Table of Content

    05 February 2011, Volume 31 Issue 2
    Effect of PKCdeta on Cerebral Ischemic/Hypoxic Tolerance Induced by Morphine Preconditioning
    2011, 31(2):  113-117. 
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    Objective To determine the mechanism of MP (morphine preconditioning) on brain ischemic/hypoxic tolerance in the hippocampus slices of mice. Methods Hippocampus slices were exposed to OGD (oxygen–glucose deprivation) to mimic ischemia-reperfusion injury in vitro. The slice injuries were assessed by both lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate and cell survival rate of slices (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate the protective effects of MP. Western blot analysis was used to identify the expression of PKC???Results In the hippocampal slices preconditioned with morphine, cell survival rate was increased and LDH release rate was decreased significantly compared with OGD 5min,10min and 20min (P<0.05). Immediately and at the end of 2 h reperfusion after OGD 10 min, the particulate fraction of PKC? increased significantly, concomitantly with a corresponding decrease in the cytosolic fraction (P<0.05). The increased membrane translocation of PKC? could not be inhibited by MP. Conclusion MP can reduce OGD-induced neuronal injuries, the protective effects were observed for periods of OGD equal to or shorter than 20min. PKC? membrane translocation might not be involved in the neuroprotection.
    The effects of mechanical ventilation by breathing machine on the expression of MUC5AC
    2011, 31(2):  118-123. 
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    Objective To study the effect of mechanical ventilation by breathing machine on the expression of MUC5AC and investigation for mechanism. Methods Rabbits were divide into control group and one, three, six, twelve, twenty-four hours mechanical ventilation groups, and 2, 5, 10cmH2O PEEP mechanical ventilation groups. Contents of TNF-α, IL-8, MUC5AC mRNA and protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA methods,respectively. Neutrophil in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted. Neutrophil elastase activity was measured by assays of substrate. Results Mechanical ventilation could increase the expression of MUC5AC in bronchiorum endothelial cells(P<0.05). After mechanical ventilation for three hour, the expression of TNF-α reached the peak (P<0.05). The expression of IL-8 reached the peak after six hours(P<0.05). Neutrophil count and neutrophil elastase activity reached the peak after twelve hours(P<0.05). With the increase of PEEP, the mRNA and protein of TNF-α, IL-8 ,MUC5AC, the number of PMN and neutrophil elastase activity also would increase(P<0.05). Conclusion Mechanical ventilation could increase the expression of MUC5AC in bronchiorum endothelial cells. This maybe is concerned with inflammation.
    Hyperoxia increases the expression of lung heme oxygenase-1 in rat pups
    WU Chang-yi YUE Feng LI Min ZHANG Li-ping WANG Jun GUO Xiang-yang
    2011, 31(2):  124-127. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of hyperoxia on the expression of lung heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat pups. Methods 21-d-old male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into 5 groups: room-air control group and 12, 24, 48, 72 hours hyperoxia groups. The rat pups were continuously exposed to oxygen (92%~94%) and room-air respectively. The left lung wet/ dry weight ratio and the histological examination were performed. The expressions of lung HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein were also measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results The expressions of lung HO-1 mRNA in 12 hours hyperoxia group (0.35±0.043) and HO-1 protein in 24 hours hyperoxia group (0.455±0.046) were increased as compared to those in the room-air group (0.263±0.037, 0.28±0.044), and the increases were more significant with the longer hyperoxia exposure (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with the room-air control, the left lung wet/ dry weight ratio and the lung injury scores were significantly increased in 48 hours hyperoxia group and 72 hours hyperoxia group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion Hyperoxia can induce the increase of lung heme oxygenase-1 expression in rat pups.
    Construction and identification of pEGFP-N1-AMPKα2 expression vector targeting to human AMPKα2
    LU Jun XU Shi-yuan CUI Rui ZHANG Qing-guo LEI Hong-yi
    2011, 31(2):  128-133. 
