Table of Content

    05 August 2014, Volume 34 Issue 8
    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibits proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cell line in vitro by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling
    2014, 34(8):  1017-1022. 
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    Objective To investigate the proliferation and invasion inhibitory effect of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on human osteosarcoma (OS) cells and the possible molecular mechanism involved. Methods OS cells were seeded treated with different concentrations of DHA. Cells were stained with crystal violet to visualize the cell viability. ECM Transwell assay was used to assess the alteration in cellular invasion induced by DHA in OS cells. Western blot and luciferase assay were used to evaluate activation of Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. Results DHA can inhibit proliferation and reduce invasion in human OS cells. Total protein and transcription activity of β-catenin in OS cells were reduced by DHA treatment. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of DHA on OS cells was reversed by over-expression of β-catenin, but was further enhanced by know-down of β-catenin, respectively. Conclusion Our results reveal that DHA can inhibit tumor proliferation and invasion of OS cells by inactivating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
    Effect of Autophagic cardiomyocyte death on cardiac function in a rat model of heart failure
    2014, 34(8):  1023-1026. 
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    Objective This study was performed to investigate the pathogenic role of autophagic cardiomyocyte death in heart failure. Methods Thirty SD rats were randomized into three groups: control group, heart failure group and 3MA group. In heart failure group, heart failure was induced by abdominal aorta constriction. The 3-methyladenine (3MA), a specific inhibitor on autophagy was used in a heart failure model of rats induced by induced by pressure overload produced by constriction of the abdominal aorta. We examined the heart function of rats in three groups. In addition, we analyzed the expression of autophagy associated protein, beclin-1 and cathepsin D in rat hearts using Western blotting. Results The expression of beclin-1 and cathepsin D in the hearts of heart failure rats were significantly increased as compared those in control group(P<0.05). 3MA significantly improved cardiac function and strongly downregulated the expression of beclin 1 and cathepsin D in abdominal aorta constriction-induced failing heart. Conclusion: Autophagic cardiomyocyte death plays an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure in rats induced by pressure overload.
    Neuropathic pain regulated protein phosphatase 1 expression in rat spinal cord dorsal horn
    2014, 34(8):  1027-1031. 
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    Objective This study aimed to clarify the PPP1CB expression level in spinal cord dorsal horn of bCCI rats and its relationship with miR-203, as well as the intervention effect of gabapentin. Method 48 female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups(Na?ve,SHAM,bCCI,bCCI+gabapentin). The interfered group rats were injected 100mg/Kg gabapentin 15min before, 7 days after operation for 7 consecutive days, bid, ip. All rats were sacrificed at POD14. Spinal dorsal horn(L4-L6) were assayed for Real-time PCR, Western-blot to detect mRNA and protein level change and bioinformatics analysis was also involved. Results the PPP1CB protein expression level of spinal cord dorsal horn (L4-L6) significantly increased approximately 2-fold compared with control and sham group, while PPP1CB mRNA expression level was significantly decreased by about 0.8 times. After gabapentin intervention, PPP1CB protein level was changed while PPP1CB mRNA expression was back to normal compared to bCCI group. Meanwhile, bioinformatics tools verified PPP1CB is one of the target genes of miR-203. Conclusion The increase expression of PPP1CB protein in the spinal dorsal horn may play a role in the mechanism of neuropathic pain, and might be regulated by miR-203.
    The effect of different transfusion protocals on intestinal apoptosis in rabbit intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury
    2014, 34(8):  1032-1036. 
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    Object To investigate the effect of different transfusion protocals (restrictive fluid and liberal fluid) on intestinal apoptosis in rabbit intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods Seventy male rabbits were randomly allocated into the three groups, normal control group (NCG, n=10), intestinal IRI restrictive fluid group (RFG, n=30), intestinal IRI liberal fluid group (LFG, n=30), 24, 48 and 72h after intestine IRI separately rabbits were killed (n=10). Intestinal were cut to detect intestinal apoptosis by TUNEL and the expression of Bcl-2、Bax by q-RT-PCR were detected. Results The number of intestinal apoptosis after intestinal IRI in restrictive fluid group significantly lower than that in liberal fluid group(P<0.01). Anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 in RFG were higher than that in LFG(P<0.01), while pro-apoptosis gene Bax in RFG was less than LFG(P<0.01). Conclusion The effect restrictive fluid on intestine was mild than LFG, which could be due to apoptosis is much less.
    Differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into nucleus pulposus-like cells induced by GDF-5 and Dexamethasone
    2014, 34(8):  1037-1043. 
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    Objective To investigate the NP-like cells differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by GDF-5 and Dexamethasone .Methods:BMSCs were collected from Sprague Dawley rats and the feasibility of isolating and culturing rats nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs)by the sequential enzyme method.Cells at passage 3 were used and divided into control group,group of BMSCs+Dex,group of BMSCs+GDF-5,group of BMSCs+Dex+GDF-5,group of NPCs ,then the cellular morphology was observed under microscope and induced for 21 days.Alcian Blue stain showed the changes of proteoglycan,RT-PCR detected expression COL1,ACAN,SOX9,COL2 and positive genes of nucleus pulposus cells for KRT19,PAX1,FOXF1.Western blot was used to detect COL2 and COL1.Results :BMSCs present a single long spindle ,grew with whirlpool-like;NPCs present spherical, characteristics of island growth. BMSCs became circles,triangles changes ,then ,cells shrinkaged and the cytoplasmic color of cells gradually deepened as compared with the control group.The content of proteoglycan was increased obviously in Co-induction.The relative expression levels of genes of ACAN,SOX9,COL2 were gradually increased ,and the proportion of which ACAN/COL2 showed an increasing trend. The mRNA expression of COL1 showed a decreasing trend. The positive genes of NPCs for KRT19,PAX1,FOXF1 were significant different as compared with control group(P<0.05).The expression of COL2 protein with GDF-5 group was increased significantly as compared with control group (P<0.05),then the expression of COL1 protein was minimum in Co-induction.Conclusions : GDF-5 may induce rat BMSCs to differentia into NP-like cells differentiation ,and dexamethasone plays a promotion effect in the differentiation of induction, and provides a theoretical basis for BMSCs transplantation in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.
    Clinical relevance and correlation with prognosis of 14-3-3σ expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
    2014, 34(8):  1044-1048. 
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    Objective To determine the correlation of 14-3-3σ expression with clinical features and its prognostic value in ESCC. Methods Eighty frozen ESCC samples of TNMⅠ to Ⅳ stage stored at -86℃ and a tissue microarray containing 86 fixed ESCC samples were used. Western blot was used to examine the 14-3-3σ protein expression in frozen ESCC, and IHC to estimate the 14-3-3σ protein expression in 86 ESCC samples from tissue microarray. The association of 14-3-3σ protein expression with clinical features and ESCC prognosis was determined by Kaplan–Meier curves. Results 14-3-3σ immunostaining was located predominantly in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. 14-3-3σ was positively correlated with differentiation, and negatively with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage(P < 0.05). The average survival time of ESCC patients with 14-3-3σ high and low expression was 39.82 months and 28.45 months, respectively, and the overall 5 year survival rate 43.31% and 24.8%, respectively (log-rank test, P< 0.01). TNM stage and 14-3-3σ were independent prognostic factors of ESCC. Conclusion Low/loss protein expression of 14-3-3σ may correlate with poor prognosis of ESCC.
    The impact of RV ectopic excitation on short-term cardiac memory is greater than that of LV in the rabbit
    2014, 34(8):  1049-1053. 
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    Objective To investigate the differential impact of right versus left ventricular ectopic excitation on the short-term cardiac memory. Methods Surface electrocardiogram (ECG) (Lead Ⅱ) was recorded and bipolar electrode pacing was performed on the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) anterior free walls at an open-chest condition in normal adult rabbits. Within 20 min after pacing, T wave morphology and T wave electrical axis were analyzed and compared with that of the same ventricles before pacing. Results After LV pacing, the T wave morphology was basically normal and the deflection of T axis was within normal range (14??22?). However, RV pacing resulted in significant T wave inversion and counter-clockwise deflection of T axis (maximal deflection ?127.9?) (P<0.05 vs. that of the same site before pacing, respectively). Conclusion The influence of RV ectopic excitation on short-term cardiac memory is much greater than that of LV ectopic excitation: RV ectopic excitation induces serious T wave inversion and T axis counter-clockwise deflection, while LV ectopic excitation has no significant influence on T wave morphology and T axis.
