Table of Content

    05 April 2010, Volume 30 Issue 4
    Preparation and preliminary application of a monoclonal antibody against enterohemahagic E.coli O157:H7
    Xuan YANG; Xue-min LI; Shu-hao YANG; Qing FU
    2010, 30(4):  0-0. 
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    Transplantation of Allogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells up-regulated Connexin 43 Expression in Rats with Myocardial Infarction
    Jin-yi LI; Guo-qiang ZHONG; Hong-hong KE; Yan HE; Li-na WEN; Zhuo WEI; Yan-mei ZHAO
    2010, 30(4):  337-342. 
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    Objective To investigate the alterations of connexin 43(Cx43) expression and its distribution at different stages of myocardial infarction (MI) in rats after transplantation of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods Wistar rats have been ligated on the left anterior descending coronary artery to make MI models. They were injected with allogenic MSCs, which were induced by 5-aza and labelled by DAPI, under the second operation after 7 days of MI. In subgroups, MSCs were detected by fluorescence microscope. Cx43 expression and GJ distribution were examined by immunohistochemistry after 4, 8 or 12 weeks respectively. Results MSCs differentiated into cardiac muscle cell-like cells which were capable of pulsing spontaneously, expressing cTnT and forming myofilament in vitro. Transplanted MSCs can survive in MI host and upregulate Cx43 expression and normalize Cx43 distribution at ischemic zones after 4, 8 and 12w. No change of Cx43 was seen at infarcted zones. Conclusions MSCs have the plasticity of differentiating into cardiac muscle cell-like cells which can continuously upregulate Cx43 expression and normalize Cx43 distribution at ischemic zones after 4, 8 and 12w.
    Detection of Systematic Oxidative Stress in Preeclampsia
    Zhong-qing QIAN; Yao-ying ZENG; Bin ZHU; Yu-hua JI; Fang HE
    2010, 30(4):  343-347. 
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    Objective To detect systematic oxidative stress in preeclampsia. Methods ① Morphological features of placenta hypoxia were observed by histological method;② Levels of granulocyte intracellular reactive oxygen species monitored by dyeing full blood with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate(H2DCFDA); ③ Levels of H2O2 in sera were detected by special kits. Results Compared to normal pregnancy, placentas from preeclampsia showed distinct features of hypoxic stress injury, such as more syncytial knots formation, fibrosis emerged, vein injury and loss its normal configuration; Fluorescence values of ROS probe in neutrophils from different women were 45.61±12.2 ?mol/L(n=49), 51.02±13.6 ?mol/L(n=56, p<0.01)and 85.1±16.3?mol/L(n=47, p<0.01); Concentrations of H2O2 were 24.57±5.17 ?mol/L(n=49), 26.61±3.25 ?mol/L(n=56, p>0.01) and 39.84±9.67(n=47, p<0.01) respectively. Conclusions With the help of histological method, flow cytometry and special kits, levels of systematic oxidative stress can be detected in placentic tissues, netrophils and sera of preeclampsia.
    The genotypic identification and elementary phenotypic analysis of MULT1-transgenic mice
    Lei KANG; Lian-xian CUI; Wei HE; Chi MA
    2010, 30(4):  348-354. 
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    Objective To identify High affinity ligand MULT1-transgenic mice, analyze its elementary phenotype, and perform primary functional study in MULT1. Methods We identified the genotype of transgenic mice by genomic DNA PCR and detected transcripts level of MULT1 in tails by real-time PCR. The flowcytometry and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of MULT1 in various tissues. Results 25 3'S-strain and 13 4'S-strain MULT1-transgenic mice were obtained and they contain higher MULT1 transcripts. MULT1 protein is mainly expressed on intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) and thymocytes but not on splenocytes. Moreover, the levels of MULT1 expression on (iIELs) and thymocytes are associated with age. Within iIELs, the percentage of CD8+T cells decreased, while CD4+CD25+Treg cells increased, when compared with wild-type mouse. Conclusion We successfully produced MULT1-transgenic mice. MULT1 is possibly associated with thymic development and aging, as well as immunoregulation in mice.
