Table of Content

    05 June 2019, Volume 39 Issue 6
    Rosuvastatin ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced injury of human late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells
    2019, 39(6):  769-775. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanisms of rosuvastatin in lipopolysaccharide(LPS) induced late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (LOCs) injury. Methods Mononuclear cells were isolated from human peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation and cultured to obtain the LOCs. Attached cells were divided into control group, LPS treated group and rosuvastatin with different concentration plus LPS groups. CCK-8 was used to measure the cell viability. Malondialdehyde(MDA), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) were detected by colorimetric assay kits. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the production of reactive oxygen species(ROS). Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay was utilized to detect the protein levels of IL-6 and IL-8. Western blot was used to determine the TLR4 expression level and the transcription factor assay kit was used to measure the activity of NFκB p65. Results Rosuvastatin could effectively inhibit the decrease of cell viability(P<0.05) induced by LPS and reduce the level of MDA(P<0.05), LDH(P<0.05), ROS(P<0.01), increase the activity of SOD(P<0.05), decrease the expression level of IL-6 and IL-8(P<0.01). Moreover, the overexpression of TLR4 and the activation of NFκB p65 induced by LPS were both attenuated by rosuvastatin(P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusions Rosuvastatin can significantly increase LOCs viability, decrease the production level of ROS, reduce the oxidative damage and inhibit IL-6 and IL-8 expression in LOCs induced by LPS. The mechanisms may be associated with TLR4/ NFκB p65signaling pathway.
    Copper in the diet affect lipid metabolism in mice
    2019, 39(6):  776-780. 
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    Objective Investigate the effects of copper on lipid metabolism in diet by establishing different doses of copper intake models. Methods The body weight index of mice with different copper content of food was continuously monitored within two months, and the proportion of liver and abdominal adipose tissue, serum lipids,fat metabolism related enzyme activity and mRNA levels as well as glucose tolerance were measured at the end of the experimental intervention. Results High doses of copper can affect the growth of mice's body weight(P<0.001), promote the hydrolysis of body triglycerides(P<0.01), reduce the content of triglycerides in serum(P<0.01), and cause impaired glucose tolerance(P<0.05). Conclusion Copper overload can inhibit the synthesis of triglyceride in the liver of mice, promote lipid degradation, fatty acid oxidation, and affect lipid metabolism.
    Transcriptional regulation of ATRX in liver cancer cell line PLC/PRF/5
    2019, 39(6):  781-785. 
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    Objective To explore the role of ATRX on gene expression in a liver cancer cell line. Methods CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to construct a ATRX knockout cell line. Gene expression data was generated by RNA-seq, and a differential gene expression analysis was performed using DESeq2. At last, ATAC-seq was used to assess the chromatin accessibilities of differentially expressed gene. Results 2,754 genes with differential expression level were identified in this study. Both MUC16 and CXCL8 had increased chromatin accessibilities and were significantly up-regulated in the absence of ATRX. Conclusion ATRX regulated a large number of genes in liver cancer cells, and might be required for the direct inhibition of MUC16 and CXCL8.
    Lactulose increases species and quantity of intestinal microbiota in normal mice
    2019, 39(6):  786-791. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of lactulose or probiotics combined with lactulose on enteric flora of normal mice based on 16S rDNA sequencing technology. Methods C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). Group A was blank control group, group B and group C were given lactulose or probiotics combined with lactulose for 2 weeks, respectively. Probiotics were mixture of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Fecal samples collected before gavage, 1 week after gavage, and 2 weeks after gavage and mucosal specimens collected from executed animal, were sequenced for 16S rDNA. Results Compared with blank control group, Lactobacillus and Akkermansia were increased (0.1131/0.0515, P<0.01; 0.0391/0.0011, P<0.001) in lactulose group. Lactobacillus (0.1041/0.0407, P<0.05) and Faecalibacterium (0.0295/0.0070, P<0.05) were higher and Desulfovibrio (0.0052/0.0149, P<0.05) was lower in probiotics combined with lactulose group compared with blank control group. Conclusions Lactulose or probiotics combined with lactulose can increase beneficial bacteria and reduce detrimental bacteria, to regulate the intestinal microbiota.
    HOTAIRM1 maintains self-renewal of glioma stem cells by modulating OCT4 expression
    Xiao-zhong PENG Wei HAN
    2019, 39(6):  792-797. 
