in rat ASMCs (P<0.05). 10-7 mol/L Ang II treatment resulted in the elevated cell proliferative activity, higher S phase fraction, increased migrated cell number, and enhanced expression of cyclin D1, MMP-9 and p-ERK1/2 proteins (P<0.05); these effects were dose-dependently reversed by piperine. Both PD98059 and losartan blocked Ang II-induced expression of p-ERK1/2, cyclin D1 and MMP-9 proteins in rat ASMCs. Conclusions Piperine may inhibit Ang II-induced cell proliferation and cell migration via ERK1/2 signaling pathway in rat ASMCs.
    Treatment of paclitaxel plus oxaliplatin chemotherapy to the non-small cell lung cancer mouse model
    2017, 37(9):  1303-1307. 
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    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of paclitaxel plus oxaliplatin chemotherapy to the transplanted non-small cell lung cancer of nude mice and the effect to the apoptosis protein expression of PDCD5 and XIAP. Methods Building the nude mice model of transplanted lung cancer and all tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into blank group, normal saline group, oxaliplatin group, paclitaxel group, paclitaxel plus oxaliplatin group. The gene expression of PDCD5 and XIAP were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The apoptosis related PDCD5 and XIAP protein expression was detected by Western blot. Finally, the tumor weight of each group was measured for statistical analysis. Results The mRNA expression of PDCD5 was highest and the gene expression of XIAP was lowest in paclitaxel plus oxaliplatin group (P < 0.01). The expression of PDCD5 protein was highest and the expression of XIAP protein was lowest in paclitaxel plus oxaliplatin group (P < 0.01). Finally, compare the tumor weight of each group, paclitaxel plus oxaliplatin group has the least mass (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Paclitaxel plus oxaliplatin group chemotherapy can significantly increase PDCD5 expression and reduce XIAP expression. Meanwhile, paclitaxel plus oxaliplatin chemotherapy can significantly reduce the tumor weight of happened non-small cell lung cancer.
    Clinical charactors of type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis
    2017, 37(9):  1308-1312. 
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    Objective The type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is gradually being recognized, but the type 2 AIP is still very rare in Asia. This paper summarizes the clinical characters of type-2 AIP patients in Peking union medical college hospital(PUMCH).Methods From January 2001 to December 2016,all type 2 AIP hospitalized patients who met the ICDC were included in the study. The clinical data, laboratory results and imaging features of all patients were recorded, verified and follow-up. Results Six patients with type 2 AIP were included in the study. The ratio of men and women was 2/1, with an average age of 38.4 years. 67.7% (4/6) patients have UC. 37.7% (2/6) of patients were asymptomatic. Three patients were diagnosed by pathology. 50% (3/6) of patients showed mass of pancreas, and 50% (3/6) of patients showed pancreatic enlargement. Conclusions The clinical manifestations of the type 2 AIP patients in PUMCH are the same as those in foreign countries.
    Analysis of two cases for huge adrenal tumor
    2017, 37(9):  1313-1316. 
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    Objective To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of huge adrenal tumor. Methods Retrospectively analysed the clinical data of the 2 patients with huge adrenal tumor more than 10 cm in diameter, who were admitted in our hospital from September 2013 to January 2015. Clinical manifestations, treatment methods and prognosis were analyzed. Results Two patients were both suspected of adrenocortical carcinomas. Case 1 was a 28-year-old female. Laparoscopic surgery was performed at first but was conversed to open palliative adrenalectomy due to tumor rupture and bleeding. The postoperative pathology was adrenocortical carcinoma. The patient died of gastrointestinal bleeding caused by tumor metastasis 10 months later. Case 2 was a 39-year-old female, who underwent laparoscopic adrenolectomy with tumor excision completely. The postoperative pathology showed neoplasm of malignant potential, and no tumor recurred during 15 months follow-up. Conclusions Open surgery should be priority if the diameter of adrenal tumor is more than 10 cm and diagnosis as suspicious of malignancy.huge adrenocortical carcinoma shows poor therapeutic effects,and multimodality therapy may improve the prognosis.
    2-Bromoethylamine attenuates acute lung injury in sepsis mice
    2017, 37(9):  1317-1319. 
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    Research progress of tumor cells and tumor microenvironment derived exosomal miRNAs in carcinogenesis, tumor diagnosis and treatment
    2017, 37(9):  1326-1330. 
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    Exosomal miRNAs, derived from tumor cells or their microenvironment, could promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of tumor cells; and enhance tumor metastasis via regulating information exchange between tumor cells and immune cells or metastatic target organs; and induce tumor resistance to cisplatin and gemcitabine; meanwhile, detecting the exosomal miRNAs in the serum and saliva of cancer patients suggested the potential of application in cancer diagnosis and prognosis assessment.