    Increased Expression of ROCK-I, p-MBS Thr-697 and α-SMA During Hepatic Fibrogenesis
    Cai-xia HU; Jia-sheng ZHENG; Yu-zhen WANG; Hui-qing JIANG
    2010, 30(4):  355-359. 
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    Objective To explore the dynamic expression of ROCK-I, p-MBS Thr-697, α-SMA and their mRNA in the hepatic fibrogenesis and the changes of actin cytoskeleton.Methods ROCK-I, p-MBS Thr-697, protein in the livers were determined by Western blot and their mRNA were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while the distribution of ROCK-I, α-SMA in the livers were assessed immunohistochemistically. The changes of actin cytoskeleton were studied by fluorescence.Results With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive areas in model groups at week 1 to 4 of ROCK-I and α-SMA of the rat livers were larger than that in control group respectively, P<0.05.ROCK-I, p-MBS Thr-697 ,α-SMA protein and mRNA were increased than that in control group respectively. ROCK-I mRNA expression correlated with α-SMA, r=0.718, P<0.05. With the development of liver fibrosis, the images of fluorescence were inhanced.Conclusions With the development of liver fibrosis, both protein and mRNA of ROCK-I were increased.
    Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) S Gene-specific Antisense Locked Nucleic Acid(LNA) Significantly Inhibits HBV Replication in vitro
    Yi-bin DENG; Liang ZHANG; Yan-fei WANG
    2010, 30(4):  360-363. 
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    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects of hepatitis B virus(HBV) S gene-specific antisense locked nucleic acid(LNA) on HBV replication and expression in HepG22.2.15 cells ,and screen the effective short sequence of LNA. Methods Four different lengths of short sequence of antisense locked nucleic acid which were complementary to the initiator of HBV S gene were designed, synthesized and transfected by cationic liposomes into HepG22.2.15 cells. The HBsAg and HBV DNA of supernatant was tested by enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay(ELISA) and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR(FQ-PCR) at 24 ,48 and 72th hour after treatment respectively. LNA's toxicity on cell was evaluated by MTT method. Results Four different lengths of short sequence of LNA could inhibit the expression of HBsAg and the replication of HBV DNA with the inhibition rates of 46.58%,54.38%,72.43%,69.92% and 27.09%,28.77%,34.71%,32.68% respectively after 72 hours. There's no obvious toxicity on cell. Conclusion Antisense LNA that targeted at HBV S gene has strong inhibition on HBV in vitro, and the optimal length of LNA sequence might be in the range of 15 basic group to 25 basic group.It has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of patients infected with HBV.
    Comparison between candida utilis uricase and bacillus fastidious uricase
    Wen-ming WU; Rui-xian DUAN
    2010, 30(4):  364-368. 
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    Objective To discuss the character of candida utilis uricase and bacillus fastidious intracellular uricase. Methods The new strains were recovered and cultivated to prepare the uricase. Then the uricase was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation precipitation、DEAE-cellulose 52 chromatography and preparative PAGE. The activity、characterization and subunit constitution were determined with the purified uricase. Results The two uricases were the iso-tetramer. The single peptide chain molecular weight and total molecular weight of candida utilis uricase were 33.0 ku and 134.0 ku individually, the optimum pH was close to 8.8 and more than 50% activity was reserved at pH 7.4, the Michaelis-Menten constant was (32.8±3.1) μmol/L (n=10) and the inhibition constant of xanthine was (4.8±0.2) μmol/L (n=3) for this uricase. For bacillus fastidious intracellular uricase ,its single peptide chain molecular weight and total molecular weight were 35.7 ku and 151.0 ku, the optimum pH exceeded 9.0 and less than 30% activity at pH 7.4 ,the Michaelis-Menten constant and the inhibition constant of xanthine were (204 ± 14)μmol/L (n=8) and (41±7)μmol/L (n=5) individually for it. Conclusion Through the research, a significant theoretical basis was formed for constructing hybrid medicinal uricase to treat diseases associated with hyperuricemia.
