Table of Content

    05 February 2017, Volume 37 Issue 2
    Chaperonin containing T-complex protein 1 subunit epsilon (CCT5) serves as γδ T cell-related autoantigen
    2017, 37(2):  145-149. 
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    Objective To examine the relationship between CCT5, γδ T cell and autoimmune diseases. Methods Recombinant CCT5 protein was cloned, expressed and purified in E.coli. Three peptides of CCT5 protein was used to prepare for anti-CCT5 monoclonal antibodies. Purified CCT5 protein was used to expand γδ T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Plasma levels of CCT5 in healthy donors, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were detected by ELISA assays. The correlation analysis between plasma CCT5 concentration and the percentage of different subtypes of γδ T cells measured by flow cytometry was made. Results The CCT5 gene was amplified by PCR and the length of the target fragment was 1 750 bp. The expressed 65ku CCT5 protein was purified and validated by SDS-PAGE. Two paired monoclonal anti-CCT5 antibodies were screened to detect CCT5 protein in plasma. Immobilized recombinant CCT5 protein was able to induce specific significant amplification of peripheral γδ T cells. Correlation analysis of 10 healthy donors indicated significant correlation between the plasma CCT5 concentration and the proportion of Vγ9 and Vδ2 γδ T cells. The plasma CCT5 concentration was significantly decreased in autoimmune diseases patients, including RA and SLE. Conclusion These data suggest that CCT5 could be a novel Vγ9δ2 γδ T cell-related factor in autoimmune diseases, which deepen our understanding of Vγ9δ2 γδ T cell function in autoimmune diseases.
    A method to predict clustered repeats in Salmonella genomes
    2017, 37(2):  150-155. 
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    Objective To develop a simple method identifying and illustrating clustered repeats in bacterial genomes, and to observe the patterns of clustered repeats in Salmonella genomes. Methods Bacterial genomes were cut into overlapped pieces of identical size with a sliding window strategy. Each piece of genome fragment was aligned against itself with BLAT integrated in PipMaker, which was further used to build collinearity figures. Collinearity figures were analyzed to identify the clustered repeats. Results With the new pipelineCRpred (Clustered Repeat Predicter), Salmonella typhimurium LT2 genome was screened,and in total 151clustered repeats were disclosed. Pattern analysis on these repeats indicated that there were five categories, including low-copy simple tandem repeats, high-copy simple tandem repeats, interspaced tandem repeats, reverse-complementary repeats, and interspaced reverse-complementary repeats. Nine repeat regions in LT2 genome were discovered whichcould not be simply classified into the 5 categories defined above. Conclusions A new, simple and intuitive strategywas proposed to identify and show clustered repeats in genomes, providing clues for CRISPR, VNTR and other repeat-related studies.
    Characteristics and clinical significance of sera anti-enteric neuronal antibodies in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea
    2017, 37(2):  156-161. 
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    Objective To detect the sera anti-enteric neuronal antibodies (AENA) in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) patients and analyzed its correlation with IBS-D symptoms to explore the potential roles of AENA in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods IBS-D patients met the Rome III diagnostic criteria were enrolled in this study. The sera of healthy subjects were used as controls. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was used to detect the sera AENA with the substrate of ileal submucosal plexus of guinea pig. The immune reactivity (IR) stains were read in blinded method. The bowel symptoms of patients with positive AENA were compared to that with negative and weekly positive antibodies. Results 1) A total of 127 IBS-D patients were enrolled in this study. The positive rate of sera AENA was 85.8% in IBS-D patients, and 7.0% in healthy controls. Among 109 IBS-D patients with positive IIF reactivity, 23.6% present with strong positive, 43.3% with positive and 18.9% with weakly positive stain. The IR patterns include cytoplasm staining, nucleus staining, cytoplasms and nuclei staining , nuclear membrane staining, cytoplasm and nuclear membrane staining. Six positive sera of healthy control showed cytoplasm staining to substrate neurons. 2) More patients of IBS-D with positive IR have higher intestinal symptoms scores (>10 scores, 58.8% vs 38.1%), frequent abdominal pain in non-defecation period (91.7% vs 60.0%), and severe abdominal pain/discomfort before defecation (24.7% vs 9.5%) comparing to those with negative and weekly positive IR of AENA; IBS-D patients with positive IR of AENA are more commonly associated with urgency comparing to those with negative IR in IIF (57.1% vs 87.3). Conclusions The results indicate AENA might play a role in the pathogenesis of IBS, and is expected to become the biomarker of IBS.
