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Table of Content

    05 February 2020, Volume 40 Issue 2
    Original Articles
    CysLT2 receptor antagonist HAMI3379 inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in mice microglia line BV-2
    GU Sheng-long, LI Ming-xing, YING Miao-fa, FANG San-hua, RAO Yue-feng, ZHAO Rui
    2020, 40(2):  145-150. 
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    Objective To investigate the role and possible mechanism of CysLT2 receptor antagonist HAMI3379 on the inflammatory response of mouse microglia (BV-2) induced by LPS. Methods BV-2 cells were divided into control group, LPS (100 ng/mL) group, HAMI3379 (0.01, 0.1 and 1 μmol/mL) group and LPS+HAMI3379 group. The proliferation of BV-2 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay. The contents of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA assay. Western blot was used to detect the expression of PKCα,IKBα,NF-κB p50 and p65 protein. Results LPS significantly induced the activation of BV-2 cells and promoted proliferation of cells(P<0.05). The secretion of inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α was significantly increased and the secretion of IL-10 was obviously reduced in cell supernatant(P<0.05). The expression of PKCα, IKBα and p65 proteins were significantly up-regulated(P<0.05). The CysLT2 receptor antagonist HAMI3379 was able to reduce these changes. Conclusions The CysLT2 receptor antagonist HAMI3379 may inhibit the activation of BV-2 cells induced by LPS and reduce the inflammatory response, and the possible mechanism is related to the inhibition of PKCα/NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Effect of gender, age and season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level
    WANG Dan-chen, YIN Yi-cong, YU Song-lin, ZHANG Rui-li, GAO Xue-hui, LI Hong-lei, CHENG Xin-qi, QIU Ling
    2020, 40(2):  151-154. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of gender, age and season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25OHD). Methods Clinical data was collected from the laboratory information system at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2014 to October 2018. A total of 34 062 25OHD samples were obtained and analyzed. 25OHD concentrations were measured using a Roche e601 automatic analyzer. Regression analysis was used to explore the effect of gender, age and season on 25OHD level. Results The median serum 25OHD concentration was significantly higher in males than that in females(P<0.001). The median serum 25OHD concentration at the peak level in August was 22.1 ng/mL. Regression analysis revealed that summer had the highest impact on 25OHD (standardization coefficient=0.273). Conclusions Gender and season significantly affected serum 25OHD levels.
    Apelin-13 promotes expression of pyroptosis related protein in aortic cells in diabetic mice through eNOS/NO pathway
    WANG Yang-jia, ZHANG Jia, LI Bin, ZENG Xiang-jun
    2020, 40(2):  155-160. 
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    Objective To observe the effects and mechanisms of Apelin-13 on expression of pyroptosis related proteins in aorta of diabetic mice. Methods C57/BL mice of eight weeks old were used as control group;kkAy mice of eight weeks old were used as type 2 diabetic models;osmotic pumps were used to treat kkAy mice with apelin-13 at a rate of 30 μg/(kg·d),and L-NAME(eNOS inhibitor) was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/(kg·d) to kkAy mice. Blood was collected for detection of Hb1Ac. The aortae were harvested and fixed. Morphological changes were observed with HE staining. Expression of eNOS,NLRP3,caspase-1 and gasdermin D were measured with immunohistochemical staining. Results Compared to the control group, the level of eNOS in the aorta of diabetic mice was significantly higher than that in control mice (P<0.05),the levels of NLRP3,caspase-1 and gasdermin D were also higher than that in control mice. After apelin-13 treatment,the expressions of eNOS,NLRP3,caspase-1 and gasdermin D were further increased (P<0.05). After L-NAME and apelin-13 treatment, the expressions of eNOS, NLRP3,caspase-1 and gasdermin D were reduced as compared to apelin-13 treatment alone(P<0.05). Conclusions Apelin-13 may promote the expression of pyroptosis related protein in aortic cells by increasing eNOS/NO pathway,which would induce structural and functional damage in diabetic arteries.