    Hepatocyte Growth Factor Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury in Cortical Neurons
    Zhi-xing HU; Ju-min GENG; Dao-ming LINAG; Lan-ou WU; Chun-lan ZHENG; Hai-yun LUO; Jian TAO
    2010, 30(4):  369-373. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on cultured Sprague-Dawley rat cortical neurons injured by hypoxia/reoxygenation. Methods Primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons were isolated from newborn rats. Neurons were pre-incubated with different concentrations (15, 30 and 60 μg/L) of HGF, and then treated with oxygen deprivation for 6 h/normoxic condition for 12 h. The cell viability was detected by MTT. Apoptosis were measured by Hoechst 33258 staining and Flow Cytometer. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and caspase-3 activity were determined by colorimetry. Results Compared with normal group, hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment significantly decreased the cell viability, increased LDH activity and the percentage of apoptotic cells. Pretreatment of HGF for 12 h could remarkably reverse the decrease of cell viability and the increase of apoptosis rate in neurons induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. HGF pre-treatment also attenuated the activity of LDH and caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of HGF could be inhibited by a special PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor, LY294002. Conclusions HGF could at-tenuate rat cortical neuron injury induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The neuroprotective effect of HGF may be related to activating PI3K/Akt pathway, and further suppressing the expression of caspase-3.
    Antioxidative capability decrement in kidney of hypothyroid rats by iodine deficiency
    Jing XU; Yun-fei ZHANG; Ya-zhong ZHANG; Yu-mei PEI; Hui FANG
    2010, 30(4):  374-377. 
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    Objective To observe the antioxidative capability and the mRNA expression of sodium pump α1-subunit in kidney of hypothyroid rats by iodine deficiency and illuminate the pathogenesis of kidney damage. Methods Wistar rats were divided into two groups randomly, that were control group (NT) and hypothyroid group (HT). The two group rats were all fed with low-iodine diet derived from an endemic goiter area and drank deionized water containing different potassium iodide to duplicate hypothyriod animal models. We determined the morphometric parameters of kidney by routine histology method., The contents of malondialdehyde and free radical scavengers (GSH-PX and SOD) in kidney tissue were measured in two groups, as well as the activity of Na+-K+ATPase. The mRNA expression of sodium pump α1 subunit was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Compared with that in the control group, in hypothyroid group ①serum freeT3 、free T4 、total T3 and total T4 were markedly lower . ②mean glomerular area and volum diminished markedly. ③the content of MDA and activity of PGx increased markedly, But the activity of SOD decreased significantly , as well as the one of Na+-K+-ATPase. ④the mRNA expression level of sodium pump α1 subunit was lower. Conclusion In hypothyroid state, the decrease of antioxidative capability of kidney resulted in lipid peroxidative damage, atrophy of kidney and the decreased activity of Na+-K+-ATPase, as well as degression of sodium pump α1 subunit mRNA expression.
    Primary astrocytes bearing mutant SOD1G93A were susceptible to the Oxidative stress
    Wei-song DUAN; Hui BU; Yan-su GUO; Zhong-yao LI; Chun-yan LI
    2010, 30(4):  378-382. 
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    Objective: To study the vulnerability of astrocytes bearing mutant SOD1 to the oxidative stress. Methods: The cytotoxicity of the serum deprived astrocytes was measured by MTT. The level of ROS was analyzed by the fluorescence of DCF by using confocal microscope. The expression of Nrf2, HO1 and NQO1 in the different cells was detected by the Western blot. Results: The level of cellular toxicity was higher in the astrocytes bearing mutant SOD1 exposed to the oxidative stress than the astrocytes bearing wild type SOD1. In the astrocytes bearing mutant SOD1, the expression of Nrf2, HO1 and NQO1 decreased. In the presence of mutant SOD1, an unexpected 44 percent decreased in the level of Nrf2 was detected. This was associated with decreases in multiple downstream phase II detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant enzymes, known as NQO1 and HO1. Furthermore, our results showed that the expression of NQO1 increased 1.5 and 2.5-fold by EGCG at 5 and 10?mol/L. EGCG also elevated the expression of total Nrf2. Confocal microscopy showed that EGCG caused Nrf2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Conclusions: Decrese in Nrf2 expression is the mechanism underlie the vulnerability of astrocytes bearing mutant SOD1 and EGCG strengthened the ability of antioxidation by upregulating the activity of Nrf2.
