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Table of Content

    05 January 2017, Volume 37 Issue 1
    Effect of ferric ammonium citrateo n ROS-indused HCV IRES translation
    2017, 37(1):  1-7. 
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    Objective The major goal of this study was to identify the activity of HCV IRES translation differences and identify the relationship between HCV IRES translation activity and ROS Under different concentrations of FAC induction. Methods 1) Expression plasmid pCI-Rluc-HCV IRES-Fluc was confirmed by endonuclease digestion as well as luciferase transient expression in Huh-7 cell;2) Controlled by Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay,We analysis the Different translation activity of HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) Under the concentration of 50 μmol/L and 300 μmol/L of FAC induction; ROS fluorescent staining method was used to detect the activity of ROS in cells Huh-7,Western blot method was used to Detect the protein expression changes of Nrf2 in cells Huh-7; 3) On the basis of the above experiments,we Add 100 μmol/L DPI in 300 μmol/L FAC experimental group,Analysis the changes of HCV replication and ROS production after joining DPI. Results The results showed that the generation of ROS and the activity of luciferase in the model group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P<0.05). FAC can enhance the expression of HCV IRES and Increase the production of ROS, then causing Nrf2 expression in Huh-7 cell. However,after adding ROS inhibitor DPI,The above functions in Huh-7 cell are weakened. Conclusions The increase of HCV IRES expression induced by FAC, related to excessive ROS production induced by FAC in Huh-7 cells.
    Expression of Sp100 induced by ATRAand its effecton proliferation in NB4 cells
    2017, 37(1):  8-12. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of Sp100 in ATRA-treated NB4 cellsandits effect on proliferation in NB4 cells.Methods Q-PCR was employed to measure the expression of Sp100 mRNA;Western blot was used to detectthe expression of Sp100 protein; Immunofluorescence was adopted to determine the location of Sp100;Cell viability was analyzed by CCK8;Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Results ATRA could induce obviously the expression of mRNA and protein of Sp100. ATRA changed the location of Sp100 from a micro-punctate pattern into a punctate nuclear patternin NB4 cells. Sp100-shRNA promoted the proliferation of NB4 cells and increased the cells in G2/M phase.Conclusions The expression of Sp100 was significantly increased in ATRA-treated NB4 cells, and Sp100 may be involved in the regulation of proliferation activity of NB4 cells.
    Sustained hypoxia promotes the proliferation and reduces apoptosis of rabbit urine derived stem cells
    2017, 37(1):  13-18. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of hypoxia on the cell proliferation, apoptosis and secretion of rabbit urine derived stem cells (rUSCs);Methods rUSCs were isolated and cultured with oxygen concentration at 20 % and 3 %, respectively. To observe the morphological changes of rUSCs in different culture conditions continuously; The growth curves under different culture conditions were drawn respectively;Antibody detection of factor secretion was performed;The cell cycle and the apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Single, small, compact “rice-grain” like cells were observed on day 6, after cultured in different oxygen concentration,the cells in normoxia group appeared like "spindle", the cells in hypoxia group changed into " pebble" like; The growth curves of two groups showed a "S" shape, but the cells in hypoxia group had a faster growth speed compared with normoxia group (P <0.01 resp.); Compared with normoxia group, the paracrine effect in hypoxia group had an increased expression level , and an increased variety ; Less cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase under hypoxia as compared with that in normoxia group(71.82%±8.86% and 91.73%±1.35%, resp.) (P<0.05), while the cell numbers at S phase increased in hypoxia group are comparied with that of normoxia group(18.77%±3.87% and 3.48%±0.73%, resp.) (P<0.01); The apoptosis rate of normoxia group(3.24%±0.38% ) was significantly higher than that of hypoxia group by flow cytometry (0.43%±0.05%) (P<0.001); and the apoptosis rate of normoxia group(4.27%± 0.48% ) was significantly higher than that of hypoxia group by Hoechst(1.37%± 0.33%)(P<0.01). Conclusion It is demonstrated that culture at 3% O2 could enhance cell proliferation and reduce apoptosis of rUSCs.