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    Objective To explore the function and molecular mechanism of HOXA transcript antisense RNA (myeloid-specific 1, HOTAIRM1) in glioma stem cells. Methods Real-time PCR detected the expression profile of HOTAIRM1 in glioma stem cells; Tumor spheroid formation assay and limiting dilution assay were used to detect the ability of self-renewal of tumor stem cells after HOTAIRM1 overexpression or knockdown; Real time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of stemness markers; Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was used to detect the effect of HOTAIRM1 on the activity of OCT4 promoter; All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was used to treat NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and glioma stem cells GSC2. Results Compared with the control group, the self-renewal ability of glioma stem cells overexpressing HOTAIRM1 was significantly enhanced (P<0.05); Western blot showed up-regulation of the stemness markers(P<0.05). The results of knocking down HOTAIRM1 were opposite. Overexpression of HOTAIRM1 promoted the transcriptional activity of the OCT4 promoter. The expression of HOTAIRM1 was down-regulated after ATRA treatment of GSC2. Conclusions HOTAIRM1 maintains self-renewal of glioma stem cells by modulating OCT4 expression.
    Effect of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes on stemness of breast cancer cell line 4T1
    2019, 39(6):  798-804. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes on stemness of 4T1 cells. Method M2 macrophage-derived exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation. And transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking technology and Western blot were performed to identified the exosomes. Then, the M2 macrophage-derived exosomes were labeled with Dil which makes it available for us to observe their transfer to breast cancer cell line 4T1 by immunofluorescence. After that, flow cytometry, co-culture system and transwell chamber were used to investigate the tumor phenotype and stemness of 4T1 under the influence of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes. Results First, the M2 macrophages were successfully induced in vitro. In addition, the M2 macrophage-derived exosomes were successfully isolated and verified. M2 macrophage-derived exosomes labeled with Dil could be transferred into 4T1 cells. After co-incubation with M2 macrophage-derived exosomes, the migration (P<0.001) and sphere formation (P<0.05) ability of 4T1 cells were significantly enhanced. While after using exosome inhibitor GW4869, the number and volume of spheres formed by 4T1 stem cells were reduced (P<0.05). The proportion of CD44highCD24low cells in 4T1 cells (P<0.001) was significantly increased after incubating with M2 macrophage-derived exosomes. Conclusions M2 macrophage-derived exosomes can increase the migration and sphere formation ability of 4T1 tumor cells, so is the proportion of tumor stem cells in 4T1 cells.
    Prevalence and related factors of diabetes in males with hepatitis B virus infection in Kailuan group
    2019, 39(6):  805-809. 
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    Objective To investigate the risk factors of diabetes in participants with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to enroll all the males in Kailuan group who attended physical examination (n=81110) and had positive hepatitis B antigen in 2006-2007. Prevalence of diabetes with different characteristics were described, and factors related to diabetes were analyzed. Results A total of 2276 males were hepatitis B antigen positive(average age 49.5±11.7,years), among which 192 were diabetes, with prevalence of 8.4%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated age (40-49 years: OR=2.78,95%CI:1.52-5.09,p<0.001; 50-59 years: OR=2.66,95%CI:1.46-4.85,p<0.001;≥60 years: OR=4.69,95%CI:2.49-8.86,p<0.001), family history of diabetes (OR=3.44,95%CI:1.96-6.05,p<0.001), fatty liver disease (OR=2.02,95%CI:1.46-2.80,p<0.001), cirrhosis (OR=2.25,95%CI:1.02-4.95,p<0.05), and hypertension (OR=1.76,95%CI:1.27-1.42,p<0.001) were risk factors for diabetes, and current drinkers had a lower risk of diabetes(OR=0.71,95%CI:0.51-0.98,p<0.05).Conclusions Age, family history of diabetes, fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and hypertension may be the risk factors for diabetes in males with HBV infection. Intervention should be applied in individuals with high risk of diabetes to prevent the onset of diabetes.
