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Table of Content

    05 August 2020, Volume 40 Issue 8
    Original Articles
    Effect analysis of improving human sperm quality by a novel distance-temperature-combined selection approach
    RAO Jin-peng, QIU Feng, CAI Yi-ting, WEI Kai, JIN Min, JIN Fan
    2020, 40(8):  1025-1030. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of improving human sperm quality by novel selection approach based on progressive motility and thermotaxis. Methods The capacitated spermatozoa were placed on one end of strip droplets with different length (2, 5, 8 cm) and different temperature conditions(32 ℃, 37 ℃ or 32 ℃~37 ℃) after density gradient centrifugation. The spermatozoa were collected from the other end of the droplets after swimming for 60 min. The concentration, motility rate, normal morphology rate and DNA fragment rate of sperm were compared among different distance-temperature-combined selection conditions. Results Under the same tempera-ture condition, the spermatozoa selected by long distance (5, 8 cm) had higher rate of normal morphology picture than the initial one (P<0.05).With the increase of distance, the sperm motility rate increased slightly, while the concentration of sperm decreased significantly (P<0.01).The sperm concentration in temperature gradient(32 ℃~37 ℃) was higher than that in no-gradient control groups (32 ℃ and 37 ℃,P<0.01), while the sperm DNA fragment rate was lower (P<0.05). Conclusions Through long distance swimming, a tremendous amount of sperm with abnormal morphology were eliminated, but long distance selection would also lead to a sharp drop in sperm concentration. The temperature gradients enrich more sperm with better DNA integrity and normal thermotaxis. Under the condition of 5 cm, 32 ℃~37 ℃, the effect of sperm selection is better, which may reduce the risk of genetic defective sperm combining with oocytes during IVF.
    Influences on wound healing in diabetic mice by blood transfusion treated with improved blood preservation solution
    WEI Han-wei, ZHU Na-na, WANG Huan, LIU Xiao-qian, DUAN Li-shuang, ZHOU Xun, GUO Jian-rong
    2020, 40(8):  1031-1036. 
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    Objective To study whether blood transfusion with improved blood preservation solution can improve wound healing in diabetic mice, and to investigate its possible mechanism. Methods Kunming mice were used to establish diabetic mice model. They were randomly divided into blood donation group and the experimental group. The blood was placed in sterile centrifugal tube containing anticoagulant and then preserved for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days with improved and standard blood preservation solutions, respectively. The oxygen carrying capacity and deformability of erythrocytes in each preservation period were tested, then the improved and standard autologous blood were retransfused with 7 days of preservation. The experimental group was randomly divided into the standard group and the improved group with 6 mice in each group.The wound healing of two groups of mice was observed on 0, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days, and the mice were killed on 14 days. The degree of fibrosis was analyzed by means of HE, Masson staining and immunohistochemistry methods. Phosphorylation of PI3K,AKT,MEK and ERK were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Compared with the standard group, the improvement group exhibited decreased fHb content, and increased P50 oxygen pressure, blood pH, 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate(2, 3-DPG) and red blood cell deformability(RCD)(P<0.05).HE staining results revealed that compared with the standard group, the area of granular tissue on the skin and the vascular area were increased on the 14th day after operation in the improvement group. Masson staining revealed that, the expression of collagen fibers and the degree of fibrosis in the mice skin of the improvement group were elevated at 14 days after the operation, when compared with the standard group. Immunohistochemistry results indicated that in comparison to standard group, levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, and EGF in skin tissues of the improvement group increased (P<0.05). The protein levels of PI3K, AKT, MEK,ERK and its phosphorylation increased significantly in the improvement group(P<0.05). Conclusions Red blood cell treated with improved blood preservation solution may promote wound healing in diabetic mice by activating HIF-1α pathway.