    Differential regulation of SREBP1c/cm on transcriptional activity and expression of PERK promoter
    2017, 37(2):  162-168. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of sterol regulating element binding protein (SREBP1c) and its active form (SREBP1cm) on human protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). Methods Reporter victors of PERK promoter and its truncations are constructed with pGL3-basic and co-transfected with internal reference pRL-SV40 into cell and luciferase activity was detected. pcDNA3.1(-)-SREBP1c or pcDNA3.1(-)-SREBP1cm was co-transfected with PERK promoter transcriptional activity core regions and the detection of dual-luciferase reporter gene was used to analyze the regulation of SREBP1c/1cm on PERK promoter transcriptional activity. The expression level of PERK mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Results PERK promoter and truncations were successfully constructed into pGL3-basic, and PERK promoter core area of transcriptional activity had determined; Dual-luciferase report gene showed that SREBP1c inhibits PERK promoter transcriptional activity and SREBP1cm promotes PERK promoter transcriptional activity. RT-PCR and Western blot showed that SREBP1c decreased PERK mRNA and protein expression, but SREBP1cm increased PERK mRNA and protein expression, which was consistent with the detection of dual-luciferase report gene. Conclusions SREBP1c and SREBP1cm have a opposite regulation effect on PERK promoter transcriptional activity and its expression.
    Human leptin gene overexpression enhances osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells from rats
    2017, 37(2):  169-175. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of human leptin (hLEP) gene transfection on rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs). Methods rBMSCs were cultured and transfected with adenoviruses encoding hLEP (Ad5-hLEP-EGFP) in vitro as experimental group while rBMSCs transfected with Ad5-EGFP and non-transfected were control groups. The proliferation was detected by MTT and the expression of collagen type ? (Col-?) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed by real-time PCR. The ability of mineralized nodule forming was also compared by Alizarin red staining. What’s more, the combination of transfected rBMSCs and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was constructed and the osteogenic ability of the construction was evaluated in nude mice. Results hLEP could be transfected into rBMSCs successfully by adenovirous. After transfection, the proliferation was not affected while Col-? and ALP expressions were more pronounced in rBMSCs transfected with Ad5-hLEP-EGFP (P < 0.05). Alizarin red staining showed the ability of mineralized nodule forming was also up-regulated in Ad5-hLEP-EGFP group (P < 0.05). In addition, the transfected rBMSCs could adhere to β-TCP and survived well and the combination showed more new bone like tissue formation in nude mice compared to control groups. Conclusions rBMSCs transfected with hLEP may have potentials to be used in bone or periodontal tissue regeneration.
    Effects of cisplatin on autophagy and apoptosis and their correlation in bladder cancer cells
    2017, 37(2):  176-182. 
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    Objective To identify whether cisplatin can induce autophagy of bladder cancer T24 cells and the possible mechanism, and observe the relationship between outophagy and apoptosis. Methods MTT assay was applied to investigate the effects of various concentration of cisplatin(0, 10, 20 and 40 μg/mL) on T24 survival. TEM detection of autophagosome formation. Western blotting assay was used to analyze the expression changes of LC3-II, P62 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p-ERK at the protein level. The effects of autophagy on the survival and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells were investigated. Results DDP could observably inhibite proliferation of bladder cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), the 50% inhibiting concentration(IC50) was (30.3±2.4)μg/mL; DDP could induce autophagy of bladder cancer cells, observably increased autophagosome induced by DDP; up-regulated expression levels of LC3-II proteins (P < 0.05), down-regulated expression levels of P62 proteins (P < 0.05); DDP could increase the protein level of p-ERK (P < 0.05); The inhibitor of ERK pathway U0126 inhibited DDP-induced autophagy, as evidenced by decrease in the expression of LC3-II proteins (P < 0.05). After the inhibition of autophagy by WTM in DDP-treated cells, cell viability was obviously decreased and apoptosis was increased (P < 0.05); DDP combined with WTM observably enhanced cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and cleaved-caspase3 which are apoptosis related proteins(P < 0.05). Conclusion Autophagy can protect T24 cells against ciplatin-induced apoptosis, the possible mechanism of autophagy is the ERK signaling pathway activation.