    Folate affects neural tube development through KDM6A
    GAO Jun, LI Jian-ting, XIE Qiu, ZHANG Yong-feng, QIAO Li-na, LIU Chang-yun, WANG Jian-hua
    2020, 40(2):  161-166. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of lysine-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A) on neural tube defects (NTDs) in low folate environment. Methods Mouse embryonic stem cells (SV129), NTD mouse models and NTD human specimens were used. SV129 cells were incubated with 0.02 μmol/L methotrexate (MTX) for 24 h, and the folate level was measured by Access 2 Immunoassay system and competitive receptor binding immunoassay. DNA fragmentation and KDM6A expression were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The transcription level of the DNA fragment-related repair gene was measured using the mouse NTD model. The folate content and the expression of KDM6A in human NTD specimens were examined. Results In the low folate environment, the DNA fragmentation increased and the expression of KDM6A protein decreased. At the same time, the expression of DNA fragment repair gene KU80/70 in mouse NTD model decreased (P<0.05); the expression of low folate NTD specimen KDM6A and KU80 also decreased. Conclusions In a low folate environment, DNA fragmentation increases and KDM6A expression decreased, which may initiate abnormal DNA repair pathways and lead to NTD.
    Recombinant human TNC induces EMT, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell line PANC1
    CAI Jun, SHEN Wen-yuan, WANG Hui, TAN Cheng, ZHAO Xiu-mei, SHEN Xiao-hong
    2020, 40(2):  167-172. 
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    Objective To construct human TNC expression plasmid for the investigation of the role of TNC in pancreatic cancer metastasis by using pancreatic cancer cell strain with stable over-expression of TNC. Methods TNC expression plasmid was constructed by unique primer design method, and then pancreatic cancer cell strain PANC1 with stable TNC expression were obtained by transfection and G418 screening. RT-qPCR and Western blot examined the expression of TNC. Transwell and Western blot were used to detecte the effects of TNC on cell migration, invasion and EMT-related molecules. Results TNC plasmid was successfully constructed. TNC promoted cell migration and invasion(P<0.05), decreased epithelial marker E-cadherin expression and upregulated mesenchymal marker N-cadherin expression (P<0.05). Conclusions The TNC expression plasmid and TNC stable expression pancreatic cancer cell strain may be used to explore the biological function of TNC and the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer.
    Intestinal flora of children with irritable bowel syndrome can promote the expression of intestinal acid-sensitive ion channel proteins in mice
    ZHAO Jun-mei, YUAN Li-ping, CAI Jie, LI Wen-ya, ZHU Ke-ran, Gui Ming
    2020, 40(2):  173-177. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of intestinal flora from children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) on intestinal motility and acid-sensitive ion channel expression in mice. Methods Fecal samples of children with IBS identified according to Rome Ⅳcriteria and healthy children were collected and made into fecal microbiota solution. A pseudo-aseptic mouse model was established, mice were randomly divided into two groups:the control group was given fecal microbiota solution of healthy children,and the experimental group was given fecal microbiota solution of IBS children. The intestinal propulsion rate was measured, Serum Motilin (MOT) and Gastrin (Gas) were determined by ELISA, the expression and distribution of ASICs in intestinal tissues of mice were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the control group, intestinal propulsion rate, serum MOT and Gas level were significantly reduced in the experimental group (P<0.05), the expression of ASIC3 in the small intestine and colon of mice from experimental group was significantly increased (P<0.05);the expression of ASIC3 in small intestine and colon was negatively correlated with the intestinal propulsion rate (P<0.05). Conclusions Intestinal flora of children with IBS can promote the expression of ASIC3 in intestinal tissue of mice, and the effect of intestinal microorganism on intestinal motility may be related to the activation of ASICs.
    Combined detection of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in early prediction of patients with post-traumatic sepsis
    WEN Da-lin, DU Juan, CHEN Min-jia, SUN Jian-hui, ZHANG Hua-cai, ZHANG An-qiang, DU Ding-yuan
    2020, 40(2):  178-181. 