    Expression of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C in the cardiac development of gestational diabetes mellitus' fetal rats
    2019, 39(6):  810-815. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF-2C) in the cardiac development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) ’fetal rats, and to explore its mechanism. Methods Adult Sprague-dawley(SD) female rats were randomly divided into control group(n = 24), GDM group(n = 30) were treated by intraperitoneal injection of 2% streptozotocin (STZ) 40 mg/kg body weight after determining the pregnancy, citric acid group(n = 30) were intraperitoneally injected with citric acid-sodium citrate buffer solution after determining the pregnancy, Insulin group (n = 30) were subcutaneously injected with intermediate-acting insulin (NovoMix 30R, 20 U/kg?d) when blood sugar level was 12~15 mmol/L after 72 h of GDM model rats. The changes of blood sugar level and the changes of body weight were observed in pregnant rats of each group. The cardiac tissues of fetal rats in each group were obtained by caesarean section at embryonic day (E) 12、E15 and E19. Then these cardiac tissues of fetal rats were observed and were the histopathological changes of cardiac development under microscope with HE staining; changes in the mRNA expression of MEF-2C by RT-qPCR; changes in the expression of MEF-2C protein by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results Dynamic variation of MEF-2C protein level was observed in these group: expression level of MEF-2C protein in the cardiac tissue was observed on E12 and it obviously increased on E15, but it decreasd on E19. Compared with control group, mRNA level and protein content of MEF-2C in GDM group were decreased (P<0.05). Conclusions The abnormal rate of cardiac development in GDM group is significantly increased. MEF-2C might be associated with cardiac dysplasia in GDM fetal rats.
    Expression of miR-24 in cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell line HCCC-9810
    2019, 39(6):  816-820. 
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    Objective To explore the expression patterns of microRNA-24 (miR-24) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissues, and analyze its prognostic value and biological function in HCC. Methods Total of 124 pairs of CCA tissues and adjacent tissues were collected, and the expression of miR-24 in the tissues was estimated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). χ2 test was used to assess the association of miR-24 with clinicopathological characteristics of the patients. The prognostic value of miR-24 was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression model. The effect of miR-24 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion was investigated in CCA cell line HCCC-9810 by cell transfection with fusion expression vector pEGFP-C1-miR-24. Results The expression of miR-24 was significantly upregulated in CCA tissues compared with the paired noncancerous tissues (P<0.05), and was associated with lymph node metastasis, differentiation and TNM stage of the patients. The patients with high miR-24 expression had poor overall survival compared with those with low miR-24 expression (log-rank P<0.001). The expression of miR-24 was considered an independent prognostic factor (HR=5.518, 95%CI=2.394-12.717, P<0.001). In addition, the overexpression of miR-24 in CCA cells led to enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Conclusion The upregulated expression of miR-24 is associated with poor prognosis of CCA, and is involved in tumor progression, which may be a novel target for CCA treatment.
    Synergistic antitumor effect of HSP90 targeted inhibitor peptide P7 combined with doxorubicin in acute myeloid leukemia cells apoptosis
    2019, 39(6):  821-825. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of doxorubicin (DOX) combined with a Heat shock protein 90 targeted heptapeptide - LPLTPLP (P7) in the acute myeloid leukemia cell line NB4 in vitro. Methods Following treatment with P7, DOX, or P7 combined with DOX fin NB4 cells for 48 h, cell viability was assessed by CCK-8 assay and analysis with the isobologram method;Flow cytometry was carried out to quantify apoptotic cells;The expression and cleavage level of PARP protein were investigated by Western blot analysis. Results P7 synergized with DOX for inhibiting cell viability. The apoptotic rate of combination of P7 and DOX was approximately equal to the sum of P7 and DOX apoptotic rate. The protein expression of PARP was significantly decreased while that of cleaved PARP was significantly increased with the treatment of P7 or/and DOX. Conclusions Combination of P7 and DOX exhibits synergistic effects on NB4 cells by increasing apoptosis rate, the mechanism of which may be associated with the activation of apoptosis-related protein PARP.
    Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks versus local anesthetic wound infiltration in laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ERAS program
    2019, 39(6):  826-831. 