    VCAM-1 enhances the migration activity and invasion ability of human glioma cell line cells
    2017, 37(1):  19-24. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of VCAM-1 on migration and invasion of glioma cell lines. Methods The techniques of lentivirus pSGU6/GFP/Neo-based VCAM-1 shRNA and EF1a-GFP/puro-based VCAM-1 expression vector, the scratch wound healing migration and transwell invasion assays, and the Western blot and cell staining were applied to observe the effects of VCAM-1 expression levels on the migration activity and invasion ability of glioma cell line cells. There are four groups in T98G cells including control, vector, scramble and shRNA-VCAM-1 groups and three groups in U251 cells covering control, vector and VCAM-1 overexpressed groups (n=6 per group). Results The stabled glioma cell lines of T98G cells with down-regulated VCAM-1 and U251 cells with VCAM-1 overexpression were firstly established by using lentivirus-based VCAM-1 shRNA and expression vector. The ability of scratch wound healing (migration activity) decreased significantly (p<0.01) in T98G cells with lower VCAM-1 expression levels, while the migration activity was obviously improved in U251 cells with overexpressed VCAM-1 (p<0.05,). Similarly, the invasion ability was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) in T98G cells with silenced VCAM-1, as well as VCAM-1 overexpression could enhance the invasion ability of U251 cells (p<0.01). Conclusions VCAM-1 enhances the migration activity and invasion ability of human glioma cell line cells.
    TLR4 activation with LPS inhibits BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts
    2017, 37(1):  25-31. 
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    Objective To study the effect of TLR4 activation with LPS on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts(iMEFs). Methods The activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway was detected by ICC.iMEFs were treated with LPS,BAY11-7082,Adnovirus GFP and BMP9. The early osteogenic differentiation capability ofiMEFs was detected by ALP staining and quantitative assay. The later osteogenic differentiation capability was detected by alizarin red S staining. The expression of later osteogenic differentiation marker gene OCNand OPNwere detected by PCR and Western blot. The change of p-Smad1/5/8 was detected by Western blot. The expression of Runx2and Dlx5 were detected by PCR and Western blot. Results LPS can stimulate TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway effectively. TLR4 activation inhibited BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation related gene and Smad1/5/8 signaling activation were inhibited by TLR4 activation. The inhibition effect could be partly reversed by BAY11-7082(P<0.05).Conclusions TLR4 activation with LPS can inhibit BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of iMEFs cellsvia NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Expressions of miR-21 and SnoN in kidney tissue of diabetic rats
    2017, 37(1):  32-37. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression and the possible mechanism of microRNA-21(miR-21) and Ski-related novel protein N(SnoN) in the renal fibrosis diabetic process. Methods The diabetic rats were established by tail-vein injection of Streptozotocin,and the other group were normal control(NC) group. After 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to detect relative biochemical parameters and renal index, and to observe the changes of pathomorphology by HE staining as well. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the protein expression of E-cadherin,α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), fibronectin(FN), collagen-I(Col-I), collagen-Ш(Col-Ш), transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), Smad3, p-Smad3(Ser423/425) and SnoN in the renal tissue. In addition, the expression of SonN mRNA and miR-21 were detected by qPCR. Results In DM group,the expressions of Col-I、Col-Ш and FN in renal interstitium were increased(P<0.05),TGF-β1 increased(P<0.05) ,while E-cadherin decreased(P<0.05). Compared with NC group, the expression of α-SMA、p-Smad3(Ser423/425)protein increased in DM group(P<0.05),while the protein level of SnoN decreased but the level of SnoN mRNA increased(P<0.05). Moreover, the level of miR-21 markedly increased in DM group(P<0.05). Conclusion TGF-β1 may up-regulate the expression of miR-21 but restrain the translational expression of SnoN, aggravating fibrosis.
    A modified three-vessel occlusion mouse model with ischemic stroke
    Jun-fa LI
    2017, 37(1):  38-42. 