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    Objective To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) for early warning of traumatic sepsis. Methods Two hundred and thirty five patients with severe trauma were included, including 110 patients with sepsis and 125 patients with non-sepsis.Blood samples were collected in 24 hours of admission and serum CRP and PCT were measured. The ROC curve was used to compare the early warning value of CRP and PCT for post-traumatic sepsis, and the improvement ability after combined use of NRI and IDI was analyzed. Results The results showed that CRP and PCT in patients with post-traumatic sepsis were significantly higher than those in non-sepsis patients (P<0.001). ROC analysis revealed that the AUC of serum CRP and PCT were 0.766 (0.707-0.819) and 0.744 (0.684-0.799), respectively; The AUC of CRP and PCT combined with single-label early warning trauma sepsis was increased by 5.1%, 7.3%.Meanwhile, the results of NRI and IDI analysis also suggested the combination of CRP and PCT was sensitive to identify the patients with high risk of sepsis (P< 0.001). Conclusions CRP and PCT have early prediction effects on the risk of sepsis in major trauma patients. Combination of CPR and PCT can significantly improve early prediction ability.
    Analysis and prognosis of advanced esophageal cancer treated by Traditional Chinese Medicine
    CHEN Jia-yang, YANG Yu-fei, YI Dan-hui, FENG Li
    2020, 40(2):  182-186. 
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    Objective To explore the clinical strategy and method of the preliminary discrimination model of prognosis and survival in the treatment of advanced esophageal cancer with Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM). Methods Univariate test was performed on multiple factors affecting the prognosis of advanced esophageal cancer, and variables with statistical significance were included. Non-parametric discriminant analysis was used to establish a survival prediction model of traditional Chinese medicine treatment for advanced esophageal cancer. Totally 72 patients with advanced esophageal cancer were included in the study, which were divided into the dominant group, the intermediate group and the disadvantaged group based on the overall survival. Results Univariate analysis showed that location of onset (including upper esophagus), location of onset (including middle esophagus), differentiation degree of cancer cells, metastasis, hot food, smoking, drinking, symptom assessment after TCM treatment, emotion assessment after TCM treatment and lung metastasis showed statistical significance (α=0.1). Conclusions After incorporating the elements of TCM characteristic syndromes, the prediction model is established through 7/3 verification (70% samples as training set, 30% samples as verification set), and the prediction accuracy is 56%.
    Osteosarcoma cells can reproduce into tumorigenic cells by escaping chemotherapy-induced cell senescence
    ZHANG Liang, LIU Ming-yong, LIU Peng, XUE Xin, ZHANG Liang-min, GUO Qiao-nan, ZHAO Jian-hua
    2020, 40(2):  187-191. 
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    Objective To explore whether osteosarcoma cells can escape from cell senescence and reproduce, and to evaluate the oncogenic ability of senescent-escaped cells. To explain the mechanism of osteosarcoma recurrence from a new perspective. Methods Doxorubicin (DOX) was used to develop aging model of U2OS and MG63. Cell senescence was detected by SA-Gal staining and senescence-related molecules were detected by Western blot. The cells were replaced with DOX-free medium and cultured for 75 days. Cell proliferation and escape rate were measured by cell counting. Then they were divided into three groups: parent cell,senescent cell,escaped-senescence cell. Agarose cloning assay was used to detect cloning formation and nude mice tumorigenicity test was used to detect tumorigenicity. Results In DOX-induced U2OS or MG63 cells, senescence specific marker SA-β-Gal positive cells emerged 2-day after stimulation and reached the plateau on day 4 with more than 90% SA-β-Gal-positive cells. Effects of DOX on the activities of other SIPS-related regulators in OS cells were also measured at protein level and the expression of senescent regulators p-p53, p-Rb, and p-γ-H2AX were all increased significantly. Senescent OS cells were cultured in medium without DOX. The numbers of cells kept unchanged until day 75 and then began to increase (one-millionth of the escape rate). The reproducing cells gained even higher tumorigenic capability. Conclusions The senescent osteosarcoma cells escape from senescence and gain even higher tumorigenic capability to form new colonies eventually in recurrent tumor.