    Application of iTRAQ quantitative proteomics in identification of serum biomarkers in breast cancer
    2014, 34(8):  1054-1058. 
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    Objective: To explore the presence of informative protein biomarkers in the human serum proteome of breast cancer. Methods:Serum samples were profiled using iTRAQ technology coupled with LC-ESI-QTOF-MS, and Mascot searching. Western-blotting were used for validation of the candidate biomarkers. Results: 335 proteins were identified, and 23 proteins were associated with breast cancer. Three biomarker candidates generated from iTRAQ experiments were successfully verified using Western-blotting . Conclusion: This study provided a global view of potential mechanisms and potentional biomarkers of breast cancer, and demonstrated that iTRAQ combined with LC-ESI-QTOF-MS quantitative proteomics is a powerful tool for biomarker discovery.
    Effect of pyridoxamine on apoptosis and fibrogenic factors expression in human proximal tubular epithelial HK-2 cells
    2014, 34(8):  1059-1064. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and the mechanism of pyridoxamine on apoptosis and fibrogenic factors expression in HK-2 cells. Methods Cells were divided into groups as follows: control, AngⅡ(10-6 mol/L ), AngⅡ+ T(10-5 mol/L) , AngⅡ+ P(0.01、0.1、1、10mmol/L) , AngⅡ+ T+P (1mmol/L) . Cell viability was evaluated by MTT. Cell apoptosis was detected by AnnexinV-FITC/PI assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry. AGEs level in cellular supernatant were determined by ELISA. The real-time PCR was applied for the mRNA expression of RAGE, TGF-???? CTGF and MMP-9. The RAGE, TGF-????CTGF and p-NF-κBP65 expression were analyzed by Western Blot. Results Compared with AngⅡ,pyridoxamine and telmisartan increased cell viability, inhibited cell apoptosis, decreased intercellular ROS level, and lowered the AGEs level in cell culture supernatant(all P﹤0.01). The mRNA and protein expression of RAGE, TGF-β1, CTGF, MMP-9 and NF-κBP65 phosphorylation were down-regulated respectively(all P﹤0.01). These effects were more pronounced in pyridoxamine groups than telmisartan group(P﹤0.05 or P﹤0.01)while the combination group exhibited more significant effects than the single use of telmisartan(all P﹤0.01). Conclusion Pyridoxamine may inhibit cell apoptosis and down-regulate fibrogenic factors expression through AGEs-RAGE inhibition, oxidative stress alleviation and NF-κB inactivation.
    Infection of HPV and Its Relationship with the Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF Protein in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
    2014, 34(8):  1065-1070. 
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    Objective To investigate the etiological role of human papillomavirus(HPV) infection in the carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) and to discuss the possible relationship between HPV infection and HIF-1α,VEGF expression. Methods By using immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF protein was detected in 60 cases of NSCLC tissues and 20 cases of lung benign diseases tissues. PCR was employed to detect the expression of HPV16/18 DNA. Results ① The HPV DNA expression was 0.6046±0.0224 in NSCLC group significantly higher than 0.0275±0.1230 in the benign diseases group (P<0.05). ②The HIF-1α protein and VEGF protein expression was 0.2548±0.0219 and 0.2051±0.0321 respectively in NSCLC, significantly higher than in the benign diseases group (0.0826±0.0150 and 0.0726±0.0227) (P<0.05). ③The expression rate of HIF-1α was significantly correlated with VEGF in NSCLC(P<0.05).④The positive expression rate of VEGF was significantly higher in HPV DNA positive group(56.0%)than in HPV DNA negative group(28.6%,P<0.05) in NSCLC.Conclusion HPV infection may be one of the etiological factors in the carcinogenesis of NSCLC. HPV infection increased VEGF expression, promoted the occurrence and development of NSCLC.