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    Objective To evaluate ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane(U-TAP) block compared to local anesthetic(LA)wound infiltration in laparoscopic radical cystectomy and (enhanced recovery after surgery,ERAS) program.. Methods Seventy-five patients who underwent elective laparoscopic radical cystectomy were randomly divided into: control group (group C,n=35): LA combined intravenous analgesia ;study group (group S,n=35): US-TAP combined intravenous analgesia, patients received 20 ml of 0.35% ropivacaine(total 40 mL)as US-TAP inhibitors each side after the end of surgery by the anesthesiologist.All patients underwent the ERAS perioperative program and received patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) . Visual analogue pain (VAS) score at different time points and postoperative rapid recovery index were observed and recorded in the two groups.Meanwhile, the cumulative sufentanil consumption at 24 hours, the first PCA compression time ,the number of effective compressions and patient satisfaction score,; The incidence of side effects (nausea and vomiting and pruritis) were recorded in both groups.Results Compared with group C,group S had significantly lower VAS pain score at 24h and 48h after surgery (P< 0.05), and significantly shorter time of first intestinal exhaust, first time out of bed and length of stay .(P<0.01).The first postoperative PCIA compression time, the PCIA effective compression times and the total consumption of sufentanil in 24 hours in S group were significantly less than those in C group, the incidence of nausea and vomiting in 24 hours were significantly lower in group S than that in the C group (P <0.05). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in incision infection and skin itching. Conclusions Compared with LA combined with intravenous analgesia,US-TAP block combined with intravenous analgesia is beneficial to early recovery and shortens hospital stay in laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ERAS program.
    miR-181b inhibits osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and might be responsible for decreased bone mineral density of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
    2019, 39(6):  832-839. 
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    Objective To compare the expression of miR-181b in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) between health controls and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and to study the role of miR-181b in osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. Methods The expression of miR-181b in BM-MSCs from health controls and AIS patients were detected by RT-qPCR. To investigate the function of miR-181b, BM-MSCs were transfected with miR-181b mimic, inhibitor or their corresponding controls, and culture medium was then changed to osteogenic induction medium. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of osteogenesis markers and specific transcriptional factors. ALP staining and ALP activity assay were used to detect early ostogenic differentiation. Alizarin red staining was used to determine later osteogenic differentiation. Lentivirus was utilized to overexpress or block miR-181b in BM-MSCs, and the effects of miR-181b on bone formation were evaluated in ectopic bone formation model in nude mice. Western blot was used to detect the levels of phosphorylation ERK1/2 after miR-181b was overexpressed or blocked. Results MiR-181b was remarkably upregulated in AIS BM-MSCs compared with that of health control. Overexpression of miR-181b suppressed osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs in vitro and impaired ectopic bone formation in vivo. Inhibition of endogenous miR-181b promoted ostogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs in vitro and enhanced ectopic bone formation of BM-MSCs in vivo. Mechanistcally, overexpression of miR-181b inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, while blocking miR-181b elevated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Conclusions MiR-181b suppresses osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs and may be responsible for decreased bone mineral density of AIS.
    Nox1/4 inhibitor reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced injury in EA.hy926 cells
    2019, 39(6):  840-845. 
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    Objective To study the protective effect of Nox1/4 inhibitor on dysfunction of EA.hy926 human umbilical vein fusion cells induced by lipopolysaccharide. Methods EA. hy926 cells were divided into control group, LPS group, Nox1/4 inhibitor (GKT137831) +LPS group. CCK8 assay was used to detect cell viability, LDH and NO content in culture medium, ROS level in cells was detected by immunofluorescence, IL-1β and IL-6 secretion by ELISA, and endoplasmic reticulum stress marker protein expression was detected by Western blot. Results Compared with the control group, the release of NO, ROS and inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS group increased significantly (P < 0.05), while the release of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 decreased significantly after Nox1/4 inhibitor intervention (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of GRP78, p-PERK, ATF6 and IREα was up-regulated and endoplasmic reticulum stress was significantly activated in LPS group. The intervention of Nox1/4 inhibitor could inhibit the decrease of endoplasmic reticulum stress marker protein expression induced by LPS. Conclusion Inhibition of Nox1/4 attenuates LPS-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress injury in EA.hy926 cells. The mechanism may be that Nox1/4 inhibitor may reduce the production of ROS from Nox1/4, inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress, alleviate inflammatory response and improve endothelial function.
    miR-203a-5p regulates the inflammation response of human periodontal membrane stem cells by inhibiting the expression of MAPK1
    2019, 39(6):  846-850. 