    Nicotine inhibits proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells
    SUN Qin-qin, HUO Jin-feng, YANG Fan
    2020, 40(2):  192-197. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of nicotine stimulation on proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. Methods Human dental pulp stem cells were culture and cell surface antigen was identified by flow cytometry. The cultured dental pulp stem cells were stimulated by nicotine (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 mol/L) at different concentrations, after 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 d of culture, the proliferation of cells were detected by CCK8 assay; alizarin red staining to detect the formation of mineralized nodules during cell differentiation, RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN) and the expression of MAPK pathway-related proteins such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 (p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38). Results On the 3rd and 4th day of culture, the A value of nicotine stimulation was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05); compared with the control group, the number of mineralized nodules, the expression of DSPP, ALP, OPN mRNA and protein, the expression of p-ERK, p-JNK and p-p38 protein were significantly decreased when nicotine was stimulated (P<0.05). Conclusions Nicotine inhibits the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.
    Over-expression of heparanase promotes proliferation and migration of gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD
    LIU Zi-xiang, ZHOU Shao-bo, ZHANG Zi-yan
    2020, 40(2):  198-202. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of heparanase over-expression on the biological function of gallbladder carcinoma cell line GBC-SD. Methods The heparanase over-expression plasmid vector was constructed and transfected into GBC-SD cells by liposome method. The transfection efficiency was verified by RT-qPCR and Western blot. CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and scratch healing experiment were used to detect the cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration.The expression of syndecan-1, FGF-2 and E-cadherin protein was detected by Western blot. Results The expression of heparanase mRNA(P<0.01) and protein(P<0.05) in gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD was significantly increased after transfection.Compared with the control group,the over-expression of heparanase significantly up-regulated the proliferation and migration ability of GBC-SD cells in vitro(P<0.05), down-regulated the level of apoptosis(P<0.05),and increased the expression of FGF-2 protein, while decreasing the expression of syndecan-1(P<0.01) and E-cadherin(P<0.05). Conclusions Over-expression of heparanase promotes the proliferation and migration of gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD, and the mechanism may be related to its regulation of E-cadherin through FGF-2.
    Butorphanol inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of cell line MCF7 through regulating PBX3 gene
    LIU Yan-li
    2020, 40(2):  203-208. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of butorphanol on proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cell line MCF7 and its related molecular mechanisms. Methods MTT assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of butorphanol on human breast cancer MCF7 cell proliferation. Transwell migration and invasion assay were used to detect the effects of different concentrations of butorphanol on migration and invasion of human breast cancer MCF7 cells. RT-qCR and Western blot were used to detect PBX3 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer cell lines, normal breast epithelial cells and butorphanol-treated MCF7 cells, respectively. MCF7 cells were transfected with si-PBX3 or si-con, and the changes of cell proliferation, migration and invasion were observed. PBX3 overexpression was used to verify the effect of butorphanol on proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer. The expressions of cyclin D1 and MMP-2 protein were detected by Western blot. Results The expression of PBX3 was up-regulated in breast cancer cell lines as compared to normal breast epithelial cells, and silencing PBX3 expression significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF7 cells,and inhibited the expression of cyclin D1 and MMP-2. Different concentrations of butorphanol significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited the expression of PBX3, cyclin D1 and MMP-2. Overexpression of PBX3 reversed the inhibitory effect of butorphanol on proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Conclusions Butorphanol can reduce the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by inhibiting PBX3.
    TRPM7 interference vector repaires injury caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation in cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2
    YANG Jue-sheng, FAN Hu-xiong, HU Shan, GAO Ri-feng, LU Fei, WANG Heng, TANG Yan-hua
    2020, 40(2):  209-214. 
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    Objective To study the repair function and mechanism of TRPM7 interference vector in hypoxic myocardial cell line (H9C2). Methods The hypoxia/reoxygenation model of H9C2 cardiomyocytes was established and the TRPM7 interference expression vector was constructed to transfect H9C2 cells. The expression of HIF1-α and TRPM7 in H9C2 cells was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. [Ca2+]i and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Results When H9C2 cells were transfected with TRPM7 interference vector, the expression of HIF1-α TTRPM7, the [Ca2+]i concentration and the apoptosis rate all decreased. Conclusions TRPM7 interference vector has significant repairing effect on hypoxia H9C2 cardiomyocytes, and the mechanism may be mediated PI3K/Akt pathway.
    Polymorphism of MTHFR and MTRR genes in childbearing-aged Han women in Zhongyuan district of Zhengzhou city
    GUO Ting-ting, LIU Fang, GUI Jing, YANG Xiao-feng
    2020, 40(2):  215-218. 