    Effect of continuous intravenous injection of different doses of dexmedetomidine on the recovery period of general anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroid surgery
    WU Yan, CHEN Yang, LYU Rui, ZHANG Ming, LU Kai-zhi, SHEN Jiang-hua
    2020, 40(8):  1037-1040. 
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    Objective To analyze the effect of continuous intravenous injection of different doses on dexmedetomidine on the recovery period of general anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Methods A total of 120 patients with thyroidectomy admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University from November 2017 to November 2019 were randomly divided into a control group (60 patients) with continuous intravenous injection of 0.8 μg/kg dexmedetomidine. The observation group (60 patients) were given 0.4 μg/kg dexmedetomidine. The SBP, DBP, HR, Ramsay, VAS score, arousal index and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups at different time periods. Results The scores of SBP, DBP, HR and VAS, the incidence of nausea, vomiting, laryngospasm and choking cough in the observation group were not different from those in the control group at different time periods. The Ramsay scores of the observation group at different time periods were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05). The time of eye opening, extubation and directional force recovery in the observation group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of bradycardia in the observation group was 1.67%, which was significantly lower than that in the control group(6.68%) (P<0.05). Conclusions 0.4 and 0.8 μg/kg dexmedetomidine can maintain hemodynamic stability in the recovery period of general anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroid surgery, but 0.8 μg/kg has more sedative effect and higher incidence of bradycardia, so it is recommended to use 0.4 μg/kg dexmedetomidine.
    Regulation of invasion and migration of cell line Huh7 by lncRNA TINCR via miR-7
    TIAN Xiao-xing, QIN Li-pin, LI Qian
    2020, 40(8):  1041-1046. 
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    Objective To study the mechanism of long non-coding RNA(lncRNA)TINCR to regulate the invasion and migration of Huh7 cells through miR-7. Methods The expression of TINCR was detected by real time PCR. TINCR shRNA was transfected and proliferation of Huh7 cells was determined by CCK-8; Invasion and migration were measured by Transwell chamber; The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was detected by Western blot. Bioinformatics software predicted target relationship between TINCR and miR-7 and confirmed by luciferase report system. In Huh7 cells, miR-7 inhibitor and TINCR shRNA were co-transfected, the cell proliferation, migration and invasion were measured by the above methods. Results The expression level of TINCR in hepatoma cells was significantly higher than that in normal hepatocytes(P<0.05). After transfection of TINCR shRNA, the level of TINCR decreased in Huh7 cells(P<0.05), cell proliferation, migration and invasion all significantly decreased(P<0.05), MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels were also decreased(P<0.05). TINCR targeted negative regulation of miR-7 expression. miR-7 inhibitor can improve the proliferation, migration, invasion and the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein of hepatoma cells after down regulating TINCR(P<0.05). Conclusions Down regulation of TINCR may inhibit the invasion and migration of Huh7 cells through targeting at miR-7 expression.
    Analysis of the expression correlation trithorax group protein core components DPY30 and ASH2L
    WEN Chang, LI Liang, SHU Peng-cheng, QIANG Bo-qin, PENG Xiao-zhong
    2020, 40(8):  1047-1052. 
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    Objective To investigate the relevance of the expression of DPY30 and ASH2L, two core members of trithorax group proteins (TrxG). Methods Northern blot was used to detect the expression of ASH2L and DPY30 in various human tissues and the trend of ASH2L and DPY30 expression during the differentiation of human chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) cells induced by PMA. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to detect the expression of protein and RNA of TrxG core components in the cerebral cortex of ASH2L conditional knockout mouse; IGV software was used to visually analyze the distribution of ASH2L and H3K4me3 on ASH2L and DPY30 gene chromatin in ChIP-seq results of mouse cerebral cortex. Results The expression of DPY30 and ASH2L similar in various tissues of the human body; The expression of DPY30 and ASH2L was both gradually decreasedPMA-induced differ- entiation of K562 cells; DPY30 protein level decreased in the cerebral cortex of ASH2L-cKO mouse while the expression change of DNA level of DPY30 has no statistically significant. Conclusions DPY30 has a correlation with ASH2L expression and ASH2L may regulate the protein expression level of DPY30.