    Atorvastatin Alleviating Vascular Remodeling of Renal Hypertensive Rat
    Yong-hong CHEN; Song YANG; Jian-zhong ZHOU
    2010, 30(4):  383-388. 
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    Objective To investigate the roles of endothelial lipase(EL) in renal hypertensive vascular remodeling and the effects of atorvastatin intervention. Methods Renal hypertension rat models were constructed through two-kidney-one-clip technique. Twenty-one rats were randomly divided equally into sham operation group (Sham),renal hypertension group(RH),atorvastatin-treated group(ATV).Atorvastatin treatment(30 mg/kg·d) was started four weeks after model construction and lasted 8 consecutive weeks, given through lavage. All rats were evaluated caudal systolic blood pressure(SBP),microscopic changes in vascular structure and ratio of intima media thickness to lumen diameter(MT/LD) of thoracic aorta. The expressions of EL and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB)were assessed with immunohistochemical staining, the expression of EL mRNA with Real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results Compared with Sham group,RH group showed significant increase in SBP、MT/LD and the expressions of EL、EL mRNA and NF-κB, and significant decrease in HDL、TC and LDL levels(P<0.05).As compared with RH group, MT/LD and the expressions of EL、EL mRNA and NF-κB of ATV group were significantly decreased, HDL level significantly increased, TC and LDL levels significantly decreased(P<0.05). Conclusions Atorvastatin was shown to alleviate the development of vascular remodeling in renal hypertensive rats, possibly associated with decreased expression of EL.
    Effect of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene silencing on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of pancreatic β cell line NIT-1
    Mei LIN; Mu-xun ZHANG; Yong-jian LIU; Jian-hua ZHANG; Yi-kai YU; Hong-xia SHUAI
    2010, 30(4):  389-393. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 on the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cell line NIT-1 cell. Methods siRNA plasmid vectors specifically targeting 11β-HSD1 gene were constructed , named as olig886, oligo866 and scrabble control for oligo886, and tansfected into NIT-1 cells. The expression of 11β-HSD1 was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Oligo886 vector was transfected into the NIT-1 cells in 25mmol/L glucose concentrations medium .The insulin secretion level was measured in GSIS test. Results After treatment with 11β-HSD1 siRNA, the mRNA levels of 11β-HSD1 in NIT-1 cell were decreased by (78.1±2.9)% and (51.7±2.7)% in olig886 and oligo866 group. The protein of 11β-HSD1 were decreased by(82.2±2.1) % and (56.5±2.0)%. After transfected by olig886 vector, the insulin secretion increased in NIT-1 cell in 25mmol/L glucose concentration medium, contrasting with control group(P<0.01). Conclusion 11β-HSD1 gene silencing could improve GSIS in NIT-1 cell in . These suggested the 11β-HSD1 regulate local glucocorticoid metabolism in pancreatic islet, therefore, affect the function of insulin secretion.
    Effects of embryonic neural stem cells on trauma of red nucleus neurons of the rats with spinal cord injury after transplantion
    Ling-sheng KONG; Dong-li NIE; Jun-chen ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Hua XU
    2010, 30(4):  394-397. 
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    Objective To study effects of embryonic neural stem cells on trauma of red nucleus neurons of the rats with spinal cord injury after transplantion. Methods NSCs in logarithmic phage were labeled with Brdu,a Sprague Dawley rat mode of spinal cord injury(SCI) was induced with electrocircuit control spinal cord injuring device. 30 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group,SCI group, NSC group. The NSCs were transplanted into the injured site three days after SCI. Then NSCs labeled with Brdu were detected by immunohistochemisty, rubrospinal tract (RST) neurons were labeled by retrograde transport of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from the lesion site, which were taken by damaged axons and remained in the neurons, then the labeled red nucleus (RN) neurons were counted. Hind limb function of experimental rats was evaluated by a blinder observer using BBB open field locomotion rating score. Results NSCs can be detected in the spinal cord after transplantation. the number of RST neurons labeled by HRP in NSC group was more than that in SCI group (P<0.01), the BBB score of NSC group were higher than SCI group (P<0.01).Conclusions The transplanted NSCs can survive in the injured site of spinal cord and protect RN, then promote more remarkably functional recovery after SCI.