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    Objective The high-risk population with poor folic acid utilization of childbearing age women was screened by gene detection technology to guide women of childbearing age to supplement folic acid reasonably. Methods The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C667T and A1298C loci were collected from 2 652 women of childbearing age in Zhongyuan district of Zhengzhou city from December 2017 to October 2018 by real-time PCR sequencing. Genotyping of the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G locus, and comparing with the genotype and allele frequency distribution of other populations, and then comprehensively judging the folate metabolism ability of women of childbearing age according to genotype, this gives women of childbearing age the risk and risk level of folic acid supplementation. Results Among the MTHFR C667T loci, wild type (CC), heterozygous mutant (CT) and homozygous mutant (TT) accounted for 15.05%, 46.60% and 38.35%, respectively, and the gene frequency of the mutant gene T was 61.65%; different age groups (≤30 and >30 years old) were mainly heterozygous mutants. The MTHFR A1298C locus was 74.55%,23.49%,and 1.96%, respectively, and the gene frequency of the mutated gene C was 13.71%;The different age groups (≤30 and >30 years old) were mainly wild type. The MTRR A66G loci were 57.43%,36.73%,and 5.84%, respectively, and the gene frequency of the mutated gene G was 24.21%. Conclusions The distribution of MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in women of childbearing age in Zhengzhou is related to the region, more than 50% of women of childbearing age carry high-risk genes. Therefore, the detection of folic acid metabolism gene polymorphism in high-risk pregnant women supports increase of the folic acid prescription to reduce neonatal birth defects.
    Over-expression of CRNDE promotes proliferation and migration in human hepatoma cell line HepG2
    HUANG Hai-liang, DING Wei-wei, LI Dong-xue
    2020, 40(2):  219-223. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of long-chain non-coding RNA CRNDE on the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells. Methods The CRNDE over-expression vector was constructed and packed into lentivirus. Then, HepG2 cells was infected by the lentivirus containing LV5/NC and LV5/CRNDE vectors. After treatment with 2.5 μg/mL puromycin for 4-5 weeks, real-time PCR was used to detect the expression level of CRNDE in the two groups. CCK8 and cell scratch assay was used to detect the changes of proliferation and migration ability of each group. Meanwhile, real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Bax and Bcl-2 in each group. Results Compared with LV5/NC group, the expression of CRNDE in LV5/CRNDE group significantly increased(P<0.01). The proliferation and migration of LV5/CRNDE group cells were also significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.01). At the same time, the expression of E-cadherin and Bax in LV5/CRNDE group significantly decreased(P<0.01, P<0.01), while the expression of N-cadherin and Bcl-2 significantly increased(P<0.01, P<0.01). Conclusions CRNDE may stimulate proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells by promoting the expression of N-cadherin/Bcl-2 and inhibiting the expression of E-cadherin and Bax.
    Polysaccharides of radix bletillae inhibit inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress in rats with ulcerative colitis
    LI Xiao-lan, ZHANG Xin-guang, YIN Shao-ping
    2020, 40(2):  224-228. 
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    Objective To study the treatment effects of polysaccharides from radix bletillae on ulcerative colitis (UC) rats from the perspectives of inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. Methods Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group (constructed by enema with 0.8 mL, 2.5 mg/mL trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid containing 50% ethanol), mesalazine group (10 mL/kg) and low, medium and high dose of radix bletillae groups (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) constructed by enema with 0.8 mL trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (2.5 mg/mL) containing 50% ethanol in the intervention groups. After 2 days, rats were given intragastric administration for 10 days. The disease activity index (DAI) of each group was observed. The levels of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α in serum were detected by ELISA, and the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α in colon tissue were detected by RT-qPCR. SOD, MDA and GSH-Px in colon tissue were measured by kits. The protein expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB p65 in colon tissue were detected by Western blot. Results Compared with the control group, the weight of rats in the model group decreased, DAI score, IL-1β and TNF-α expression all increased, IL-10, SOD and GSH-Px activity in colon tissue decreased, MDA content and protein expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB p65 increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the DAI score, the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α decreased, while IL-10 increased in the low, medium and high dose of of radix bletillae group. SOD and GSH-Px activity in colon tissue increased, while MDA content and protein expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB p65 decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions Polysaccharides of radix bletillae have the preferably treatment effect on UC rats, the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of inflammatory reaction and alleviation of oxidative stress.