    Effect of arachidonic acid metabolism gene on cyclooxygenase P450 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma of mice
    NI An-ni, LIANG Qing-yang, YAO Hong-fei, LI Gen-liang, TANG Yu-lian
    2020, 40(8):  1053-1058. 
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    Objective To investigate the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism-related endoplasmic reticulum genes in the development of HCC in a mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) microenvironment. Methods The function of differentially expressed endoplasmic reticulum membrane genes (ADEGs) involved in AA metabolism was analyzed by RNA-seq and bioinformatics using AA metabolism-related genes as the background, tumor tissues and paracancer tissues of mice were collect as the sample materials, and the expression of ADEGs was verified by RT-qPCR. Results There was a total of 35 ADEGs in HCC (gene expression in per million per thousand transcripts in sequencing base sequencing contained in the base sequence fragment number (FPKM) ≥2 or ≤0.5, and false positive rate (FDR) was ≤0.05), they were involved in the two biological applications (BPs), five cellcomponents (CCs), nine molecular functions(MFs), a protein loci sequence characteristics (US) and six(KPs) signal channel. The function of these genes was mainly focused on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, especially the effect of iron ion binding(IIB)on the epoxygenase P450 pathway (EPP). Further analysis revealed that ADEGs in IIB had extensive single nucleotide site variation (SNV) and insertion and deletion (INDEL) in the HCC microenvironment, and its occurrence frequency was positively correlated with gene expression (r=0.83). Conclusions ADEGs in HCC microenvironment may cause EPP abnormalities mainly through IIB in the endoplasmic reticulum, thus playing an important role in the development and progression of HCC, SNV and INDEL may be important ways to regulate gene expression.
    Expression of small heat shock protein family and autophagy related proteins in the hippocampus of db/db mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes
    LI Jin-feng, LI Xiao-cheng, YIN Xiao-hong, MA Wei-guo, LI Ya
    2020, 40(8):  1059-1063. 
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    Objective To study the changes of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and autophagy-related proteins in hippocampus of spontaneous type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Methods The db/m mice were used as control group, while diabetic db/db mice were used as model group, 10 mice in each group. The body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), the expression of small and medium heat shock protein family and autophagy-related genes in hippocampus were detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of HSPB8, BAG3, LC3 and P62 was detected by Western blot. Results 1) The body weight and fasting blood sugar of db/db mice were significantly higher than those of db/m mice(P<0.01). 2)Small heat shock protein family B [small] member 1-10 (HSPB1-10) gene was expressed in the hippocampus of mice. The expression of HSPB1, HSPB3, HSPB5, HSPB6 and HSPB8 in db/db group was significantly lower than that in db/m group(P<0.05); the expression of HSPB2, HSPB9 and HSPB10 in db/db group was higher than that in db/m group(P<0.05); the expression of LC3 in db/db mice was higher than that in db/m group(P<0.01), whereas the expression of P62 was lower than that of db/m(P<0.01). 3)The expression of HSPB8, BAG3 and LC3-Ⅱ increased in db/db group(P<0.01), but the expression of P62 decreased(P<0.05). Conclusions All sHSPs are expressed in the hippocampus of mice, but the expression profile is different. The expression of HSPB8 protein is increased and autophagy is activated in the hippocampus of 8-week-old diabetic mice.