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    Objective To detect the expression of miR-203a-5p and MAPK1 in inflammation human periodontal ligament cells,and investigate the regulatory effects of miR-203a-5p and MAPK1 on periodontitis. Methods To isolated culture and identificated of hPDLSCs by Flow Cytometry. (HPDLSCs were divided into control group, LPS stimulation group, mir-203a-5p mimic transfection group and mir-203a-5p inhibitor transfection group)hPDLSCs were divided into the control group,LPS stimulation group, miR-203a-5p mimic transfected cells group and miR-203a-5p inhibitor transfection cells group, the effect of miR-203a-5p on MAPK1 gene was verified by RT-qPCR,Western blot and the dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results The expression of CD73 and CD90 was positive in hPDLSCs.The expression of miR-203a-5p was obviously increased in LPS stimulation group(P<0.05). miR-203a-5p mimic and LPS could promote the expression of miR-203a-5p and suppress the expression of mRNA and protein of MAPK1(P<0.05); miR-203a-5p inhibitor could down-expression of miR-203a-5p and the expression of mRNA and protein of MAPK1 was increased(P<0.05); luciferase assay showed that miR-203a-5p and MAPK1 have targeted complementary relationship.Conclutions miR-203a-5p can regulate the inflammatory reac- tion process of periodontitis target by downregulating the expression of MAPK1 gene.
    Correlation between high altitude polycythemia and fragmented QRS
    2019, 39(6):  851-854. 
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    Objective To observe the frequency of fragmented QRS in high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) and influencing factors. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed in Qinghai Provincial People’s Hospital.From June.2017 to March.2018, 328 patients with HAPC were enrolled in our study, 303 patients without HAPC were as control. The age, height, weight, surface 12 lead ECG, RBC, Hb, Hct were analyzed. Results The fQRS incidence was higher in HAPC compared to control group, the differences were significant (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that Hb was the independent risk factor of fQRS. Conclusions fQRS prevalence is related to Hb levels in patients with HAPC.
    miR-320 regulates the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562
    2019, 39(6):  855-859. 
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    Objective To investigate the influence of miR-320 on the proliferation and cell cycle progression of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line K562. Methods The relative expression levels of miR-320 and β-catenin were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from CML patients and normal controls by using quantitative PCR analysis; K562 cells were transfected with miR-320 mimics or mimic controls. The effects of miR-320 overexpression on K562 cell proliferation were examined by CCK-8 analysis. The effects of miR-320 overexpression on K562 cell cycle progression were examined by FACS analysis. The influence of miR-320 on β-catenin expression was determined by dual-luciferase assay and Western blot analysis. The influence of miR-320 on the downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin was determined by using quantitative PCR analysis. Results The expression of miR-320 was down-regulated in CML patients compared to the normal controls, whereas the expression of β-catenin was up-regulated. Overexpression of miR-320 reduces K562 cell proliferation and inhibits its cell cycle progression. miR-320 could regulate the expression of β-catenin and its downstream target genes, including: c-Myc, cyclin D, VEGF and Cox-2. Conclusions miR-320 acts as a tumor suppressor via regulating Wnt/β-catenin in CML.
    Allicin promotes apoptosis of tumor tissue cells in tumor-bearing mice with endometrial carcinoma
    2019, 39(6):  860-864. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of allicin on endometrial cancer-bearing mice and its mechanism. Methods 40 BALB/c nude mice and human endometrial carcinoma cell lines Ishikawa were used to establish endometrial carcinoma bearing mice model. The experiment was divided into model group (M group) and Allicin group A (low dose), B (medium dose) and C (high dose). Allicin groups were given intraperitoneal injection of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of allicin dissolved in 2 mL sterile saline respectively. Group M was given 2 mL sterile saline intraperitoneal injection once every other day for 4 weeks. Tumor volume, inhibition rate, pathological changes and apoptotic rate of tumor tissue before and after intervention were compared; TLR4 and MyD88 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); TLR4 and MyD88 were detected by Western blot. Results After intervention, there were significant differences in the volume of tumors between each group and every two groups (P < 0.05). The inhibition rate of tumors in group C was the highest, followed by that in group B, and the lowest in group A, with significant differences between each two groups (P < 0.05). There were no abnormalities in the histological structure of tumors in group M. The pathological manifestations of tumors in group A, B and C included cell shrinkage, centralization of nuclear chromatin to the margin and patchy necrosis. The apoptotic rate of tissues was significantly decreased, and the relative expression of TLR4, MyD88 and protein in tumor tissues was decreased. Conclusions Allicin can inhibit the growth of endometrial cancer-bearing mice and promote cell apoptosis.