    Protein expression of activated Pak1 and its correlation with chromosome segregation in mouse oocyte meiosis
    2017, 37(2):  183-188. 
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    Objective To observe the protein expression, subcelluar localization of activated Pak1 and its relationship with chromosome separation during meiosis in mouse oocytes. Methods Western blot was applied to analyze the expression of activated Pak1 (phosphorylated Pak1 at Ser204, pPak1Ser204) at different stages of meiotic progression in semi-quantitative manner; immunofluorescent staining was employed to detect the sub-cellular localization of pPak1Ser204 and its spatial-temporal correlation with spindle and microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) during oocyte meiosis. Results pPak1Ser204 expression was detected upon germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in mouse oocytes, increased along with the meiotic progression, reaching peak level at metaphase I (MI), which remained up to meiosis II (MII). From pro-metaphase I (pro-MI) to MI and at MII stage, pPak1Ser204was co-localized with MTOC key components, pericentrin and ?-tubulin on spindle poles, pPak1Ser204 was also distributed on chromosomes; During anaphase I (AI) to telophase I (Tel I) progression, pPak1Ser204 was detached from chromosomes and MTOC, and mainly concentrated on the cleavage furrow. Conclusions pPak1Ser204 is expressed upon meiotic resumption in oocytes, it is a MTOC-associated protein, may regulate chromosome separation through participating the formation and maintenance of spindle apparatus.
    Effects of IRF1 on polarization and antitumor function of M1 microphage
    2017, 37(2):  189-196. 
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    Objective To study if IRF1 could regulate the polarization by IRF1 and M1 status and affect M1 mediated antitumor function. Methods U937 derived M1 macrophage (U937-M1) model was established.The cells were devided into 4 groups, including: the PMA pretreated unpolarized macrophage (M0) , the PMA, IFN-γ and LPS stimulated M1 macrophage (M1), the siRNA of IRF1 knocked down M1 macrophage (siIRF1) and the negative control siRNA treated M1 macrophage (siC).Furthermore, the expression of CD86 and CD206 was detected by flow cytometry, the M1/M2 associated markers (IL-12p35,IL-12p40,IL-23p19,IL-6,TNF-α/IL-10) and IFNB1 were analyzed by qPCR, the expression of IL-12p70 and IL-10 was examined by ELISA, the expression of IRF1 and IRF5 was detected by Western blot, the proliferration and apoptosis of HCC were analyzed by CCK8 and flow cytometry, respectively. Results Compared with the U937-M1, the IRF1 knocked down group showed impaired CD86 expression, but enhanced CD206 expreesion (P < 0.05); the expression of M1 related cytokines including IL-12p35,IL-12p40,IL-23p19,IL-6,TNF-α and IFNB1 was decreased, but M2 related cytokine IL-10 level was increased (P < 0.01); the secretion of IFN-β and IL-12p70 was impaired, but IL-10 was enhanced (P < 0.05). In IRF1 knocked down U937-M1, the CCK8 analysis indicated that the M1 mediated anti-proliferation effects on hepatoma carcinoma cell was turned to pro-proliferation (P < 0.05); the flow cytometry showed that the M1 mediated pro-apoptosis effects was reversed to anti-apoptosis (P < 0.01). Interestingly, IRF5 and IFN-β were decreased at both mRNA and protein levels in IRF1 knocked down U937-M1 compared with the U937-M1 (P < 0.01). Conclusions IRF1 may partly modulate IRF5 and IFN-β, and further regulate M1 polarization and its antitumor effects.