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    Objective To construct pEGFP-N1-AMPKα2 expression vector and observe its up-regulation effect on human AMPKα2 gene in the SH-SY5Y cell line. Methods Human AMPKα2 gene fragment were amplified and cloned into the pEGFP-N1- AMPKα2 vector. The recombinant vector was confirmed by DNA sequencing and enzyme digestion analysis. The recombinant vector was transfected by lipofectamine into the SH-SY5Y cells. After the screening by G418, the expression levels of AMPKα2 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. ROS was measured by flow cytometry in cells transfected with recombinant vector. Results The expression vector pEGFP-N1-AMPKα2 was successfully constructed, which was confirmed by the DNA sequencing and the enzyme digestion analysis. The vector pEGFP-N1-AMPKα2 can up-regulate protein expression of AMPKα2 effectively after transfection in the SH-SY5Y cells. ROS increased in cells transfected with pEGFP-N1-AMPKα2. Conclusion pEGFP-N1-AMPKα2 expression vector was successfully constructed. The protein expression of AMPKα2 gene was up-regulated effectively in SH-SY5Y cells transfacted with pEGFP-N1-AMPKα2, which laid a basis for its application in the research of cell injury induced by local anesthetic.
    The mRNA Expression of Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 in Human Adrenal Tissues and tumors
    2011, 31(2):  134-138. 
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    Objectives: We compare the mRNA expression of the Adiponectin receptor 1 and Adiponectin receptor 2(Adipo R1/R2) in human adrenal tissues and tumors. METHODS: Total RNA was exracted from 6 normal human adrenal glands, 10 cortisol-secreting tumors, 20 pheochromacytomas; and 14 aldosteronomas. We use RT-PCR to compare the mRNA expression of the Adipo R1/R2 in human adrenal tissues and tumors and analyzed the relationship between Adipo R1/R2 , the GLUAUC and INSAUC of 3hOGTT. RESULTS: The mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/GAPDH and AdipoR2/GAPDH were significantly lower in normal human adrenal cortex than in aldosteronoma and cortisol-secreting tumors(p<0.01). The mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/GAPDH in pheochromacytomas were higher than normal human adrenal medulla(p<0.01). The mRNA expressions of AdipoR2/GAPDH in aldosteronoma were lower than cortisol-secreting tumors(p<0.05), Adipo R1 positively correlated with Adipo R2(r=0.335, p<0.01), Adipo R2 positively correlated with GLUAUC(r=0.633,p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adiponectin was widely expressed in adrenal tissues, the difference may be caused by the plasma adiponectin.
    Expression and clinical significance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lumbar disc herniation
    ZHENG Li-feng YE Jun-Jian
    2011, 31(2):  139-143. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression and clinical signficance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) in nucleus pulposus of herniated lumbar discs. Methods The mRNA and protein expression of MCP-1 in the experimental group(48 fresh nucleus pulposus of patients with lumbar disc herniation)and control group(10 fresh nucleus pulposus of patients with traumatic lumbar vertebrae)were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining . Results (1)MCP-1 were overexpressed in LDH group compare with those in control group (P<0.01).In different types of herniation,the expression of MCP-1 were higher in external anulus rupture type as compared with that in external anulus intact type (P<0.01).Conclusion MCP-1 maybe an important regulatory factor in inflammatory changes of the herniated lumbar disc,it may play an initial role in the inflammatory reaction around the herniated discs.
    Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates tumor necrosis factor-α expression of rat mesangial cell line via ERKs and NF-κB pathway
    LU Hong-Zhu FAN Qi-hong LIU Dan DENG Kai-qin ZHOU Jian-hua
    2011, 31(2):  144-148. 
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    Objectives To investigate the signal transduction pathway of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in glomerular mesangial cell(GMC) TNF-α expression. Methods PCI-neo-X was transfected into cultured glomerular mesangial cells. TNF-α and its mRNA expression of GMC were compared between treated or untreated with ERKs inhibitor U0126, NF-κB inhibitor lactacystin and p38 inhibitor SB203580, respectively. HBx expression in glomerular mesangial cells was assessed by Western-blot. TNF-α mRNA expression was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. TNF-α levels in supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results HBx expression was found in transfected glomerular mesangial cells, and became prominent at 36 and 48 hours after transfection whatever with or without inhibitors in culture media. TNF-α mRNA expression was significantly decreased in U0126 or lactacytin group compared with U0126-free or lactacytin-free group. TNF-α levels in supernatants in pCI-neo-X transfection was also partially inhibited when treated with ERKs inhibitor U0126 or NF-κB inhibitor lactacystin, but no effect was observed in p38 inhibitor SB203580 treated group at 36 and 48h after transfection. Conclussion HBx upregulated TNF-α expression of GMC line partly through ERK1/2 and NF-κB signal transduction pathway, but not p38MAPK pathway.