    Determination of the optimal measuring position for initial graft tension in porcine ACL reconstruction during the operation
    2019, 39(6):  865-870. 
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    Objective To study the F-s curve of transverse tensile and transverse displacement after porcine ACL reconstruction, and obtain the theoretical basis for the optimal measurement position of initial tension after ACL reconstruction. Methods Selection of 24 fresh porcine anterior cruciate ligament samples were randomly divided into three groups. Different measuring positions were performed including the edge position,quarter-position and middle position. Different location’s transverse tensile force and speed with the corresponding transverse displacement were recorded. F-s curves were drawn with computer and analyzed. Results The slopes of F-s curve were smaller when the hook were stretched at the middle position of ligament, the curve slopes at 1 / 4 position of ligament were the second, and the curve slopes at the edge position of ligament were the largest. Measured at the same point with initial tension 50, 75 and 100N, the slopes of the F-s curve were basically unchanged, but at the edge position of ligament the curve slopes were quite confused (group A). For group B and group C, the curve slopes variation of different forces were relatively regular. F-s curves of different transverse speed and corresponding displacement were same approximately. Conclusions After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the middle position is optimal for measuring initial graft tension. It is easier for surgeon to grasp the F-s curves relationship and more likely to identify the current ligament tension. The transverse tensile speed has little effect on the result.
    Clinical, pathological and endoscopic analysis of 25 patients with primary intestinal T-cell lymphoma
    2019, 39(6):  871-876. 
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    Objective To clarify the clinical, pathological and endoscopic features of primary intestinal T-cell lymphomas (PITL), and to raise understanding and diagnostic levels of this disease. Methods Clinical data of 25 hospitalized patients diagnosed with PITL in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between Aug. 2012 and Aug. 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Results In the 25 patients, 9 with monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL), 5 with extranodal NK-/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), 5 with intestinal T-cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified (ITL-NOS), 4 with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTL), 1 with anaplastic large cell lymphomas and 1 with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The male-to-female ratio was 4:1, with the median age of 45 years (range, 13 to 82y) and the median disease duration of 5 months. The common clinical manifestations included weight loss (72%), abdominal pain (64%), diarrhea (64%) and fever (64%). Endoscopic features of 22 patients included 13 (59.1%) with ulcerative features, 7 (31.8%) with infiltrative features, and 2 (9.1%) with protrusive features. Twelve out of 22 patients (54.5%) were diagnosed by endoscopic biopsies, and only 7 (31.8%) were diagnosed at the first biopsy. Altogether 17 operations were performed, including 11 emergent operations due to complications (perforation and/or bleeding). Significant differences were found between MEITL and other subtypes in age of onset, weight loss, LDH level, EBV infection, hsCRP, site of involvement, diagnostic rate by endoscopic biopsy and endoscopic features. Conclusions Ulcerative and infiltrative features are common endoscopic findings of PITL. Since diagnostic rate by the first biopsy is low, more biopsies are needed in suspected patients to make diagnosis. The clinical characteristics of MEITL are different from other subtypes.
    Clinical significance of the change of coagulation index in patients with gastric cancer
    2019, 39(6):  877-880. 
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    Objective To analyze the correlation between the change of the blood coagulation indexes and the clinical stages of the stomach cancer, the lymph node metastasis, the depth of tumor invasion through the data of the gastric cancer patients’ PT (plasma prothrombin time), Fib (fibrinogen), TT (thrombin time) and APTT (activated clotting time live enzymes) and DD (D - dimer). Methods The group of 50 patients with gastric cancer who were in the hospital from May 2015 to September 2018 are taken as an observation, 50 healthy physical examination as a control. The solidification methods are used to detect PT, Fib, TT and APTT. DD is measured by immune turbidimetry to analyze the correlation between the change of the blood coagulation indexes and the clinical stages of the stomach cancer, the lymph node metastasis, the depth of tumor invasion. Results The observation group’s Fib and DD level was higher than the control group’s (P < 0.05). TheⅡ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ period Fib, DD level in patients with gastric cancer group was higher than Ⅰ period group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, N0 group had higher Fib and DD levels in gastric cancer patients (P<0.05). Compared with the N0 group, the Fib and DD levels of patients with gastric cancer in the n1-3 group was higher (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the level of Fib in T1 patients was higher (P<0.05). Compared with t1-stage patients, t2-t4 patients had higher levels of Fib and DD (P<0.05). Conclusions the coagulation function is poor in patients with gastric cancer, and it is related to the clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and the depth of tumor invasion.