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    Objective To develop a reliable and reproducible method of ischemic stroke model in mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups: three-vessel occlusion (3VO, 15-min temporary occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries superimposed on a permanent occlusion of the right distal middle cerebral artery, n=20), suture MCAO control (n=20), and sham-operated group (n=10). At 24 h functional outcome was assessed using corner test, cerebral ischemic lesion was determined by TTC staining (n=10), and then the surviral rate was measured till day 7 (n=10). Results The 3VO group got significantly lower neurological deficit score compared to sham-operated group (-0.7 vs -0.04, P<0.01). Infarct volume of mice in 3VO group was 17.6%±1.6%, while 42.6%±15.0% in MCAO group (n=10). The 3VO group got a significantly increased 7-day survival rate compared to suture MCAO group (90% vs 60%, n=10). Conclusions Our data suggest that the present three-vessel occlusion method can produce a stable and reliable mouse model suitable for research on ischemic stroke.
    Comparative genomic analysis of Salmonella type III secreted candidate gene yiiG
    2017, 37(1):  43-49. 
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    ObjectiveTo study the distribution and evolution of yiiG, a Salmonella gene encoding a candidate type secretedsubstrate. MethodsSalmonella genomes were comprehensively screened for possible yiiG distribution with sequence alignment strategies. The evolutionary history of yiiG was traced. Comparative genomic analysis was performed to study the evolutionary mechanisms of yiiG gene acquisition, loss and duplication. RNA-seq data were combined to analyze the correlation between yiiG and other virulence factors. A variety of bioinformatic tools were used for discovering the possible type III secretion signals. ResultsyiiGwas distributed in S. enterica subsp. enterica but variable in other subspecies of S. enterica. No yiiG was found in S. bongori. Besides Salmonella, only a part of Shigella and E. coli strains were detected with yiiG homologs. The genomic locus of yiiG and its adjacency showed conservation among all Salmonella, E. coli and Shigella strains. In most of the serovars of S.enterica subsp. enterica, there was a head-to-head tandem whole yiiG repeat sequence upstream the yiiG gene, which was renamed as yiiGRrc. RNA-seq analysis showed that yiiG gene expression level was highly correlated with T3SS-related genes. Bioinformatic prediction also indicated the T3SS effector signals in YiiG N-terminus.ConclusionyiiGrepresented an ancient genomic locus, which could be a hot spot where rearrangement events frequently happened. The function ofyiiG could potentially be related with Salmonella virulence. Finally, a new protein-encoding gene (yiiGRrc) was newly identified that was closely related with yiiG, providing the target for further understanding the composition, function and function variation of yiiG gene family.
    Detection of BRCA1/2 gene mutations of Uighurs and Han sporadic breast cancer patients
    2017, 37(1):  50-55. 
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    Objective To investigate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 gene mutations among uygur and han sporadic breast cancer patients in Xinjiang Uygur Automous. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing was used to detect mutations of BRCA1(exons 2, 11(11A and 11B) and 20) and BRCA2 (exon 11) genes in the Paraffin imbedding tissues from 230 sporadic breast cancer patients(115 uygur and 115 han) in Xinjiang Uygur Automous. Results In the 230 cases of sporadic breast cancer patients, there were 16 cases of gene mutation (16/230,6.96%). 1 case of BRCA1 gene in 16 cases of mutations - 5382 locus mutation and 7 cases of new mutations. There was 2 germline mutation in exon 11 of BRCA2 gene. BRCA gene mutation detection rates of Uighurs and Han patients were 7.83% (9/115) and 6.09% (7/115). The onset age of mutations group were 50 or less. Mutations group of patients with amenorrhea(3) were less than whom were premenopausal(13) (P<0.05). Conclusion The results of this study show that the prevalence of BRCA1 mutations was significantly higher than BRCA2 in sporadic breast cancer patients of Xinjiang.
    Inhibiting effect of EGS-C67 on HCV gene expression and determination of its antiviral activity
    2017, 37(1):  56-61. 