    Technology and Methodology
    Effect of centrifugal conditions on urine protein extraction by acetone precipitation method
    LI Jing, ZHOU Dong-dong, SUN Wei
    2020, 40(2):  229-234. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of centrifugal speed and temperature on urine proteome after acetone precipitation and the individual variation of urine proteome in normal people. Methods Human urine samples precipitated by acetone were centrifuged at different centrifugation speeds (4 000×g and 12 000×g) and temperatures (4 ℃ and 20 ℃). Urine proteins were extracted for mass spectrum analysis. The identification results of different methods were compared to determine the best conditions of urine protein centrifugation after acetone precipitation. The above methods were used to analyze the urine proteome of 36 normal people (male∶female =1∶1). Results Under the condition of low temperature and high speed (4 ℃,12 000×g), the identification effect was the best and the individual variation of the normal urine proteome was 0.635. Conclusions After acetone precipitation, the extraction effect of urine protein at low temperature and high speed (4 ℃, 12 000×g) is good. The individual variation of urine protein is similar to that of plasma proteome, which can be used for large-scale clinical analysis because of stability.
    Mini Reviews
    Progress of vimentin in hepatocellular carcinoma
    DONG Bao-long, HAN Cai-wen, SHI Ming, ZHENG Wen-xue, YANG Xiao-jun
    2020, 40(2):  238-242. 
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    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical mechanism related to invasion, metastasis and drug resistance. Vimentin(VIM), as the biomarker of EMT, functions in regulating EMT and forms epithelial-like cancer stem cells and itself methylation, and exosomes excrete VIM directly or indirectly, which leads to invasiveness and proliferation, chemotherapy resistance and postoperative recurrence of HCC. Importantly, combine detection of circulating VIM and AFP level in patients' serum samples, significantly improved the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of HCC, and predict poor prognosis.
    Advances in research on the relationship between intestinal flora and diseases
    ZHANG Jing, WANG Xiao-xiao, ZHOU Yi, WANG Xue, GU Kai-ming, YE Ying-chun
    2020, 40(2):  243-247. 
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    The quantity of intestinal flora is large and diverse, its interaction with the host. The intestinal flora is closely related to the development and the recovery of many human diseases. Intestinal microorganisms affect the occurrence and development of metabolic diseases by regulating the metabolism of substances such as sugar, lipids and amino acids; intestinal flora disorders can also promote inflammatory bowel disease and certain intestinal tumors, and supplementing probiotics can contribute to treat those diseases; In addition, the intestinal flora is closely related to other system such as the neuropsychiatric system, the cardiovascular system, and the urinary system. Therefore, studying the correlation between intestinal flora and disease is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of those diseases and the maintenance of human health.
    Clinical value of maxillofacial characteristics in Turner syndrome patients
    LIANG Si-yu, CHEN Shi, WANG Shi-rui, PAN Zhou-xian, ZHU Jia-wei, ZHU Hui-juan, PAN Hui
    2020, 40(2):  248-252. 
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    Turner syndrome has characteristic maxillofacial abnormalities associated with a variety of diseases, including conductive hearing loss, feeding difficulties, sleep apnea, and vocal abnormalities. The maxillofacial characters of Turner syndrome can be quantitatively studied by cephalometric study. Prenatal diagnosis can also be performed by maxillofacial abnormalities. These abnormalities may be related to genes affecting the development of the first pharyngeal arch on the X chromosome, such as SHOX; may also be associated with genes on the X chromosome that affect histone modifications, such as HDAC8. Long-term growth hormone therapy has an enhanced effect on craniofacial development in patients with Turner syndrome, and a significant improvement on mandibular growth. However, growth hormone therapy can not completely normalize maxillofacial abnormalities. Maxillofacial abnormalities in patients with Turner syndrome should draw more attention due to its diagnostic value, associated disease risk and treatable potential.
    Effects of long-term low-dose antibiotics exposure on the pregnant women and infants
    LI Man-yu, YIN Jie, MA Liang-kun
    2020, 40(2):  253-256. 