    Analysis of the pattern of occult cervical lymphatic metastasis in clinical N0 papillary thyroid carcinoma
    2014, 34(8):  1071-1075. 
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    Objective We studied the pattern of lymphatic metastasis in clinical N0 stage (cN0) papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) through an analysis of published studies to establish evidence-based guidelines for selecting and delineating clinical target levels of prophylactic lymphadenectomy. Methods The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Medline databases were searched for relevant articles. The patients included were mainly untreated cN0 PTC cases that underwent thyroidectomy and prophylactic lymphadenectomy. The data were analyzed by Stata 10.2. Results A literature search yielded 6 studies. Resulting 57% of the cN0 PTC cases presented with central compartment metastasis, and 40% presented with lateral compartment metastasis. The most commonly involved regions include level VI and level III, with lymphatic metastasis rates of 57% and 42%, respectively, followed by level IV, level II, level V, level VII, and level I, with metastasis rates of 21%, 10%, 6%, 2%, and 2%, respectively. Conclusions Our analysis indicated that levels III and IV in cN0 PTC cases are high-risk, levels II and IV are moderate-risk, and levels I, VII, and V are low-risk. Clearance of levels III and IV during prophylactic neck dissection is essential for the complete removal of occult metastatic lymph nodes.
    Analysis of ralated factors with acute coaguiopathy after severe chest-abdomen injury
    2014, 34(8):  1076-1078. 
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    Objective To investigate the correlation between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)、 lipopolysaccharide(LPS)、phospholipase A2(PLA2)and platelet activating factor (PAF) with the blood coagulation function disorder in severe chest-abdominal injury and to study the effect of these factors on it.Methods 82 subjects with severe chest-abdominal injury were collected in the 253th Hospital of PLA from January in 2009 to June in 2012,of whom the trauma index were all above or equal to 17 points,and as the rescue and treatment were in progress the patients were examined platelet count (PLT)、D-dimer (D-D)、thromboplastin time(TT)、TNF-α、LPS、PLA2 and PAF for correlation analysis. Results PLT:83.4±38.5(109/L),D-D:1824±608(U/L),TT:58.3±12.4(s);TNF-α:36.4±18.1(ng/ml);LPS:344±106(IU/L);PLA2:41.4±14.3(ng/ml);PAF:15765±4432(ng/L).To have evedently correlation between the blood coagulation function with injury factors.Conclusion TNF-α、LPS、PLA2 and PAF all participate in the process of the blood coagulation function disorder in severe chest-abdominal injury. The prophase interference in TNF-α、LPS、PLA2 and PAF is possible to improve the coagulation dysfunction in severe chest-abdominal injury.
    The effect of Ubc9 on neural crest cell development of chicken embryo
    2014, 34(8):  1079-1082. 
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    Objective To examine the effect of Ubc9 and SUMO pathway on neural crest cell development of chicken embryo. Methods 1) Chicken embryos were collected, In situ hybridization and Immunofluorescence were used to observe the expression of SUMO-conjugating enzyme—Ubc9 and early markers of neural crest. 2) In the control group, 5- mismatch Ubc9-control morpholino (5MM-Mo) were used to treat chick embryos; In the Ubc9-Mo group, sequence-specific Morpholinos(Mo) were used to reduce Ubc9 levels in chicken embryos, then the mRNA levels of neural crest markers(Snail2,Sox9 and FoxD3) were observed. Results 1) Ubc9 is coexpressed with Pax7 in neural crest precursors of the neural fold at 4、6 and 8 stage of early chicken embryos. 2) Compared to the control group,Ubc9-Mo treatment led to a reduce of mRNA level of neural crest markers, Snail2(P<0.05),Sox9 (P<0.01)and FoxD3(P<0.05). Conclusion SUMO-conjugating enzyme, Ubc9 expression started at neural fold at 4、6 and 8 stage of early chicken embryo, Ubc9 and SUMO pathway are required for neural crest cell development of chicken embryo.