    Effects of Benazepril and Candesartan on Hemodynamic Parameters and TGF-β1 during Myocardial Hypertrophy in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats
    MENG Guo-liang WU Feng YANG Li-yun XU Ji-liang
    2011, 31(2):  149-154. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of benazepril and candesartan on hemodynamics parameters and transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1) expression during myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods 12-week-old SHRs were treated with benazepril at 10 mg/(kg?d), candesartan at 4 mg/(kg?d) and a combination of 2 drugs at half dose, respectively, for 12 weeks. After 12weeks’ treatment, ejection fraction(EF) was acquired with the echocardiographic system. Left ventricular catheter was placed via right common carotid artery and hemodynamic parameters were determined. Left ventricular mass index(LVMI) and thickness of left ventricular posterior wall(LVPW) were also examined. Meanwhile, myocardium pathological structures were accessed with HE-staining. Expressions of TGF-β1 were detected using immunohistochemistry and western-blot analysis respectively. Results LVMI, thickness of LVPW, ratio of media area to lumen area in myocardial arteriole, expressions of TGF-β1 were decreased after the treatment of benazepril or candesartan (P<0.01). Hemodynamic parameters were also improved . After the combined treatment, the synergistic effect could be observed and EF were increased. Conclusion Synergistic attenuation of myocardial hypertrophy and improving of hemodynamic parameters in SHRs is produced by combined use of benazepril and candesartan possibly through negative modulation of TGF-β1 expression.
    Repairing defects with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell inducted by CDMP and TGF-β1
    CUI Ying MA Lin-xiang ZHU Li-Ming PAN Xin-Yu WANG Xue-feng ZHANG Ben
    2011, 31(2):  155-160. 
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    Objective To explore the repairing methods in vivo and test the clinical applicability of implanatation in vivo of BMSCs in PLGA scafford and induced by cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein 1 (CDMP1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) to repair defects of cartilage. Method Under the culture of high-density cell suspension and PLGA frame, BMSCs were observed the ability to repair cartilage combined with PLGA before and after the induction of CDMP and (or) TGF-β1. The complex was implanted into animals and the culturing system was analyzed at the gross level, the histological expression to see the ability to repair cartilage defects. Result The culturing system could be induced to express cartilage-specific matrix collagen Ⅱ and GAG. The culturing system could repair cartilage defects effectively after transplanted into animals. Conclusion The BMSCs and PLGA complex induced by CDMP1 and TGF- β1 can repair cartilage defects more effectively than the BMSCs and PLGA complex induced by CDMP1 or TGF-β1 only.
    Effects of 5-Aza-CdR Methylation State of P16 Gene and Biological Phenotype in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line Caco-2
    2011, 31(2):  161-165. 
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    Objective To investigate the P16 gene methylation state in human colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2 and explore the possibility of re-expression of the hypermethylated and silenced P16 gene. Methods cell line Caco-2 treated with different concent rations of DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-CdR, MSP was used to detect promoter methylation state of P16 gene and RT-PCR were used to detect re-expression of mRNA before and after treatment with 5-Aza-CdR respectively. Cell growth speed was measured using MTT assay, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rate were estimated using ?ow cytometry. Results Promoter hypermethylation of the P16 gene was detected in human colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2, After treatment with 5-Aza-CdR, the promoter region of the P16 gene exhibited a demethylation state, and 5-Aza-CdR induces P16 gene re-expression. 5-Aza-CdR effectively reversed the hypermethylation status of CpG island,induced colorectal cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were observed in a dose -dependent manner. Conclusion P16 gene can be reversed by demethylation agent 5-Aza-CdR. demethylation agent can regulate the expression of the P16 gene,and effectively inhibits cell growth.