    Ginsenoside Rb1 alleviates oxidative damage of HUVECs
    SONG Zhi-ming, YU Shu-jie, JIAO Jie, LI Ping-ping, LI Hong-mei, QIAN Xiao-xian
    2020, 40(8):  1064-1067. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 (gRb1) on oxidative damage of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) resulted from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods HUVECs were divided into control group, H2O2 group and gRb1 group. MTT assay was used to determine cell survival; annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was used to detect cell apoptosis; SOD1 activity was measured with xanthine oxidase method; MDA concentration was detected by thibatituric acid assay; protein expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was analysed by Western blot. Results Compared with control group, the apoptosis rate, MDA production and the protein level of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 significantly increased, but the cell viability and SOD1 activity decreased. Compared with H2O2 group, gRb1 reversed the parameters mentioned above. Conclusions gRb1 can alleviate oxidative damage of HUVECs by reducing cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and protein expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1.
    miR-205-5p inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cell lines
    YANG Yi-li, HE Xue-yuan, PAN Xin-min, MA Jian-xun
    2020, 40(8):  1068-1075. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of miR-205-5p on the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells by targeting at RAS oncogene family (RAP2B). Methods RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of miR-205-5p and RAP2B in gastric cancer cell lines AGS, MGC803, MKN-28, SGC-7901 and normal gastric mucosal cell line GES-1. Over expressing miR-205-5p, inhibition of RAP2B, cell viability was detected by MTT assay; cell migration and invasion ability were detected by Transwell method; The expression of RAP2B, cyclin D1, MMP-2, MMP-9 GSK-3β and β-catenin proteins were detected by Western blot. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay was used to verify the targeting of miR-205-5p to RAP2B. Results Compared with normal gastric mucosal cells, the expression of miR-205-5p was significantly decreased in four gastric cancer cell lines, and the expression of RAP2B was significantly increased (P<0.05). The over-expression of miR-205-5p or inhibition of RAP2B inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of AGS cells and inhibited the expression of cyclin D1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins (P<0.05). miR-205-5pnegatively regulated the expression of RAP2B. Conclusions miR-205-5p inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro by targeting at RAP2B.
    TXNIP reduces pro-proliferation effect of GLP-1 on mouse islet β cells
    ZHANG Wen-ting, WANG Jin, YUE Ji-ping, JIN Wen-wen, ZHANG Zhi-nan, JIAO Xiang-ying
    2020, 40(8):  1076-1082. 
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    Objective To observe the role of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in the proliferation of islet β cells promoted by Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Methods The mice were divided into db/m group and db/db group; TXNIP over-expression (Ad-TXNIP-GFP) MIN6 cells were constructed by stably transfected with lentivirus, which were divided into control group, Ad-GFP group and Ad-TXNIP-GFP group. Western blot was used to detect the expression of TXNIP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in pancreatic tissues of db/m and db/db mice. The morphology of the islets, the number of β cells, GLP-1R and Ki67 were observed by HE and immunohistochemistry method. The expression of GLP-1 in serum was detected by ELISA. The level of GLP-1R protein in pancreatic tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Islet structure was destructed, the number of β cells and PCNA expression decreased in pancreatic tissue of db/db mice (P<0.05). The level of GLP-1 in serum reduced (P<0.05), and the level of GLP-1 receptor in pancreatic tissue and islet was reduced (P<0.05). The expression of TXNIP in pancreatic tissues of db/db mice increased (P<0.05). The TXNIP overexpression cell model was successfully constructed (P<0.05), and the level of GLP-1 receptor decreased in islet β cells (P<0.05). The overexpression of TXNIP reduced the proliferative effect of islet β cells to GLP-1 (P<0.05). Conclusions TXNIP acts on the GLP-1 receptor to reduce the proliferation of islet β cells promoted by GLP-1.