    The preparation and characterization of RGD and the function of cell penetrating peptides co-modified paclitaxel loaded liposome in vitro
    2014, 34(8):  1083-1087. 
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    Objective To prepareRGD and TAT co-modified paclitaxel loaded liposome(RGD/TAT-LP-PTX)for HepG2cells targeting.Methods The co-modified liposome was prepared by film-ultrasonic method. The appearance,particle size,Zeta potential were evaluated. The cellular uptake by HepG2cellsin vitro was used to evaluate the targeting efficiency. The anti-proliferation efficiency of RGD/TAT-LP-PTX was evaluated by MTT assay. Results The particle diameter of the co-modified liposome was 134.5±8.4 nm with the Zeta potential of 22.35±2.55mV. The entrapment efficiency of PTX was 84.6%. The result demonstrated that the co-modified liposome uptaken by HepG2 were 2.2, 2.7 times higher than that of TAT-LP and RGD-LP, respectively.The MTT assay demonstrated the cell viability of TAT-LP-PTX,RGD-LP-PTX and LP-PTX were 1.65, 1.74 and 2.1 times higher than that of RGD/TAT-LP-PTX respectively. Conclusion: The co-modified liposome might serve as a promising tumor delivery system of antitumor drugs.
    A case of disseminated infection by rapidly growing Mycobacteria
    2014, 34(8):  1088-1090. 
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    Objective To investigate the clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment of disseminated infection due to rapidly growing mycobcteria (RGM). Methods Analysis was made upon a case of disseminated infection due to RGM. Results This 49 years old male patient had no underlying diseases. He presented with fever, chronic bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and reactive skin manifestations. The lymph node biopsy specimen was culture-positive for RGM which was identified as Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus by gene chip assay. Disseminated RGM infection was diagnosed. This patient was treated with clarithromycin, levofloxacin, ethambutol (12 months), amoxicillin-clavulanate (3 months) and imipenem (4 weeks) for 18 months. He was really doing well while follow up after discontinuation of treatment for 3 months. Conclusions Disseminated RGM infection is a rare disease,often presents with fever, multiple draining subcutaneous nodules or abscesses, lymphadenopathy and organs involvement. Isolation of the organism on culture of blood, aspirated material, or tissue biopsy is the key to diagnosing the specific RGM infection.
    Rare primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma in the left frontal bone: a case report
    2014, 34(8):  1091-1093. 
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    Primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma occurring in the skull is rare, which has the characteristics of both benign and malignant tumors. Timely diagnosis and proper treatment is important for its prognosis. We report 1 patient with this disease, and conduct the operation, aimed at providing some reference for neurosurgeons.
    Clinical analysis of spontaneous urine extravasation in the perinephric space with urinary tract obstruction
    2014, 34(8):  1094-1097. 
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    Objective To explore the clinical features, pathogenesis and treatment methods of spontaneous obstructive urinary extravasation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 28 cases of obstructive spontaneous urinary extravasation from 2008 to 2012, summarize clinical manifestations, imaging features, explore the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive spontaneous urinary extravasation. Results All 28 patients had no significant injury history and history of acuteness activity, including 13 males and 15 females, aged 20~82 years old, average 57.6 years. Clinical manifestations include: lumbar pain 26 cases (92.9%), 18 cases (64.3%) had fever, 11 cases (39.3%) had nausea or vomiting, 10 cases (35.7%) had urinary irritation symptoms, 8 cases (28.6%) with macroscopic haematuria, 5 cases (17.9%) with abdominal distention. 22 cases (78.6%) routine blood leukocyte and neutral grain ratio increases.CTU performance with hydronephrosis, perirenal fluid.Etiology diagnosis, including 10 cases (35.7%) for ureteral calculi; 8 cases (28.6%) for ureteral tumor; 4 cases (14.3%) for ureteral tumor; Other rare causes of 6 cases (21.4%). Conclusions According to the clinical manifestations such as fever, lumbago, combined with ultrasonic and CT can help diagnosis. Find out the cause of urinary extravasation, then treat the primary disease, obstruction should be settled as soon as possible.
    bFGF induces BMSCs of rat to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro
    Hai-ping WANG,
    2014, 34(8):  1101-1103. 