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    Improper use of antibiotics can lead to serious pregnancy complications and puerperal disorders. At the same time, the exposure to antibiotics can affect the construction of intestinal microecology in the early stage of life, and then lead to the increase of the morbidity rate of immune system diseases, nervous system diseases and metabolic diseases. However, the research on long-term and low-dose antibiotics' exposure is still in the stage of animal experiments.
    Medical Education
    Investigation and analysis of needs for standardized training of surgical residents
    BAI Xue-shan, LIN Guo-le, XUE Xiao-qiang
    2020, 40(2):  257-260. 
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    Objective To investigate the teaching needs of clinical skills and scientific research skills in standardized training of surgical residents and to crient teaching remodeling. Methods A self-filling questionnaire survey was conducted in July 2018. Surgical residents of Peking Union Medical College Hospital, who are at the second and the third year of training, were gathered to sit in separate in classrooms. The filling methods and matters needing attention were explained uniformly. The trainees filled in the form of “back-to-back” by themselves. Totally 85 questionnaires were collected and 83 questionnaires were valid. This paper mainly investigates the training needs of clinical diagnosis and treatment, operation skills and scientific research skills. Results The demand of clinical skills is mostly manifested in the diagnosis and treatment of common surgical diseases and surgical teaching. The most demanded surgical teaching was “hand-holding” and acting as a assistant or master knife. The main requirements of scientific research skills are data collection, statistical methods (Meta analysis), scientific research design and project establishment, tender writing and bidding, and paper writing and publication. Conclusions The needs of surgical residents reflect their deficiencies in the diagnosis and treatment of common diseases, operation skill and research capacity. For this reason, the Surgical Teaching Group has put forward such reform schemes as “tutorial system” “animal model” “all-factor simulated surgery” “more scientific research training courses” and so on.
    Construction and optimization of morning course of ultrasound medicine residents based on demand analysis
    LIN Lin, ZHANG Yi-xiu, CHEN Cheng, ZHU Qing-li, LYU Ke, YANG Meng, LI Jian-chu
    2020, 40(2):  261-264. 
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    In order to deepen the standardized training of residents in ultrasound medicine department and improve the comprehensive quality and core competence of residents.Aimed at the blind points in current teaching methods, we have sorted out the teaching and training needs of resident in the form of questionnaire survey and carried out “order dishes style” morning courses. According to the feedback from the residents, the morning course mainly includes four topics include clinical skills, scientific research topics, doctor-patient communication and humanistic literacy as well as the examination for practicing physicians. In addition, we have adopted the stratified curriculum arrangement and training plan according to the different educational background of the residents. The setting of the morning course makes use of the fragment time in the morning can not only help to coordinate the work and study schedule of teachers and residents but also help to alleviate the contradiction between work and study and contribute to improve the comprehensive quality of residents and the teaching quality.
    Based on structural equation modeling to predict research participation behavior of medical undergraduates
    PAN Qian
    2020, 40(2):  265-269. 
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    Objective To establish a method to predict style, experience and gains of research participation by undergraduates' personal traits, thus to provide decision-making reference for individualized learning. Methods Gather data through the relevant questionnaire, and analyze reliability and validity of the questionnaire; then extract 4 latent variables (personal traits, research participation style, research participation experience and research participation gains) from observed variables in the questionnaire, and build structural equation modeling (SEM) consisting of the above 4 latent variables; at last establish predicting equations of personal traits and style/experience/gains of research participation respectively based on SEM analysis results. Results With 94.99% (417/439) efficiency, the alpha reliability coefficient of the questionnaire is 0.774, KMO of the validity analysis is 0.804, Bartlett's test is significant and extracted common factors can explain 53.94% of the total variance; three SEMs do not show negative variance, and the three SEMs' Chi-square P>0.05, Normed Chi-square are all greater than 1 less than 3, AGFI and GFI are all greater than 0.9, RMSEA are all less than 0.05, and NC are all greater than 200; the three predicting equations are all linear functions (with the independent variable: personal traits and the dependent variable: observed variables of research participation style/experience/gains respectively). Conclusions This questionnaire is highly efficient with good reliability and validity. The constructed SEMs have no unreasonable parameters and fit the data well. Based on SME, the method to predict style, experience and gains of research participation through undergraduates' personal traits is objectively and feasible.