    Research progress of establishing cardiomyocyte disease models by human induced pluripotent stem cells
    2017, 37(9):  1331-1335. 
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    Induced pluripotent stem cell is a landmark in the stem cell study field, which has developed rapidly in the past 10 years. By obtaining induced pluripotent stem cells from somatic cell, and then differentiating into cardiomyocyte, various cardiomyocyte disease models could be established,which can be used for research of disease mechanisms, drug screening and gene therapy. This review introduces the successfully established cardiomyocyte disease models from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and points out the problems and prospects.
    Application of microlecture in practice class of aerospace physiology
    2017, 37(9):  1336-1339. 
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    Aerospace physiology is an important part of aerospace medicine. There are some problems existing in the current practice classes. Microlecture is a new kind of teaching methods. With its advantages, microlecture improved the teaching efficiency, and played a good role in the practice classes for undergraduate students, successfully solving part of the problems and promoting the teaching reform. The microlecture, as an auxiliary means, provides a new way for practice class of aerospace physiology. It’s suggested to be popularized in undergraduate teaching of aerospace medicine.
    Application of PBL method in otolaryngological teaching reform for medical undergraduates
    2017, 37(9):  1340-1343. 
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    Objectives To evaluate the effects of PBL method in Otolaryngological education for medical undergraduates. Methods 61medical undergraduates were enrolled into this study and were divided randomly into two groups: the PBL group and the traditional teaching method group. Questionnaires were collected and statistical analyses were conducted. Results The scores of the evaluations for education of Otolaryngology were much better in the PBL group than that in the traditional teaching method group in most aspects according to the questionnaires. Conclusions: PBL method is a good teaching method for the study of Otolaryngology. Combination of PBL with other teaching methods will be an ideal way for medical education in Otolaryngology.
    Investigation of effect of mini presentation performed by interns on clinical neurological training
    2017, 37(9):  1344-1347. 
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    Objective Mini presentation is a new teaching model, which performed by interns based on a typical case or disease at the medical ward. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of mini presentationonclinical neurologic teaching actions, according to a survey results in the interns. Methods A total of eighty-nine clinical medical students in Peking Union Medical College finally responded to the survey questionnaire, which included ten questions regardingthe mini presentation. Results 69.23% of the interns have performed mini presentation at the neurological wards. Around 43.28% of the students agreed that mini presentation was very necessary. 80.9% of the students supported that mini presentation was helpful to their clinical reasoning of the neurology. Conclusion Mini presentation could motivate the independent learning interests of the students, and could improve the teaching quality in neurology. It is worth to practice and popularize further.
    Significance of standardized residency training: lessens from a delayed diagnosis of Cushing syndrome
    2017, 37(9):  1348-1350. 
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    Standardized residency training is the main form of postgraduate medical education. In this article, we analyzed a delayed diagnosed case with Cushing syndrome. The patient saw the doctors in provincial level hospitals for many times within a year, while specialists missed diagnosis by only concerning the symptoms related to their own specialties, instead of integrating all the manifestations. We draw the conclusion that standardized residency training provides residents a broader horizon of related specialties, which is irreplaceable by fellowship training program, and is the essential of comprehensive analysis of complex clinical situations. Standardized residency training will also be helpful for diminishment of the educational gap between different medical colleges and improvement the medical level of the whole nation.
    Survey on integration of medical research methodology into clinical teaching
    2017, 37(9):  1351-1354. 
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    Objective To integrate medical research methodology teaching into clinical teaching effectively, the essential steps are understanding the students' demand and mastery, factors hindering learning and how to learn effectively. Methods Students in 7th grade in Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), graduate students and residents under clinical training, trained doctors for advanced studies from primary hospitals were surveyed with questionnaire, collecting educational background, the demand of learning medical research methodology, factors hindering learning, specific issues need in medical research methodology, learning model and assessment approaches. Results Totally 69 people were surveyed. 92.75% of the respondents said they had studied medical research methodology and related courses before. However, 51 people (73.91%) answer they cannot read literatures with critical thinking. 52 people (75.37%) indicated that they had difficulty in conducting research. 58 (84.06%) people said it is very necessary to study the medical research methodology. No learning opportunities and enough time were the main hinders for learning relevant knowledge. The top three high-demanding issues are sample size calculation and statistical knowledge, study design, and how to use the statistical software. 44 (63.77%) people suggest e-learning with case based learning. Conclusion Integrate medical research methodology teaching into clinical teaching is in high-demand for students. E-learning is suggested with case based learning.