    Astragalus polysaccharide inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of multiple myeloma cell line U266
    LI Qing-ping, LIU Hui-qun, CAI E
    2020, 40(8):  1083-1089. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of multiple myeloma (MM) cell line U266 and potential mechanisms. Methods U266 cells were incubated with APS at different concentrations (6, 8 and 10 mg/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h, or 8 mg/mL treated APS on U266 cells transfected with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression plasmid (pcDNA3.1-TRAF6) for 48 h.The proliferation of U266 cells was detected by CCK-8 method. Apoptosis of U266 cells was detected by flow cytometry. Migration and invasion of U266 cells were detected by Transwell. The level of cyclin D1, p21, Bax, Bcl-2, E-cadherin, MMP-2 and TRAF6 protein expression was detected by Western blot. Results Compared with the control, the inhibition rate, apoptosis rate, migration and invasion number of U266 cells in APS group were significantly increased(P<0.05), and the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, MMP-2 and TRAF6 was significantly decreased(P<0.05), and the expression of p21, Bax and E-cadherin was significantly elevated(P<0.05). Compared with the APS+pcDNA3.1 group, the inhibition rate, apoptosis rate, migration and invasion number of U266 cells in APS+pcDNA3.1-TRAF6 group were significantly decreased(P<0.05), and the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, MMP-2 and TRAF6 was significant elevated(P<0.05). The expression of p21, Bax and E-cadherin was significantly inhibited(P<0.05). Conclusions APS may inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of U266 cells through down-regulating the expression of TRAF6 protein, and promote the apoptosis of U266 cells.
    miR-1908 inhibits apoptosis of high glucose-induced human retinal vascular endothelial cell line HRECs
    ZHOU Li-ping, MAO Xiao-chun, LI Qin
    2020, 40(8):  1090-1095. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of miR-1908 on apoptosis of human retinal vascular endothelial cells (HRECs) induced by high glucose concentration and its molecular mechanism. Methods HRECs cells were cultured and divided into normal group and high glucose group. The expression of miR-1908 was detected by RT-qPCR. miR-1908 mimics or small interfering RNA of ILK was transfected into HRECs cells, the expression miR-1908 and ILK protein was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot in order to detect the transfection efficiency, respectively. Then high concentration of glucose was used to interfere with HRECs with miR-1908 over-expressed or ILK expression inhibited. Apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression was detected by Western blot. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay validated the relationship between miR-1908 and ILK. Results Compared with the control group, the expression level of miR-1908 in HRECs of high glucose group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). miR-1908 over-expressed of or ILK expression decreased the apoptosis rate of HRECs induced by high concentration of glucose (P<0.05), up-regulated Bcl-2 protein expression (P<0.05), and down-regulated Bax protein expression (P<0.05). miR-1908 negatively regulated ILK expression, and over-expression of ILK partially reversed the effect of miR-1908 on apoptosis rate, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression in HRECs. Conclusions miR-1908 up-regulates the expression of Bcl-2 protein and down-regulates the expression of Bax protein to inhibit the apoptosis of HRECs via negatively regulating ILK expression.
    Study on the differences in N-glycosylation of disease-specific immune and inflammatory proteins between lung cancer and lung benign disease
    DU Yu-ying, WANG Yue, LAI Zhi-zhen, TIAN Zhi-xin, LI Zhi-li
    2020, 40(8):  1096-1102. 
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    Objective To define the differences in N-glycosylation of disease-specific immune and inflammatory proteins between lung cancer and benign lung disease. Methods A group of disease-specific serum immunoin-flammation-related protein complexes (IIRPCs) were isolated from the sera of two patients with lung adenocarcinoma and chronic pneumonia, by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE). The intact glycopeptides were obtained by in-gel trypsin digestion and then enriched by graphite phase carbon nitride. The glycopeptides were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) coupled with GPSeeker database software. Results Totally 89 glycopeptides from 12 proteins were identified, 21 of which only existed in benign lung disease and 38 only be found in lung cancer samples. Ten of the 63 unique glycoforms from the 89 glycopeptides only existed in benign lung disease and only 21 were found in lung cancer. Conclusions The specific differences in N-glycosylation of disease-specific immune and inflammatory proteins are found between benign lung disease and lung cancer. These findings indicate that N-glycosylation may function as potential biomarker applied in diagnosis and prognosis of chronic diseases as well as a novel sight to molecular mechanism of chronic diseases.