    High-throughput DNA detecting technology without nucleic acid extraction
    2019, 39(6):  881-886. 
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    Objective To introduce a high throughput DNA detection technique based on capture, which not require nucleic acid extraction and suitable for various applications with different samples, to provide a powerful means for genetic analysis. Methods The whole blood, dry blood spots, saliva and oral swabs were lysed to release the DNA, after denaturation, DNA was captured to 96-well plates by hybridization. After washing off the unbound probe, DNA can be amplified by qPCR with specific primers, or enzymatic ligating the probes to form a single strand-template with specific sequence at both ends, and qPCR is carried out with universal primers. By using P16 gene as a target, the effect of this technique was evaluated, and the technique was applied to detect parasite DNA in whole blood, serum and dry blood spots, its sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. The stability of DNA detection was evaluated with saliva and oral swabs under different storage conditions. Results This method can be successfully applied to detect DNA in whole blood, dry blood spots, saliva, oral swabs and so on. The results of saliva and swabs are still stable after being stored at room temperature and 4 ℃ for 15 days. The limit of detection of this method for Plasmodium is 0.06 parasites / μL, which is more sensitive than traditional microscopic examination and can accurately detect the parasite DNA in infected samples. Conclusions A high-throughput DNA detection technique without nucleic acid extraction is developed, which is suitable for different sample types and targets. It can provide a sensitive and efficient tool for large scale gene screening analysis.
    Progress of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology in cardiovascular field
    2019, 39(6):  890-894. 
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    The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology has been widely used in the biomedical field due to its unique advantages. The use of this technology has made great progress in related research on cardiovascular diseases such as cardiomyocyte levels, establishment of animal models of congenital heart disease, risk factors for coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure and cardiomyopathy, but the current gene editing technology still faces many problems in practical application.
    GSDMD is a key protein in the pyroptosis
    2019, 39(6):  895-898. 
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    The pyroptosis is a new model of cell death . This pattern not only activates caspase-1/4/5/11 on GSDMD by relying on pattern recognition receptors to recognize endogenous dangerous signals and the role of pathogenic microorganisms and their products in stimulating inflammatory bodies;but also it makes GSDMD-NT transfer to the cell membrane to form pores that allows water molecules and other substances to enter the cell and cause cell swelling and cleavage. However, in pyroptosis,the role of GSDMD and its role in diseases and tumours remains a mystery.So,the review is to highlight the role of GSDMD that it can lead to pyroptosis in diseases and tumours.
    Research progress of non-homologous end joining and the value in tumorigenesis and therapy
    Jia-Li LI Ying Liu
    2019, 39(6):  899-903. 
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    The DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway mainly comprises the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and the homologous recombination (HR). The NHEJ is the dominant repair method upon DSBs, which is critical for primary tumor development and evolution. In recent years, novel components and mechanisms for NHEJ were unveiled, which advances the understanding of the NHEJ pathway. Latest studies also showed the inhibition of NHEJ activity could sensitize tumor cells to chemo- and radio-therapies, indicating that NHEJ components might be potential targets for treating tumors.
    Etiological analysis and prevention of common urological tumors
    2019, 39(6):  904-907. 
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    We reviewed through literature search and data analysis, we discussed the specific etiology and causes of urological tumors.The etiology of urological tumors include internal causes (heredity and variation) and external causes (environment, smoking, radiation, etc.), covering all 7 causes (physical, chemical, biological, genetic, endocrine, immune and mental factors); covering all 6 dissections of the urinary system (6/6100%), 10 statistical diseases (10/15, 66.67%). Among them, smoking occupied 3 anatomical parts (3/6, 50%) and 3 diseases (3/15, 20%). Coffee occupied 2 anatomical parts (2/6, 33.33%) and 2 diseases (2/15, 13.33%). Tea can increase the risk of kidney cancer, but it will reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Occupational factors occupy 3 anatomical sites (3/6, 50%), and 4 diseases (4/15, 26.67%). It is necessary for us to improve the occupational environment protection and conduct regular examination of specific occupations for early diagnosis and early treatment. The causes of urothelial carcinoma include iatrogenic factors such as chemotherapeutic cyclophosphamide, analgesics and Chinese herbal medicine (aristolochic acid, etc.). chronic infection and lower urinary tract obstruction are also a high risk factor. Some diseases can be prevented. The etiology of urologic tumors covers all pathogenic factors, and etiological research can provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Prevention is the key.