    Relationship between seminal plasma neutral alpha-1,4 glycosidase activity and the positive rate and activity intensity of hyaluronidase in infertile males
    MA Xiao-ping GAO Xiao-qin DING Xian-sheng NI Jia
    2011, 31(2):  166-169. 
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    Objective To study the relationship between neutral alpha—1,4 glycosidase(α-1,4-G )activity of human seminal plasma and the positive rate and activity intensity of hyaluronidase(HYD) .Method 1.To collect 38 infertile men’s semen, who were between 24 and 40 years old and be devided into 2 groups according to the result of neutral α-1,4-G activity test. They were normal neutral α-1,4-G activity group(26 cases) and abnormal α-1,4-G activity group(12 cases). Normal birth masculine seminal fluid matched ages was the control group (12cases). Neutral α-1,4-G activity in semen test kits was used to detect the neutral α-1,4-G activity . The positive rate and activity intensity of HYD in 2 groups were examined by our improved fixed—substrate film method. Results There was significant difference between normal birth group and infertile groups(P<0.01). The relation between neutral α-1,4-G activity and the positive rate of HYD had a significant positive correlation (r=0.877,P<0.01); The relation between neutral α-1,4-G activity and the activity intensity of HYD showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.910,P<0.01). Conclusion The neutral α-1,4-G activity of human seminal plasma could affect the positive rate and activity intensity of HYD.
    TWEAK promotes the proliferation and collagen synthesis of rat cardiac fibroblasts
    CHEN Hui-na REN Man-yi WEI Feng-tao LU Shu-xia YANG Zhao-rui XU Dong-ling WANG Xu-ping Shu-jian SUI,
    2011, 31(2):  170-173. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). Methods Cultured CFs from neonatal Wistar rats were isolated by trypsinization, treated with Recombinant human TWEAK (rhTWEAK), and examined after 48h. The CFs proliferation was examined by MTT, and the expressions of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ mRNA and protein were determined by qRT-PCR. The expression of collagen Ⅰ protein was determined by Western blot. Results rhTWEAK significantly increased the number of CFs and elevated the expression levels of collagenⅠand Ⅲ mRNA and collagenⅠprotein.Conclusion TWEAK can promote proliferation and collagen synthesis of rat CFs.
    Electrophysiological effects of adenosine on pacemaker cells in guinea-pig left ventricular outflow tract
    ZHAO Lan-ping LI Jian-dong SHANG Ai-min NIU Xin
    2011, 31(2):  174-178. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of adenosine on spontaneous action potentials of left ventricular outflow tract and the effects of adenosine on E, hypoxia and acidosis. Methods By using conventional intracellular microelectrode technique to record action potentials, adenosine was used to study the electrophysiological effects on pacemaker cells in ventricular outflow tract. The effects of adenosine on E, hypoxia and acidosis were also studied. Results ① Adenosine significantly decreased the electric activities of pacemaker cells in guinea pig left ventricular outflow tract. From 10μmol/L adenosine to 100μmol/L adenosine, the effects were more marked. ②10μmol/L E resulted in a significant increase in the autorhythmicity of left ventricular outflow tract. 50μmol/L adenosine decreased the effects of E notably. ③Hypoxia and acidosis led to a marked decrease in the autorhythmicity of left ventricular outflow tract. 50μmol/L adenosine led to a notably decrease in the effects of hypoxia and acidosis. Conclusion Adenosine could significantly decrease the autorhythmicity of left ventricular outflow tract and markedly alter the effects of E, hypoxia and acidosis.