    Mini Reviews
    Application of new orally anticoagulants in patients with chronic kidney disease
    WANG Xiu-heng, WU Jie, HU Heng-jing
    2020, 40(8):  1103-1108. 
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    Novel oral anticoagulants (NOVACs) as blood coagulation factor inhibitors have exhibited pivotal role in thromboembolic event and ischemic cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, it's application in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients of stage 3-5 remains controversial. This paper reviewed currently recommended usage of NOACs in CKD patients of stage 3-5 in the evaluation of anticoagulation related nephropathy, clinical monitoring and assessment of NOACs.
    Function of gut microbiota and “gut-lung” axis in sepsis
    SHAO Rui-fei, YANG Yan, ZHENG Zhi-rong, ZHAO Shi-min, CHEN Guo-bing
    2020, 40(8):  1109-1112. 
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    Gut microbiota is a large number of microorganisms that colonized in human intestinal tract. The “gut lung” axis is a two-way axis connecting the intestine and the lung. Gut microbiota and “gut lung” axis are involved in the occurrence and development of sepsis. When sepsis occurs, the gut mucosal barrier is damaged, the gut microbiota is imbalance, and bacterial translocation occurs. The lung is the first organ to be effected, and the pulmonary infection may lead to intestinal dysfunction.
    New advances in the activation mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome and its inhibitors
    ZHOU Yong-ting, YE Cai-ying, ZHU Lei
    2020, 40(8):  1113-1118. 
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    NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular multi-protein complex that can be activated by a variety of pathogens and endogenous pathogenic molecules and then leads to the release of cytokines, including interleukin-1β(IL-1β), IL-18 and causes, pyroptosis. It plays an important role in innate immunity. However, the over activation may lead chronic inflammation, which is closely related to the pathogenesis and development of numerous major diseases. Therefore, further investigation on the activation mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome is of great significance for the development of its specific inhibitors and the treatment of NLRP3-related diseases.
    Research progress of nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation in the genesis and development of tumor
    ZHOU Jie, HUANG Ying-hui
    2020, 40(8):  1119-1123. 
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    Nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation is an important cause of abnormal gene localization, which occurs at various stages of tumor development and is closely related to tumor treatment and drug resistance. In this paper, the basic structure, biological function and regulatory mechanism of nuclear translocation are described, and the role of nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation in the genesis and development of tumors, as well as the progress in tumor therapy and drug resistance are further reviewed, in order to provide theoretical basis for exploring novel anti-tumor strategies.
    Advances of research in microRNA regulating reactive oxygen species in glioma
    LI Jing, CUI Hong-wei, YANG Ling
    2020, 40(8):  1124-1129. 
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    The microRNA is a kind of small non-coding RNA, which can cause target mRNA degradation or translation inhibition. Reactive oxygen species(ROS)represent the main active product of redox. It has been reported that ROS are involved in different signaling pathways to keep cell stability. The imbalance of ROS in cell is closely related to tumorigenesis. In the progress of occurrence and development of human glioma, microRNAs and ROS can affect cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and resistance to chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy. Therefore, to understand the mechanism of miRNA on ROS may lead to a potential strategy for glioma treatment.
    Advances in lung cancer organoid research
    JIA Zi-qi, WANG Yan-yu, WANG Ya-dong, BING Zhong-xing, LIANG Nai-xin, LI Shan-qing
    2020, 40(8):  1130-1134. 
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    Lung cancer has high morbidity and mortality rate. Thus, an efficient pre-clinical model that can serve the translational study is urgently needed. The application of organoid should be compared to existing in vitro and in vivo models under different circumstances. The development of organoids of lung cancer has undergone three stages as tissue-specific stem cell differentiation, mixed cell manipulation, and 2-dimensional cultivation. Now, lung cancer organoid can be developed from samples harvested through surgery, biopsy, and circulating tumor cells, with a wide range of application. This review aims to summarize the historical development and application of lung cancer organoids.