    Comparative genomic hybridization technique detectes the chromosomal aberration in renal carcinoma
    Jian WANG; Ren-fang XU; Qing-feng SONG
    2010, 30(4):  398-400. 
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    Objective To detecte the chromosomal aberration in the tissue cells of renal carcinoma and to evaluate the relationship between the chromosomal aberration and development of renal carcinoma. Methods CGH technology was used to analyze the global genomic aberration in the fresh cancer tissue cells of 12 patients with renal carcinoma .Results all of 12 cases deceted by CGH showed chromosomal aberrations.The common extension regions of renal carcinoma were 1p、4p、5q、7p、9p and 16p.The common deletion regions of renal carcinoma were 3q、4q、6q、9q、14q and 18q.Conclusion The hereditary material of renal carcinoma is unbalanced.The extension and/or deletion of chromosome are the base of the occurrence of renal carcinoma.
    Palmitate induces cell apoptosis in insulinoma MIN6 cell
    Wei WANG; Cui-ping CAO; Ying CHEN; Dan ZHANG; Ling-ling HAN; Guo-liang LIU
    2010, 30(4):  401-405. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of protein kinase B and its phosphorylation on apoptosis of MIN6 induced by palmitate. Methods Incubated with different levels of palmitate concentration (0~0.5mmol/L), MIN6 cells were cultured in high glucose DMEM with or without LY294002; the apoptosis of MIN6 cells was detected and quantified with TUNEL technology. Then we inspected the cell ultrastructure under an electron microscope and determined the expression of protein kinase B and its phosphorylation p-PKB (ser473) by Western blotting, followed by an RT-PCR detection of BAX and BCL-2 expression. Results Apoptosis of MIN6 cells were induced by palmitate in a concentration-dependent correlation and enhanced by ly294002. Palmitate also inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinase B on ser473. Finally, we detected a downregulation of BCL-2 mRNA expression and upregulation of BAX mRNA expression under palmitate-incubated state. Conclusion Palmitate may induce apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells through inhibiting activation of PKB phosphorylation in diabetes.
    Clone and identification of the core promoter of human TSLC1 gene
    Jing GAO; Lin SHEN; Shu-hong MING
    2010, 30(4):  406-410. 
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    Objective To clone and identify the core promoter of human TSLC1 used for carrying out the study of transcription regulatory mechanism. Methods A series of different fragments located in the upstream of translation start site of TSLC1 were amplified from human genomic DNA by PCR, and then constructed into pGL3-Basic luciferase reporter vector. The relative activities of different fragments in A549 and NCI-H446 cells were detected by dual-luciferase assay after transient transfection, and then the core promoter of TSLC1 was identified. Results Among the different constructs, the fragment of -68~-329bp located in the upstream of ATG showed the strong activity both in A549 cells and NCI-H446 cells, which played an important role in the transcription of TSLC1. Conclusion The fragment of -68~-329bp located in the upstream of translation start site of TSLC1 may be the core promoter region.
    The changes of body composition in patients with acromegaly after pituitary adenoma surgery
    Qin-yong WU; Hui-juan ZHU; Feng GU; Hui PAN; Jie-ying DENG; Yi-fan SHI
    2010, 30(4):  411-414. 
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    Objective To assess the changes of body composition with acromegaly before and after pituitary adenoma surgery, and the relationship between these changes and serum growth hormone(GH), insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1). Methods Serum GH with OGTT, IGF-1 levels, BMI, Fat%, FFM and total body water(TBW) in patients were measured in activity and relieved period of the disease. Results The BMI and FFM with active acromegalic males were significantly higher, but Fat% was significantly lower than those of healthy males . After the disease was relieved by surgery, serum GH, IGF-1 concentrations of patients were reduced significantly to normal level, but their BMI were still significantly higher, the Fat% increased and the FFM decreased was correlated with serum nadin GH and IGF-1 levels. The BMI and FFM with active acromegalic females were significantly higher than healthy females, but the Fat% had not significant change after surgery, and FFM decreased was correlated with reduced serum GH level. The Fat% did not change significantly. Conclusions There were significantly changes of body composition with acromagely before and after treatment, and were relationship between these changes and serum GH, IGF-1 levels
    CT findings in Adrenal Ganglioneuroma
    Dan HE; Ming-wei QIN
    2010, 30(4):  415-418. 