    Melatonin promotes the expression of STAT4 and inhibite airway inflammation in asthmatic mouse
    2011, 31(2):  179-182. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of melatonin (MT) on signal transduce and activator of transcription 4(STAT4)and its airway inflammation in asthmatic mice. Methods At 1h after the last aerosol exposure, the left lungs were lavaged, the number of inflammatory cell in the mouse bronchoaleolar lavage fluids (BALF) were counted with microscope. Using immunohi- stochemistry and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR to detect expression of STAT4 protein and its mRNA expressionism in right lung tissue. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detecte levels of IL-12 in serum. Results (1) In model group, the number of inflammatory cells and EOS were significantly higher than control group, STAT4 protein and STAT4mRNA expression in lung tissue was significantly decreased when compared with control group. MT treated group significantly alleviated the above-mentioned parameters.And there were significant differences between MT treated group and control group,DXM treated group and model group. (P<0.01). (2)In asthmatic mice, STAT4 protein and its mRNA expression had both altitude negative relationship with EOS counts in BALF (r=0.849, P<0.01; r=0.972, P<0.01, respectively). Levels of IL-12 in serum had altitude positive correlation with STAT4 protein expression in asthmatic group mice(r=0.742, P<0.01). Conclusion MT may be through inducing STAT4 gene transcription and translation in asthmatic mice, promoting production of IL-12 in peripheral blood,inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration,significantly reduce the airway inflammation.
    A retrospective analysis of 3187 patients with severe multiple trauma from primary hospitals in Tangshan
    LI Wei-wei MU Chun-hua WANG Li-jiang TIANG Feng-li
    2011, 31(2):  183-186. 
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    Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics such as traumatic condition, traumatic causes, remedy status quo, causa mortis and complications of in-patients with severe multiple trauma from primary hospitals. Metheds Three thousand and one hundred eighty seven cases of severe multiple trauma patients from eight Secondary First-class hospitals in Tangshan District including Leting,Luan,Tanghai,Qianxi, Qian,an, Fengrun,Yutian ,Zunhua in last ten years from January 1999 to December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Peasants aged from 16 to 60 years were the high risk group for severe multiple trauma in which head and limps were the main injured sites. Traffic accident injury, industrial injury and public security injury were the most common causes for severe multiple trauma, which usually took place at 6.pm to 8.pm in autumn and in winter. The higher the value of mAIS or ISS was, the higher the mortality rate was. Conclusion In the patients with severe multiple trauma, male peasant have the highest incidence. It is a effective way for primary hospitals to establish an integration remedy mode including rescuing patients with severe multiple trauma from on-the- spot to in hospital besides intensive education and taking preventative steps.
    Effect of myostatin silence mediated by siRNA on cell proliferation and differentiation in myoblasts
    2011, 31(2):  187-191. 
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    Objective To study cell proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts with the myostatin silenced. Methods siRNA expression vector targeting the myostatin gene was constructed, then siRNA expression vector was transfected into myoblasts. The expression of myostatin in the transfected myoblasts was determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Transfected myoblasts were seeded in dishes, harvested at the indicated times, and counted. Creatine kinase was measured for transfected myoblasts. Transfected myoblasts were shifted to differentiation medium containing low fetal bovine serum, myotube formation was observated at the indicated times. Results Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the rate of silencing of myostatin in transfected myoblasts was 81.6% for the siRNA expression vector, it was also testified by Western blot. The number of myoblasts transfected with the siRNA expression vector increased, and creatine kinase activity elevated than in control cells (P<0.05). After 7 days of incubation in differentiation medium, control myoblasts showed formation of myotubes. By contrast, formation of myotubes was observated after 10 days of incubation in differentiation medium for transfected myoblasts under the same conditions. Conclusion Cell proliferation capacity of myoblasts increases, and differentiation is inhibited when the myostatin is silenced with siRNA. Considering the above findings, it is likely that it is an alternative therapy method for muscle atrophy by silencing the myostatin gene with the siRNA expression vector.
    Effect of ursolic acid on the expression of cofilin-1 in human gastric cancer cell
    JI Qing ZHAO Xiao-yan HU Yu-na ZHANG Long NI Zhen-hua KANG Xiang-dong
    2011, 31(2):  192-195. 
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    Objective To investigate expression changes of cofilin-1 in cell BGC-823 treated with ursolic acid. Methods Cell BGC-823 was treated with ursolic acid, expression changes of cofilin-1 was detected by 2-D-electrophoresis and mass spectrum, protein expression of cofilin-1 and cytochrome c was detected by western blot. Results Lower expression of cofilin-1 in cytoplasm(p<0.01), but obvious raise in mitochondria(p<0.01), and down-regulation of cytochrome c in cytoplasm(p<0.01). Conclusions BGC-823 was treated with ursolic acid,might made cofilin-1 take transposition from cytoplasm to mitochondria,which promoted cytochrome c to release from mitochondria,activated caspase cascade,and induced cell apoptosis.