    Advances in the role of intestinal ion channels in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome
    LAN Fei, LIU Tai-yang, YANG Jie
    2020, 40(8):  1135-1139. 
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    Ion channels are widely present in mucous membranes of the digestive tract, their abnormal expression and(or) function are important pathogenic mechanisms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The plasma channels of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) are involved in IBS gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity to varying degrees. They are key pathophysiological and therapeutic targets for regulating gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity.
    Medical Education
    An overview of narrative medicine education and its application in clinical teaching of obstetrics and gynecology
    CHEN Juan, ZHU Lan
    2020, 40(8):  1140-1143. 
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    Narrative medicine is a medical practice with narrative skills. Narrative medicine education is to train and cultivate the narrative ability of medical students, such as reflection and empathy, through specific training methods. There are mainly two methods: close reading of literary works and narrative reflective writing (parallel medical record writing). In western countries, the narrative medicine has been widely valued by medical colleges and universities, but it just began in China. The teaching of obstetrics and gynecology should pay more attention to the humanistic care for women, and the narrative medical education mode suitable for national conditions and social culture in China is worth trying and promoting.
    Construction and performance of three-dimensional model workshop in medical morphological center from the perspective of new medical science
    ZHAO Wen-jing, LUO Bin, ZHANG Qing-mei, ZHAO Ting, SU Yu, CHEN Wei-ping
    2020, 40(8):  1144-1148. 
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    With the development of the new medical science, the traditional traditional education mode of morphology is facing to weakness and challenges. Under the guidance of learning by doing, we constructed a 3D model workshop as an innovative teaching platform. The questionnaire investigation showed that students were approved by the learning mode of 3D model workshop, which was helpful to improve students capacity building in terms of skill and exploration.
    Knowledge, attitudes, practice and health education needs related to hepatitis B among undergraduates in Beijing
    SHI Yue, LIU Sheng-lan, WANG Xue-zhu, YU Si, XU Hai-feng, LIU Wei, ZHENG Yong-chang
    2020, 40(8):  1149-1153. 
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    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, practice and health education needs related to hepatitis B among undergraduates in Beijing, and to provide a scientific basis for health education in colleges and universities. Methods A questionnaire survey of 524 undergraduates in Beijing was conducted by random cluster sampling method. The questionnaire items cover demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practice and the need for health education, especially that via new media. Results The awareness rate of knowledge of hepatitis B was 71.3%; the average score was 9.27±2.78; the awareness rate for transmission of hepatitis B was only 67.2%; most undergraduates went to eligible hospitals for dental extractions and surgery never visit to ineligible places for ear piercing or tattoo, but 46.6% of them occasionally shared toothbrushes and razors with others; the top three preferred information channels for health education were school education (80.3%), radio/TV/film/video (65.6%) and clinical education (50.6%); the most popular publicity materials were the ones with illustrations such as posters, folding and comics (54.0%); the most selected way of internet searching was to view the medical information websites (62.6%); the most favorite form of internet publicity is text plus pictures (68.5%). Conclusions There is still a lack of essential knowledge about hepatitis B among undergraduates in Beijing. In the future, health education using new media as an information channel should be underlined in colleges and universities.
    A survey about clinical rotation in department of dermatology and demands for case database of dermatology on eight-year medical students at Peking Union Medical College
    WU Chao, WANG Hai-meng, LI Li, LI Hong-chun, JIN Hong-zhong
    2020, 40(8):  1154-1156. 