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    Objective To research the features and diagnostic values of CT for adrenal ganglioneuroma. Methods CT examinations were performed in 16 cases ,7 with plain scan , 9 with both plain and enhanced scan. All cases were confirmed by pathology. Results 2 cases showed solid-cystic mass,14 were solid mass , and 5 accompanied with calcification. The average CT value was from 20 to 40 HU.In the 9 cases with enhanced scan,5 slightly enhanced on delayed phase and no enhancement was seen in the others. Conclusion The adrenal ganglioneuroma has some characteristic CT appearance and CT scanning plays an important role in diagnosis of adrenal ganglioneuroma.
    Effect of oxidized HDL on ABCA1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    Peng LIU; Gong-xin LI; Ying-feng LIU; Fei MIAO; Lin XU; Huan ZHAO; Zi-wei ZHANG
    2010, 30(4):  419-420. 
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    5-Aza-2'- deoxycytidine induces RUNX3 expression of HepG2 and increase drug sensitivity
    Xue-yan ZHANG; Chun-xia PU; Xu ZHANG
    2010, 30(4):  421-423. 
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    Expression of ABCE1 gene in human mesangial cells
    Hong-li ZHOU; Rui-xia JIN; Ya-rong HAN; Bo HUANG
    2010, 30(4):  424-425. 
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    Research Progress Of Related Genes In Xinjiang Kazakh's Esophageal Cancer
    Hui GUO; Jian-bing DING; Wei SUN; Tong ZHANG
    2010, 30(4):  428-430. 
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    Kazakh of Xinjiang is a high incidence of esophageal cancer in the nation, genetic research are more and more attention in recent years. Pass the study on biological activity such as P53, Rb at the esophageal cancer developing process.Whether there are differences in the national heredity susceptivity aspect, provides the help for the tumor treatment and the research.
    Role of centrosome in tumorigenesis and oncotherapy
    Li XUE; Yu-jie BAI
    2010, 30(4):  431-433. 
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    The centrosome plays a crucial role in the maintaining of cell conformation, mitosis and chromosome segregation. It responds to the DNA damage and keeps the genome stability via cross-talking with the intranuclear DNA damage repair system. The tumor cells can be induced to apoptosis by inhibit the duplication of centrosome. So the inhibitors of centrosomal proteins will be new potent anti-tumor strategy.
    Relation between P2 purinoceptor subtypes and
    Yong-li NIE; Yu-qin ZHANG
    2010, 30(4):  434-436. 
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    In this article we review the relation between P2 purinoceptor subtypes and coronary heart disease (CHD). P2Y1、P2Y2、P2Y11 and P2X7 receptors relate to inflammatory reaction in atherosclerosis plaque. P2X3 receptor plays an important role in anginal nocuity response. P2X4 receptor involve in vascular remodeling and enhancement of myocardial contractility in non-infarct zone. P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors involve in restenosis. A polymorphism in P2Y11 receptors adds the risk of myocardial infarction. P2Y1、P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors participate to thrombotic formation. The specific agonist and antagonist of P2 purinoceptor subtypes could be potential targets for new drugs of CHD.
    Research about the relationship between γH2AX, ATM and DNA damage by endogenous oxidants
    Jin ZHAO; Zhong GUO; Jian-xiu MA
    2010, 30(4):  437-441. 
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    This review describes the observations that constitutive ATM activation (CAA) and H2AX phosphorylation (CHP) take place caused by endogenous oxidants in normal cells as well in tumor cell lines. This review also presents the findings on differences in CAA and CHP on the effects of several agents and growth conditions.