    Radiological Findings of Abdominal Cocoon
    2011, 31(2):  196-198. 
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    Objective To investigate the imaging findings of abdominal cocoon in order to improve diagnostic level. Methods Ten cases of abdominal cocoon confirmed by surgery and pathologic findings were retrospectively analyzed. Results Main clinical manifestation was partial or complete intestinal obstruction. Abdominal plain X-ray showed evidence of small-bowel obstruction, with dilated bowel loops and multiple air-fluid levels. The typical feature of gastrointestinal barium meal was a conglomeration of multiple cauliflower-like bowel loops that appear to adhere to each other. CT images revealed a aggregation of multiple small bowel loops encased by a fibrous membrane. Conclusion The clinical manifestation of abdominal cocoon is nonspecific. It’s radiological findings ,especially the CT images are characteristic and helpful.
    As2O3 realise airway remodeling and expression of MMP-9 in murine model of chronic asthma
    XU Zi-ping KANG Jian LI Xue
    2011, 31(2):  199-201. 
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    Epigenetics of Tumor
    2011, 31(2):  204-206. 
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    Epigenetics is a discipline in life science, which studies biological phenomenon that inheritance occurs through mitosis and meiosis without nucleotide sequence changes. Epigenetic modification abnormalities exist extensively in the process of carcinogenesis and tumor development, and have been followed closely by researchers in recent years.
    Cardiac development relative genes and congenital heart diseases
    GONG Ding-Xu ZHANG Hao HU Sheng-Shou
    2011, 31(2):  207-209. 
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    Cardiac development is a complex process, and a lot of events are included in this process. These events are myocardium progenitor cell formation, migration and differentiation, heart tube formation, looping and chamber formation. GATA superfamily genes,NKX superfamily genes,NODAL、NOTCH、WNT、BMP signal pathways,and ISL1、ACFC1、DNAH、JAG are all participate in the process of cardiac development. Any perturbation in these processes will lead to the formation of congenital heart disease.
    The AU-rich element, an important element of post-transcriptional regulation
    2011, 31(2):  210-213. 
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    The adenine and uridine-rich elements(AREs) are found in the 3 ’ untranslated region(3’-UTR) of certain messenger RNAs(mRNAs). AREs have been shown to decrease the stability of mRNAs in which they reside, they can also increase the stability of some mRNAs. ARE binding proteins (ARE-BPs) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway play important roles in regulating the stability of ARE-mRNAs. And microRNAs(miRNAs) pathway may interact with AREs.
    Progress in the study of the effects of high glucose on dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro
    SUN Qing LIANG Xiao-chun ZHANG Hong
    2011, 31(2):  214-217. 
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    Dorsal root ganglion neurons(DRGn) play an important role in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Currently, the effects of high glucose on DRGn in vitro has become a research hotspot. High glucose result in apoptosis of DRGn. Moreover, DRGn showed differences in oxidative stress, activation of membrane receptor mGluRs and TRPV1, DRGn/SCs co-cultures between in high glucose and in defined medium.
    Research Progress in Alzheimer’s Disease Treated by the Transplantation of Stem Cells
    CHENG Xin LUO Huan-min
    2011, 31(2):  218-221. 
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    Alzheimer’s disease(AD) is a kind of neurodegenerative diseases. Drugs show little effect on AD currently. Stem cell transplantation develops a new therapeutic approach to it.
    Update in molecular mechanism of pain
    MA Lu-lu LIU Wei HUANG Yu-guang
    2011, 31(2):  222-224. 
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    Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition affecting millions of people worldwide, and current treatments are often inadequate, ineffective or associated with potential severe side effects. A great deal of researches in the past decade have demonstrated the activation of glial constitutes a vital signaling network between pre-synaptic neurons and post-synaptic neurons, contributing to the release of cytokines、chemotaxin、proinflammatory factors and tumor necrosis factor, facilating the kinase pathways and finally leading to the activation of neurons. Clinical manifestations include hyperalgesia and allodynia. However further understanding of pain mechanism, especially molecular mechanism will help us find the new target therapy for pain.