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    Objective To investigate the teaching demands and practical effects of rotation in department of dermatology as well as demands for case database on eight-year medical students at Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). Methods From January 2017 to January 2019,the questionnaire survey was issued to the eight-year medical students of the 2011 to 2014 grade,which investigated the demands of the rotation,the difficulty in learning, the degree of mastery and demands for case database. Results A total of 101 valid questionnaires were received,which showed that the eight-year medical students at PUMC had a strong interest in the diagnosis and treatment of common and uncommon skin diseases as well as medical cosmetology. Autoimmune bullous disease was the most difficult chapter to learn. The eight-year medical students at PUMC had a strong demand for dermatology case database. They hoped to share it electronically. The most interesting content in the database was allergic skin disease. Conclusions The difficulties and weakness in dermatology teaching for eight-year medical students at PUMC and students' demands for dermatology case database are initially clarified,which may support is the improvement of learning outcome in dermatology.
    Application on immersive course of faculty training in standardized training program of emergency residents
    ZHANG Hui, WANG Jiang-shan, CAO Ying, YANG Zhou, ZHU Hua-dong, LIU Ji-hai
    2020, 40(8):  1157-1160. 
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    Objective In order to improve the ability of clinical teachers in standardized training program of emergency residents Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) design and run an immersive course in teacher training program. The study aims to investigate the effects of the training course. Methods Totally 34 trainees who were emergency clinical teachers accepted the immersive course training focus on clinical rounds and bedside teaching skills. The courses included curriculum design procedure,assessment tool,teacher-student interaction skills and bedside teaching methods. Questionnaire of pre-course, post-course immediately, and 3-month post-course were collected among the trainees. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wailis H test and U test were used to assess effects of the training. Results All trainees reported an increase in ability and confidence in teaching skills, especially significant in improving teacher-student interaction skills and significant increase in confidence in bedside teaching(P<0.05). And the effects have been last till 3-month later. Conclusions Immersive teaching method contributes to clinical teachers training. Further progress is expected to develop the trainers training.
    Teaching method for brain anatomy based on the need of residents
    LIU Qi, GUO Jin-zhu, JIA Jian-ping, DOU Wan-chen
    2020, 40(8):  1161-1163. 
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    The difficulty of learning anatomy of central nervous system is not only present in education of undergraduates but also in residents training due to the highly complexity of the human brain. It is a good chance to learn brain anatomy through attending to neurological surgery. However, some structures still can not be seen clearly because of small size and deep location. The brain tissue is soft and fragile and would be damaged if over retract to expose deep structures. The detail anatomy of brain is still too hard to understand by the residents. In order to improve the understanding of brain anatomy, a research group was set up composed of residents, undergraduates, neurosurgeons and faculty to dissect cadavers. The approach is the same as the patients were operated or to be operated on, and the learners can observe the deep brain structures carefully in all directions and discuss with teachers through the dissection procedure. The method is well received by medical students and residents and so we recommend it without hesitation
    Application of electrical sensor in total knee arthroplasty training
    JIANG Ling, LIU Yan-qing, TIAN Hua
    2020, 40(8):  1164-1168. 
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    Objective Soft tissue balancing in knee joint is a key technique for successful operation of total knee arthroplasty(TKA). There is not a widely accepted metric for balance, manual balance has been achieved primarily through tactile feedback and visual cue. That makes difficulties in learners'training. A new electronic sensor can measure the pressure of medial and lateral compartment of knee, and is applied in the skill training of total knee arthroplasty. Methods Five trainee surgeons attended 14 electronic sensor balancing TKA separately, there are 70 cases in total. Trainee surgeons did manual balance, then it was checked by electronic sensor in 0°,45°,90°knee position. All cases were divided into 7 groups according to chronological order. The unbalance cases were recorded in each group and compared statistically. Results For 0°,45°,90°knee position, the first group has 7,6,5 unbalance cases respectively. During the training, the unbalance case number is decreasing, the seventh group has 1,1,2 unbalance cases at last. There is significant difference between the first and the seventh group for 0°,45°. It is demanding for 45°balancing with most unbalance cases. Conclusions Electronic sensor is a new tool for TKA training. It helps the trainee surgeons to master soft tissue balancing technique quickly and effectively.