    Exploration of improving the scientific research ability of medical staff in hospital based on the demand oriented
    2019, 39(6):  908-911. 
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    Objective To analyze the current situation and demand of scientific research in a grade A tertiary hospital in Beijing and put forward corresponding countermeasures to improve the enthusiasm of medical staff in scientific research and the level of scientific research management in the hospital. Methods: The current scientific research situation of doctors was learned by consulting their scientific research management department; A questionnaire survey was conducted on medical staff's scientific research needs on the basis of pre-survey. Results:Hospital scientific research capacity needs to be strengthened; 89.72% of respondents consider the current research work is very difficult; position-promoting (63.24%) is still the main power of medical staffs to carry out the scientific research work; there are many difficulties in scientific research work, and there is a great demand for scientific research training. Conclusion:The scientific research level of the hospital needs to be improved through policy guidance, strengthening scientific research training, building scientific research innovation platform and improving the academic atmosphere.
    Teaching effect of medical students as teachers for laparoscopic simulator training
    2019, 39(6):  912-915. 
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    Objective To investigate whether medical students as teachers can facilitate the laparoscopic simulator training using the virtual reality simulator. Methods Thirty preclinical medical are randomly divided into two groups, 15 students are trained by student teachers (group A) and 15 students are trained by surgeons (group B). Both groups are trained by virtual reality simulator with the basic laparoscopic skills and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The performance between two groups is analyzed. Results There was no significant difference between the two group in the performance of laparoscopic skills. Conclusions The study confirmed that medical students can teach laparoscopic skills on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator as effectively as the experienced surgeons.
    Application of mixed reality technique in clinical teaching of percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy
    2019, 39(6):  916-920. 
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    Objective To explore the application of mixed reality technique in the clinical teaching of percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy. Methods Collaborating with the team of Tsinghua University, percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy was presented through mixed reality technology. The subjects were selected from the resident doctor and intern in the surgical department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital, and randomly divided into mixed reality group and traditional teaching group (12 for each group), with the age, gender and seniority matched. After clinical teaching, questionnaire surveys and tests of the interactivity, interest, three-dimensional imagination, and understanding of knowledge were performed in two groups. Results Our study was the first to use mixed reality technology in clinical teaching of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy by creating virtual-reality and three-dimensional learning situation. There was no significant difference in the understanding of basic knowledge between the two groups, but the mixed reality group had significant advantages in learning initiative, interactivity, interest and three-dimensional imagination. Conclusions The application of mixed reality in medical teaching has great potential and broad prospects. Visualization, interactivity and three-dimensional imagination could be improved by medical teaching with mixed reality. Mixed reality combined with force feedback technology has significant development prospects of simulation training in specialist physicians.
    Effect of the medical educational program“chief resident afternoon tea”on 8-year undergraduate students at Peking Union Medical College
    2019, 39(6):  921-924. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of the medical education program“chief resident afternoon tea”on undergraduate medical students. Methods We surveyed the 6th year,7th year and 8th year undergraduate medical students from Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) who are attending or have attended the program in 2018 on their attitudes towards“chief resident afternoon tea”and to what extent they benefited from the four teaching objectives of competency. Results Based on visual Analog Scale, the mean scores of the attractiveness of the program were 6.62±1.92 to 6th year students, 6.55±2.26 to 7th year students and 6.15±2.02 to 8th year students.The three groups of the students valued 6.94±1.99, 6.82±2.03 and 6.55±1.80 on their benefit of problem-solving skills, respectively; valued 6.68 ±2.00, 6.27±2.09 and 5.89±2.06 on their benefit of communication skills; valued 6.18 ±2.43,6.51±2.23 and 5.98±2.13 on their benefit of medical humanity, and valued 6.52 ±2.13, 6.35±2.04 and 5.93±1.62 on their benefit of improvement of way of learning. Conclusions Undergraduate medical students showed their preference for the teaching program of “chief resident afternoon tea”. It played an important role in competence training.