    Applications of augmented reality in clinical medical education
    WANG Luo, CHEN Shi, PAN Hui
    2020, 40(2):  270-273. 
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    Augmented reality is to reside the computer-generated perceptual information into the real space, creating an enhanced and interactive experience of the real world. Recently, the use of augmented reality in clinical medical education has been a research focus. The key technologies, application, strengthens and weakness in clinical education are reviewed.
    Precise management of refresher doctors in the Department of Ultrasound
    ZHAO Rui-na, ZHANG Bo, LI Jian-chu, XUE Jun, XI Xue-hua, GAO Qiong, JIANG Yu-xin
    2020, 40(2):  274-277. 
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    Objective To investigate the problems existing in the work and study of refresher doctors in the Department of ultrasound in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH) through questionnaire, in order to achieve precise management. Methods Refresher doctors in the department of ultrasound in PUMCH from April 2009 to September 2017, were asked to fill an electronic questionnaire on the WeChat platform. The questionnaire included gender, age, the professional title, the educational background, the grade of the hospital, the goal of the study, the satisfaction rate of teaching programs and job arrangement, the gains of the study and self-evaluation, etc. According to the educational background, professional title or grade of the hospital, they were divided into different groups. The differences of goals, satisfaction rate of teaching programs and job arrangement, main gains, number of articles and new technologies among different groups were analyzed. Results A total of 110 questionnaires were sent out, and 105 valid questionnaires were collected, and the effective rate was 95.5%. The need for management was significantly different, increasing in the order of the resident group, attending physician group and associate professor or professor group. Sixteen of the 17 refresher doctors (94.1%) who participated in the management of refresher doctors, believed that the experience of management was helpful. The number of articles was significantly different, increasing in the order of the resident group, attending physician group and associate professor or professor group. The satisfaction rate for teaching programs, job arrangement, the rate of publication of articles and development of new technologies were 87.6%, 54.3%, 22.9% and 45.7%, respectively. Conclusions The precise teaching programs make a high satisfaction, but the job arrangement, the training of new technologies and research capacity need to be further refined.
    Exploration and practice of cultivating nursing undergraduates' scientific research and innovation ability
    ZOU Hai-ou, GUO Ai-min, LI Yu-ling
    2020, 40(2):  278-280. 
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    To improve nursing students' research capacity, School of Nursing, PUMC explored the mode of scientific research and teaching for nursing undergraduates which meet the needs of healthcare in China and so to develop an integrated and systematic program ofresearch training, and meanwhile to cultivate students' scientific research and innovation. The “three-stage scientific research training system” stimulated undergraduates' interest in scientific research and innovation, activated their independent and critical reasoning and innovation, and thus to contribute to the capacity development of research as well as innovation.
    Application of WeChat public platform in standardized training of surgical residents
    XIAO Jian-chun, ZHANG Miao-yan, XU Yuan, WU Bin
    2020, 40(2):  281-284. 
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    As a popular media sharing platform in recent years, WeChat public platform has great potential in education. This paper takes the public number “PUMC training and teaching” as an example to explore the application of WeChat public platform in standardized training of surgical residents. At present, the standardized training of surgical residents lacks pertinence and systematicness, and there are also difficulties in organizing teaching schedule. WeChat public platform combines traditional surgical teaching mode with innovates teaching mode, improves the pertinence and systematicness of training program, and improves frainees learning efficiency.
    Medicine and Society
    Ethical issues in artificial intelligence application in biomedicine
    GUO Xu-fang, LIU Hui
    2020, 40(2):  285-288. 
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    The application of artificial intelligence in the field of biomedicine is accelerating, showing broad prospects in public health, clinical diagnosis and health management. However, it will also cause many potential and existing ethical dilemmas. At present, the ethical issues that are attractive are: 1) the moral status of artificial intelligence; 2) fairness issues caused by artificial intelligence applications; 3) the contradiction between individual rights and public interests. This paper a discussed the above issues. From a balanced point of view, several principles are proposed for discussion and challenges from the academic community.