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    Objective To explore advantage of RNA guiding activity in vitro cleavage assay and intracellular antiviral effects for hepatitis C, basing on one External Guide Sequence (EGS)sequence of the conserved region of 5’UTR of HCV genome. Methods We analyzed the sequence and structure of the conserved region of 5’UTR of HCV genome with computer software and designed one External Guide Sequence (EGS) which was direct at the potential targeting site (C67-G68). We tested the gene expression of HCV in Northern blot and Western blot and its antiviral activity by fluorescence quantitative PCR in the Huh7.5.1 cell which was transfected by EGS-C67. Results EGS-C67 had obvious advantage of RNA guiding activity in vitro cleavage assay. Our results indicated that EGS-C67could obviously inhibit the gene expression of HCV and inhibit the proliferation of HCV and down-regulate the titer of HCV about 150 times(p<0.01). Conclusions EGS-C67 , the new antiviral RNA has notably antiviral activity in cultured cells , thus could provide a new promising approach for development of anti-HCV strategy.
    Correlation of minimal residual disease and multidrug resistance genes expression in acute myeloid leukemia
    2017, 37(1):  62-66. 
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    Objective To explore the correlation of minimal residual disease(MRD) and ABC genes expression in acute myeloid leukemia(AML).Methods 52 de novo AML bone marrow samples were used to detect the expression of ABCB1,ABCC1,ABCC4 andABCG2 by real-time PCR at diagnosis. Meanwhile, followed up these patients to monitor MRD with MFC at the points of finishing the first induction cause as well as the third,the sixth and the ninth month after chemotherapy. Results The expression level of the 4 ABC transporters among three MRD levels detected after induction cause are correlated significantly with ABCB1(P<0.01), ABCC1(P<0.01), ABCC4(P<0.01) and ABCG2(P<0.01).Further more, after nine months follow-up, the patients whose MRD turned into positive again were detected a high ABC transports expression level, comparing with those MRD remained negative for nine months,which was of a statistically significance for ABCB1(P<0.05), ABCC1(P<0.05), ABCC4(P<0.01) and ABCG2(P<0.01). Conclusions There proves a positive correlation of MRD and ABC transporters level in AML.
    Association of SH2B3 gene tag single nucleotide polymorphisms with essential hypertension in Han population
    2017, 37(1):  67-70. 
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    Objective To assess the association of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) of SH2B adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3) gene with essential hypertension (EH) in Han population. Method Six tag SNPs (rs7309325, rs11065898, rs10849947, rs2239196, rs2238154 and rs739496) were genotyped in 510 patients with EH and 510 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method(PCR-RFLP). Results Compared to CC genotype, the T allele carriers of rs2239196 were more likely to be hypertensive (OR=2.59,95%CI 1.36-4.96,Bonferroni correction P<0.05) . Conclusion The rs2239196 T allele may be a risk factor for EH in Han population.
    HSYA inhibits angiogenesis of H22 transplanted tumor tissue and down-regulation of MMP-3 expression in mice
    2017, 37(1):  71-75. 
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    Abstract: Aim: To investigate the effects of HydroxySafflor yellow A(HSYA) on the protein expression of MMP-3 in H22 tumor-bearing mice.Methods:After establishing the hepatoma model for 24 h, the mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. The vehicle-treated group received 0.9% normal saline via intraperitoneal injection. The positive control group was treated with sorafenib by intragastric administration. And the dose HSYA group received intraperitoneal injection at different dosages (1.125,2.25mg/kg).Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting were applied to measure the expression of angiogenesis related factor(MMP-3)and we also detected the microvessel density with CD34.Results:Compared with saline group, the expression of MMP-3 in HSYA group was significant reduced. Especially the dose of 2.25mg/kg HSYA group, but not better than the sorafenib-treated group.Conclusion:HSYA could inhibit angiogenesis of tumor tissue in a certain concentration range and the anti angiogenesis effect of HSYA may be related to the decrease of the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase -3.
    Decreased c-kit and miR-21 gene expression in rat heart failure
    2017, 37(1):  76-79. 
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    Objective: To explore mechanism is dynamic expression and internal relations of c-kit gene and microRNA-21 in rat ventricular remodeling .Methods :SD rats(n=140) were randomly divided into normal control group(n=15) and heart failure model group(n=125). Heart failure model : 4 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin. To detect the cardiac function of rats in eight weeks, proving the heart failure. Then harvesting the rat heart, frozen section, using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence color to detect the expression changes of microRNA-21 and c-kit in myocardial tissue.Results: The emergence of the pathological changes of cardiac muscle cells after myocardial infarction in the heart failure groups and the control group didn’t appear the myocardial infarction and heart failure. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence show that microRNA-21 positive cells in normal and heart failure myocardium mainly express in vascular endothelium,a few myocardial cells and stem cells, and endocardial expressing quantity fell more than epicardial; c-kit positive cells tend to cluster together, mainly gather in the epicardial and its nearby, and the expressing quantity decrease significantly after heart failure.A small number of cells exsit microRNA-21 and c-kit common expression in both groups(P < 0.05). Conclusion: The decreased expression of c-kit and microRNA-21 is highly relevant in rats heart failure and left ventricular remodeling.