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    Studies on the pathogenesis of glaucoma provides a holistic view on diagnosis and treatment in diseases of the nervous system
    2014, 34(8):  1113-1116. 
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    Glaucoma was believed as local lesions of eyes. Recent studies demonstrated that the trans-synaptic degeneration and cross-modal plasticity were involved in glaucoma-induced pathophysiological changes of brain, and the hypothesis of “optic nerve-posterior visual pathway-optic nerve” injury circuit was proposed. Glaucoma-induced neural injuries was not limited to the eyes, but also caused pathophysiological changes to the whole visual pathways. The achievement provides a new and holistic view on diagnosis and treatment in diseases of the nervous system, and this new concept gives us a brand new horizon when looking at diseases, presenting inspiration for development of diagnosis and treatment methods.
    A discussion on the management of classification of medical institutions of China
    2014, 34(8):  1117-1120. 
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    Medical institutions in China are normally divided into nonprofit and for-profit, so such oversimplified dichotomy classification is failed to define the boundaries and responsibilities of different types of medical institutions and perfect health care system and its efficiency. In this article, a new classification "Three Categories and Four types" of medical institutions is proposed.
    Research progress of autophagy in cardiomyocyte aging
    Yu-zhen TAN,
    2014, 34(8):  1121-1124. 
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    Autophagy plays an important role in sustaining the survival of cardiomyocytes during aging process. Regulating autophagy will contribute to the elimination of impaired mitochondria and other harmful metabolites within cardiomyocytes, which relieves oxidative stress ,sustains the survival of cardiomyocytes and reduces cell apoptosis. Activation of autophagy may serve as an effective way for rescuring cardiomyocyte aging.
    Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway is a new neuroprotective target for Parkinson’s disease
    2014, 34(8):  1125-1128. 
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    Recent studies have shown that regulation of Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 confer neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. The specific activation of Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 gene expression by pharmacological modulation may represent a novel approach for therapeutic treatment of PD. There is, therefore, an excellent rationale for the development of new neuroprotective agents, based on their ability to enhance activity of Nrf2 and upregulate HO-1 expression.
    Progress on Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Heart Failure
    2014, 34(8):  1129-1132. 
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    Excitation–contraction coupling is the process by which the cardiomyocyte translates electrical excitation into mechanical contraction. The RyR2 plays a central role in the process. Ca2+-handling and Na+-handling participate the whole process of excitation–contraction coupling. Alterations in Ca2+-handling proteins and intracellular kinases are involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Changes in Ca2+-handling often precede the depression of myocardial function. Intracellular Ca2+-handling is closely coupled with intracellular Na+-handling. Intracellular Na+-handling is disturbed with elevated intracellular Na+-concentration and increased late INa. Diastolic Ca2+ can consecutively increase contributing to diastolic dysfunction and heart failure as well as arrhythmias.
    The role of microRNA in virus-infectious non-resolving inflammation related hepatocellular malignant transformation
    2014, 34(8):  1133-1137. 
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    Non-resolving inflammation refers to a long-term non-homeostasis status under the action of infectious or non-infectious factors. There are studies showing that miRNA interacts with inflammation factors playing critical roles in the process of non-resolving inflammation related hepatocellular malignancy. Further investigation on the relationship between miRNA and inflammation factors during this process will be of great value to uncover the relationship between inflammation and tumor and innovate new therapy methods for non-resolving inflammation related malignant diseases.
    Advancement of the dual roles of cell microparticles in acute lung injury
    2014, 34(8):  1138-1141. 
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    Microparticles, a kinds of small vesicles derived from the mother cells with a variety of contents, have been reported to involve in a variety of pathophysiological processes. The variety of contents which microparticles contain also can affect the coagulation function and inflammation.. And microparticles can also influence the apoptosis of endothelial cells and the function of vascular barrier through various mechanisms. Therefore, microparticles have great significance on the occurrence and progress of acute lung injury.
    G protein-coupled estrogen receptor and tumor
    2014, 34(8):  1142-1145. 