    Effect of miR-210 on angiogenesis of renal clear cell carcinoma
    2017, 37(2):  197-201. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect ofmiR-210 on angiogenesis of human renal clear cell carcinoma. Methods Detect the expression of miR-210 in 40 cases of renal clear cell carcinoma tissues, and analyze the relationship between the expression of miR-210 and microvessel density (MVD). MiR-210-ASO was lipotransfected into renal clear cell carcinoma cell line 786-O. RT-qPCR to verify the transfection effect. The effect of the supernatant of control group, negative control group and miR-210-ASO group tumor cells on the lumen formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was observed in three dimensional culturesystems. The transplantation tumor model of nude mice was established, and the effect of miR-210 on the formation of the transplanted tumor micro vesselwas observed by endomucinand VEGF immunofluorescence staining under laser scanning confocal microscope. Results The expression of miR-210 was positively correlated with microvessel density in renal clear cell carcinoma (P<0.05).The expression of miR-210 was significantly decreased in 786-O cells transfected with miR-210-ASO(P<0.05). The lumen formation of HUVEC cells co cultured with miR-210-ASO group cell supernatant was significantly less than that of control group and negative control group(P<0.05). The tumor volume of miR-210-ASO group was less than that of the control group, and the number of the micro vesseland the VEGF expression were significantly less than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions Inhibition of miR-210 can suppress the ability of blood vessel formation in renal clear cell carcinoma.
    Parthenolide enhances the apoptosis induced by PKC inhibitor in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors cell lines
    2017, 37(2):  202-205. 
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    Objective: To investigate the effect of parthenolide (PTL) and PKC inhibitor on human gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) cell proliferation and apoptosis and the mechanism involved. Methods: Human GIST cell lines were cultured in vitro, and the cell proliferation rate of GIST, was determinate by MTT; flow cytometry was used to test the early apoptosis rate of GIST; Western blot assay was applied to detected the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins, GRP78 and GADD153. There are four groups: control group, PTL group, PKC inhibitor group, combine PTL and PKC inhibitor group.Results: PTL and PKC inhibitor combination therapy for GIST was significantly more effective than a single-drug therapy (P <0.05); to early apoptosis rate, the combination therapy for GIST cells was significantly higher than that medication alone group (P <0.05). the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated protein GRP78 and GADD153 is obviously higher in PTL and PKC inhibitor combination group than that in medication alone group (P <0.05). Conclusions: PTL and PKC inhibitor combination therapy for GIST cells induce apoptosis, which was possible mediated via endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.
    Effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on the expressions of glucose transporter 2 and insulin receptor substrate 2 in rat kidney
    2017, 37(2):  206-210. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia and on GLUT-2, IRS-2 expression in the rat kidney. Methods Rats were randomly divided into control group (control), chronic intermittent hypoxia group (CIH), chronic intermittent hypoxia reoxygenation group (RH), the establishment of chronic intermittent hypoxia animal models,arterial blood gas analysis were extracted immediately.Serum glucose was measured by peroxidase and serum insulin was detected by radioimmunoassay. Remove the kidney tissue of rats ,protein expression of GLUT-2, IRS-2 were detected with Western Blot and immunohistochemical,mRNA expression of GLUT-2、IRS-2 were observed by qPCR . Results Oximetry in the control group was ≥95%, oxygen saturation in the CIH group was ≤85%, oxygen saturation in the RH group was ≥86%; fasting blood glucose , serum insulin and insulin resistance index in the CIH group were significantly higher than the control group and RH group (P <0.05); RH group was higher than control group (P <0.05). protein and mRNA expression of GLUT-2、 IRS-2 in the CIH group were higher than the control group and RH group (P <0.05); RH group was higher than control group (P <0.05). Conclusion Chronic intermittent hypoxia can increase blood glucose,upregulates the expression of GLUT-2, IRS2 in the rat kidney and enhance insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity.
    ELK-3 interference inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells
    2017, 37(2):  211-216. 