    Function of of miR-30a in myocardial fibrosis and it’s impact on cardiac functioni n rats with myocardial infarction
    2017, 37(1):  80-86. 
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    Objective To explore the potential role and mechanism of miR-30a in myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction(MI).Methods We constructed the AAV plasmid vector which carried the miR-30a gene of rat .The recombinant plasmid was detected by gene sequencing, enzyme digestion and PCR. Virus was packaged in HEK293 cells and virus titer was determined after extraction and purification by PCR. PBS fluid , rAAV9-miR-30a-NC and rAAV9-miR-30a were transmited to the rat hearts of PBS group,miR-30a-NC group and miR-30a group respectively through transcoronary infusion before anterior descending coronary artery ligation.Sham group was set up at the same time. After 4 weeks, heart function was monitored by serial echocardiography, including fractional shortening (FS), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Masson staining was used to calculate collagen volume fraction (CVF). The expression of collagen I and III were detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA level of miR-30a, TGF-?1 and CTGF were detected by real-time PCR analysis. The protein level of TGF-?1 and CTGF were detected by western blot analysis. ResultsThe cardiac function of miR-30a group was improved significantly compared with PBS group and miR-30a-NC group (P<0.05). The levels of CVF,collagen I,III expression and Collagen I/III ratio in miR-30a group were significantly lower than PBS group and miR-30a-NC group(P<0.01). The mRNA and protein level of TGF-?1 and CTGF in miR-30a group were reduced significantly than PBS group and miR-30a-NC group (P<0.001). ConclusionsThe overexpression of miR-30a after MI could reduce the mRNA and protein level of TGF-?1 and CTGF, so as to suppress myocardial fibrosis and improve cardiac function.
    Comparing the effects of Conbercept and Ranibizumab on proliferation and migration in RF/6A cells
    2017, 37(1):  87-93. 
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    To conduct a comparative research on the differences and mechanisms of the effects of Conbercept and Ranibizumab on Rhesus choroidoretinal endothelial cells (RF/6A cells) proliferation, migration effects induced by VEGF. Methods RF/6A cells were divided into six groups, namely control group, VEGF group, Conbercept group, Ranibizumab group, Conbercept+VEGF group and Ranibizumab+VEGF group. CCK-8 assay, Transwell chambers, AnnexinV-FITC/PI double staining flow cytometry, Western blot and real-time PCR were separately adopted to detect cell proliferation, cell migration, cell apoptosis, the levels of AKT, p-AKT, P38MAPK and p-P38MAPK protein expression and the relative expression of AKT mRNA and P38MAPK mRNA. Results ① Compared with control group, the cell poliferation decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by Conbercept and Ranibizumab treatment. The optimal concentration and effect time of Conbercept and Ranibizumab were determined as 225 μg/mL and 24 h. ② Cell proliferation and cell migration were significantly decreased in Conbercept group and Ranibizumab group, but meaningfully increased in VEGF group. Compared with VEGF group, Conbercept+VEGF group and Ranibizumab+VEGF group decreased. ③ Cell apoptosis decreased in VEGF group, but increased in Conbercept and Ranibizumab group. Compared with VEGF group, Cell apoptosis increased in Conbercept and Ranibizumab+VEGF group. ④ There were no differences about the expression of AKT and P38MAPK among groups. Compared with control group, the expression of p-AKT, p-P38MAPK, AKT mRNA and P38MAPK mRNA were down-regulated in Conbercept and Ranibizumab group, while up-regulated in VEGF group. Compared with VEGF group, the expression of p-AKT, p-P38MAPK, AKT mRNA and P38MAPK mRNA were down-regulated in Conbercept and Ranibizumab+VEGF group. Conclusions The research results show that Conbercept and Ranibizumab have obvious inhibiting effects on cell proliferation, migration and related protein expression, while they accelerate cell apoptotis. Nevertheless, there are no statistical significance between the impacts of Conbercept and Ranibizumab on the cells.