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    GPER is a novel estrogen receptor, which is widely distributed in human tumor tissues and cell lines. GPER plays an important role in cell proliferation, invasion and migration of a variety of tumors, especially estrogen-dependent tumors. The research on the relationship between GPER and tumor will provide new ideas for tumor therapy.
    The role of inflammation in degeneration of arthritic cartilage in osteoarthritis
    2014, 34(8):  1146-1149. 
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    Chronic inflammation is one of the major causes of cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis. During the progression of osteoarthritis, extracellular matrix of cartilage (ECM) is actively remodeled by chondrocytes under inflammatory conditions. This alteration of ECM, in turn, changes the biomechanical environment of chondrocytes, which further drives the progression of the disease in the presence of inflammation. The changes in ECM composition and structure also prevent participation of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair process by inhibiting their chondrogenic differentiation.
    Helicobacter pylori infection and kidney related diseases
    2014, 34(8):  1150-1153. 
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    The detection rate of Helicobacter pylori (HP)infection is increasing year after year, Clinical reports about HP infection -related diseases are changing from unity to diversity .HP infection is not only associated with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma, But also related to parenteral diseases such as chronic kidney disease (CKD).
    Frame-work based learning : Comparison of learning results underlying three different teaching methods
    2014, 34(8):  1154-1157. 
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    Objective In the study we mainly aimed to compare the results of three methods of teaching/learning which are based on frame-work based learning model. Methods In the reform of medical education, the teaching of Medical Microbiology was partly integrated with Medical English and frame-work based learning model was involved. In the study, 73 students in Peking Union Medical College were enrolled in the practice of this reform of frame-work based learning and experience three methods of teaching/learning: instructor regulated learning, peer regulated learning and self regulated learning. Objective tests were taken to investigate the master degree of related knowledge both at the immediate time (post test) and after 40 days (delayed retention test). Results The score of master degree of related knowledge ranking list are similar in the post test and delayed retention test: instructor regulated learning(3.79±0.89 and 3.35±1.18, self regulated learning(2.71±1.03 and 2.86±0.88)and peer regulated learning(2.42±1.08 and 2.10±1.13)(P﹤0.01).While the disparity between the two exams of the same student varies in three methods of teaching/learning, the scores in instructor regulated learning and peer regulated learning mode dropped significantly but exhibit a minor promotion in score in the self regulated learning mode(P﹤0.05). Conclusion The results indicate different advantages and disadvantages of the three modes of learning, showing that appropriate proportion of these three teaching/learning methods is needed to be detected and adjusted to get the best results.
    Applying structural equation modeling to Assessment Residents Training’s objective structured clinical examination
    2014, 34(8):  1158-1161. 
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    Objective The purpose of this article was to determine if structural equation model(SEM) can be successfully applied to analyze the assessment dimensions of the residents training‵s Objective Structured Clinical Examination, (OSCE ).Methods OSCE ,exploratory factor analyses(EFA) and the Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA) were applied. Results The OSCE is assessing 4 dimensions of clinical competencies. Conclusions Residents’ clinical competence can be proved by OSCE.
    The application of Clinical scenarios discussion in teaching medical students before clinical probation
    2014, 34(8):  1162-1164. 
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    Objective To investigate the learning outcome of curriculum design and clinical scenarios discussion implemented in teaching medical students before clinical probation. Methods Students just before initiation of clinical training were induced into some simulated clinical dilemma situations or emergencies created by SPs. After their practice, teachers evaluated their operation those to comprehend communication skills and proper responses through group discussion. Then, used questionnaire and in-depth interview to assess the design of curriculum and outcome. Results 72% of subjects believed that the appropriate range of students’ number in each discussion group is 8~15; After clinical probation, 97.1% of subjects identified the effect of this clinical scenarios discussion; The rate of subjects who thought they were benefited from this curriculum in terms of skills of communication, right responses to emergencies and improved confidence to face patients is 86.8%, 92.7% and 94. 3%, respectively. Conclusions The implementation of clinical scenarios discussion before clinical probation was effective on improving the medical students’ communication skills and ability of right responses to clinical dilemma situations or emergencies and thus facilitated clinical probation.