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    Objective To investigate the relationship of ELK-3 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),exploring its possible mechanism. Methods The human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) were divided into small interference RNA transfection group and Ras-ELK-3 pathway inhibitor group. The protein levels of ELK-3 target gene EGR-1 E-cadherin,vimentin and p38 in HCC) were determined by Western blot analysis. Results The protein levels of ELK-3 and its target gene EGR-1 in treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were decreased significantly as compared with the negative control group (P < 0.01). The protein level of E-cadherin was significantly increased (P < 0.01),while vimentin and p38 were decreased in HCC cells with ELK-3 interference (P < 0.01). Conclusions ELK-3 interference can inhibit the epithelial- mesenchymal transition of HCC cells by down-regulating p38.
    Renal artery calcification promotes the progressive renal damage of type 2 diabetic nephropathy rats
    2017, 37(2):  217-223. 
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    Objective To explore the effects of renal artery calcification on the renal function in type 2 diabetic nephropathy rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into control group(CON group), diabetic nephropathy group (DN group)and DN with vascular calcification group (DN+VC group). Rats of group DN and DN+VC were were fed with high sugar and fat diet and injected with streptozotocin(STZ)into abdominal cavity to induce a model of type 2 diabetes. After diabetic models were successfully made, rats of group DN+VC were treated by vitamin D3 plus nicotine. The rats were sacrificed at 8, 12 and16 week respectively and the pathologic change to the renal artery were detected by von Kossa staining. The calcium content were detected by calcium assay kit and double immunofluorescence staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were applied to detect the protein and gene expression levels of BMP2 in the renal artery. Measure the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN),serum creatinine (Scr),cystatin C(Cys C) and 24 hour urinary protein (24-h UA)respectively at the 8th,12th and 16th weeks. Histopathology of kidney was assessed by hematoxylin/eosin staining . Results The deposition of black granules, the calcium content and the protein and gene expression levels of BMP2 in DN group were significantly higher than those in group CON and lower than DN+VC group at each time points(P<0.05). The BUN, Scr, Cys C and 24-h UA in group DN and group DN+VC were gradually increased in 8th,12th and 16th weeks, and were higher than those in group CON(P<0.05). Compared with the DN group, only the level of Cys C at each time point and the level of 24-h UA in 16th week in DN+VC group were significantly higher(P<0.05). The pathological damages of the kidney in group DN showed a continual worsening trend and the pathological changes of the kidney in group DN+VC were more serious than group DN. Calcium content was positively correlated with the increased serum BUN, Scr, Cys C, 24- h UA and BMP2 mRNA (all P< 0.01). Conclusion The occurrence and severity of renal artery calcification may participate in and promote the progression of DN.
    Faciliated primary culture and amplification of breast cancer cells and their biological properties
    2017, 37(2):  224-229. 
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    Objective To efficiently builds up and expand breast cancer cells from patient cancer tissue and identify their biological properties, to provide abundant materials for research and personalized medicine. Methods Feeder cell layer and ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 were employed to faciliate the breast cancer cells;CCK-8 was used to determine the proliferation of the breast cancer cells; Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry; Histochemistry(FH) assay to show the expression level of CK. The mRNA expression levels of HER-2, ER, PR and the breast cancer stem cell associated molecules (such as CD44, CD24, etc.) were detected by RT-PCR;STR assay was used for identifying verification of the cells. Results The use of feeder cells and Y-27632 facilitates rapid expand of the original breast cancer cells, and the cells have kept the original features of the tumor. Conclusion To use the method could obtain a large number of cells within a short time, which can promptly be used for the research of personalized medicine.
    Case report of hepatic adenoma with hemorrhage in glycogen storage disease type Ia
    2017, 37(2):  230-233. 
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    Objective: To analyze and summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous hemorrhage of hepatic adenoma in glycogen storage disease type Ia. Methods: Reporting 1 case in our hospital and making a summary about general situation, category, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of the hemorrhage of hepatic adenoma with glycogen storage disease type Ia through checking literatures. Results: The patient was a 27 year old male who had been diagnosed as glycogen storage disease for 14 years, as well as was first found hepatic adenoma at the age of 17. He once was diagnosed as intra-adenoma bleeding with persistent abdominal pain and dizziness and was underwent selective hepatic artery embolization at the age of 22. Hepatic adenoma in glycogen storage disease type Ia generally appeared at the age of puberty. One common complication of this disease was hemorrhage of hepatic adenoma, which can be found by ultrasonography and CT. Treatments included observation, selective hepatic artery embolization, radiofrequency ablation, surgical resection and liver transplantation. Conclusion: Glycogen storage disease type Ia is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, some patients may be secondary to hepatic adenoma, the radiological examination can be helpful to detect hepatic adenoma. Then appropriate intervention can be useful to improve the quality of life and prognosis.
    Clinical characteristics of polymyositis and dermatomyositiscomplicated with lymphoma
    2017, 37(2):  234-237. 
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    Objective To investigate the clinical features of polymyositis and dermatomyositis(PM/DM) with lymphoma. Methods The clinical data, treatment and prognosis ofPM/DM with lymphoma from 2000 to 2015 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results Ten cases of PM/DM patients complicated with lymphoma were recruited.6 were female and 4 was male. The mean ages of the diagnosis of PM/DM and lymphoma were 44.5 and 44.9 years old respectively. The average disease course from PM/DM to lymphoma was 4.7months. 6 cases were dermatomyositis and 4 cases were polymyositis. 3 cases had pulmonary fibrosis and 2 cases had arthritis. Nocasehad a positive result of anti-Jo-1 antibody. The most frequent symptoms complicated with lymphoma included as following: enlargement of lymph nodes (9 cases), fever (8 cases), splenomegaly (5 cases). Thetop 3 lymphoma biopsy specimenincluded lymph node(4 cases), skin(2 cases)andlocalmass(2 cases).All the 10 patients were diagnosed as non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 4 cases were derived from T cell, 2 cases from B cell, and 4 cases with unknown origin. The clinical staging showed III B (4 cases) and IV B (6 cases). Immunosuppressant agents were given to treat PM/DM. During thefollow-up period, 5 patients died, 4 patients received chemotherapy and 1 patient was lost. Conclusions The coincidence of PM/DM and lymphoma is not rare. The course between PM/DM and lymphoma is short, and the mortality is high, which should arise the attention of clinicians.
    Clinical characteristics and recombinant human growth hormone treatment efficacy in six Chinese Noonan syndrome patients
    2017, 37(2):  238-242. 
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    Objective This study summarizes the clinical characteristics, gene diagnosis and rhGH treatment response of six Noonan syndrome (NS)patients.Methods Six NS patients were collected from May 2009 to August 2015 in Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital with clinical characteristics.Five patients were prescribed with rhGH with the initial dose of 0.1IU/kg?dand made the regular follow-up.Ten age/gender matched Turner syndrome (TS) patients and ten growth hormone deficiency (GHD) patients were also collected in the study, aiming to analyze the efficacy differences of rhGH treatment. Results All patients manifested typical features.Five of six patients were treated with rhGH. The annual growth rate of the patients was significantly increased than before (P <0.01).The age-matched NS and TS patients had the similar efficacy of rhGH treatment in every follow-up. However, compared with age/gender matched GHD patients, NS patients revealed less treatment benefit.Adverse events: two NS patients emerged subclinical hypothyroidism during the follow-up. Conclusion NS patients had relatively common symptoms and clinical features, through the precision gene screening is the definite way to confirm. rhGH showed the significant efficacy and safety in the treatment of NS.
    Liraglutide reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in neonatal rat
    2017, 37(2):  245-248. 
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    Nitric oxide bioavailability dysfunction and atherosclerosis
    2017, 37(2):  251-255. 
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    Endothelial dysfunction was closely related with AS, NO bioavailability (production and utilization of endothelial NO)was decreased by oxidative stress, lipid infiltration, inflammatory factor expression, vascular tone alteration and so on, which play an important role in endothelial dysfunction. Enhanced arginine, activityand asymmetric dimethylarginine together with increased hyperhomocysteinemia all promote AS by intervening NO bioavailability.Diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic kidney disease, smoking and so on also involved in AS via influencing NO bioavailability and NO level.
    Research progress in molecular mechanism of hematopoietic stem cell injury induced by ionizing radiation
    2017, 37(2):  256-260. 
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    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) injury induced by ionizing radiation (IR) is the primary cause of death after exposure to ionizing radiation. The mechanisms of inducing HSC damage include induction of HSC apoptosis via the p53-Puma pathway; promotion of HSC differentiation via the activation of the G-CSF/Stat3/BATF-dependent differentiation checkpoint; induction of HSC senescence via the ROS-p38 pathway; and damage to the HSC niche. Recent researches provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of bone marrow suppression caused by ionizing radiation.
    Research progress of thrombin activatiable fibrinolysis inhibitor in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
    2017, 37(2):  261-264. 
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    Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a kind of plasma enzymes that can be activated by thrombin. TAFI regulates blood coagulation and fibrinolysis and has a strong fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory activity. Its inhibitor is expected to avoid the risk of bleeding when thrombolytic recanalization. Also, studies found that TAFI played an important role in the development of cerebral thrombosis; atherosclerosis and so on.
    Research progress of mTOR inhibitors for anti-atherosclerosis
    LIU Li-qiao
    2017, 37(2):  265-269. 
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    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kind of Ser/Thr kinase that exists in mammalian cells can regulate cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. mTOR including mTORC1 and mTORC2 two different complex forms. Originally developed as an anti-fungal agent, rapamycin and rapalogs were soon found to have powerful immunosuppressant properties and thus be valuable for preventing the progress of the artery atheromatous by inhibiting the function of mTORC1. But long-term rapalogs administration may increase the side actions such as mTORC1 resistance, mTORC2 inhibition, dyslipidemia. The clinical application of drug combination and dosing interval is in order to reduce the occurrence of adverse events.
    Formation and enlightenment of the higher medical elite education in the United States
    2017, 37(2):  270-272. 
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    The authorsattempted to sort out the training experience of higher education pedagogy in America, and truthfully recorded the understanding and experience of the higher medical elite education of America during visiting the University of Nebraska Medical Center.Combined with the current situation of higher medical educationinChina, the formation and the embodiment of the higher medical elite education mode of America has also been concretely analyzed, which was expected to bring new enlightenment and reference for the formation of higher medical elite education mode and the medical teaching reform.
    Enlightment of foreign management system of rare diseases to China
    2017, 37(2):  273-276. 
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    Through analyses of rare diseases management of several country and regions, successful practices have been discussed. Legislation of rare diseases should be activated as soon as possible to produce specific standard of rare diseases. Accelerating development of translational medicine could be a feasible approach to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases. Strengthening the orientation of management policies should be put into a more significant position to promote incentives of stakeholder in this area. Both enhancing the joint collaboration of different departments and perfecting medical insurance system could be forceful accelerants to create and optimize the management system of rare diseases in China.
    Clinical scenery drama in doctor-patient communication training and evaluation
    2017, 37(2):  277-280. 
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    Humanistic doctor-patient communication is a basic capability for medical workers and is as important as medical technology. Its education has been getting more and more attention in recent years. However, the training and evaluation of humanistic doctor-patient communication as a practical other than theoretical capability has been difficult. A new method, clinical scenery drama, based on psychodrama and role theory, is developed by Dept. of Psychological Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital from recent 10 years of medical doctor and student training. In clinical scenery drama, medical students are thrown to different roles to empathize with their feelings and conflicts, try to resolve clinical dilemma with humanistic communication technique besides medical technology. Then the sharing and comments from teachers and observers help students to understand the situation from other perspectives and think about other possible solutions.
    Construction of teaching helping systemamong hospitals
    2017, 37(2):  281-284. 
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    Quantities of teaching helping activities exist among hospitals because of large of imbalance of teaching system development. Effectiveness of those helping activities depends on establishment of scientific teaching helping system. Teaching help system among hospitals is based on the establishment of teaching system of hospital, scientific and scheduled helping process management, and aimed at progress of effectiveness of helping activities. PUMCH summarizes its large teaching helping activities and proposes theoretical model of effectiveness of teaching helping among hospitals.
    Recurrent fever, vision impaired and renal insufficiency
    2017, 37(2):  285-290. 
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