    Effects of both high glucose and high insulin on proliferations and migrations of human vascular smooth muscle cells as well as miRNA-145 level
    2017, 37(1):  94-98. 
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    Objective To identify the effect of both high glucose and high insulin on miRNA-145 level was observed. Methods The human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured and the proliferation of VSMCs was induced by high glucose and high insulin medium. The samples were divided into 4 groups: normal group, high glucose group (25 mmol/L), high insulin group (300 mU/L), high glucose and high insulin group. The expression of miRNA-145 in VSMCs was assayed by real-time PCR. Proliferation of VSMCs was determined by MTT method After 72 h cultivation. The migration of VSMCs was analyzed by cell scratch test. VSMCs in each group was transfected by miRNA-145 virus (lentiviral vector). Proliferation and migration were assayed after 48 h transfection. Results Compared with normal group, the expression of miRNA-145 in VSMCs of other three groups was decreased (P<0.05), especially the expression in the high glucose and insulin group was the lowest (P<0.01). Proliferation and migration of VSMCs was promoted by high glucose and/or high insulin medium. Under fluorescent, transfection rate of VSMCs was about 80% after 48 h transfection. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs in each group after transfection were significantly lower than before (P<0.05). Conclusions High glucose and high insulin could decrease the expression of miRNA-145 in VSMCs, The overexpression of miRNA-145 could inhibit the proliferation and migration of VSMCs.
    A case report of Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome
    Wan-Chen DOU
    2017, 37(1):  99-102. 
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    Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a rare epilepsy syndrome which is characterized by cerebral hemiatrophy with ipsilateral compensatory skull changes and contralateral hemiplegia recurrent. Here we reported a case of which the curative effect turned out to be unsatisfied after conservative treatment, physical examination revealed mental retardation, facial asymmetry, mild right hemiparesis, MRI scan of the head showed left cerebral hemiatrophy, calvaria thickening, PET-CT showed less functional left cerebral hemisphere. The patient finally underwent multi-lobe disconnection to relieve recurrent seizure, whose seizure was satisfactorily controlled in the following up of one year.
    A case report of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis
    2017, 37(1):  103-106. 
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    Objective To report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis(PAM) in PUMCH and to summarize the clinical features and genetic characters. Methods The clinical features, imaging results, pathology findings and SLC34A2 gene mutation was analyzed and reported. Results The patient was a 35 years old male, presenting with cough and sputum for 10 years and worsen with short of breath for 3 weeks. Computed tomography of lung and pathology findings support the diagnose of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. And a heterozygous mutation c. A910T in exon 8 of SLE34A2 gene was discovered through genetic testing. Conclusion Due to the treatment is non-specific in this rare disease, it’s significantly important to recognize this disease through early non-specific clinical features but typical imaging findings. And the finding that c. A910T is more common in Asia population may provide us a potential target for screening and possible genetic engineering therapy.
    Changes of Bcl-2 and Bax in brain tissues of ovariectomized mice
    2017, 37(1):  107-108. 
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    Research progress in the relationship between betarophin and diabetes mellitus
    2017, 37(1):  114-117. 
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    Betatrophin is a novel discovered factor that affects the metabolisms of sugar and fat, which is mainly expressed in the liver and adipose tissue. This factor not only has an influence on the glucolipid metabolism, but also has regulating effect on replicating pancreatic β cell. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorder and the decrease in the number of pancreatic β cell are main risk factors of diabetes, diabetic great vascular complications and other complications. Therefore, betatrophin level has close relationship with diabetes.
    Research advance of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway with its related gene mutations and the targeted therapy for endometrial cancer
    2017, 37(1):  118-122. 
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    Endometrial cancer(EC) is one of the most common gynecological cancer,of which the molecular biological mechanisms is very complex.In recent years, it has been reported that the abnormally regulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway is greatly related with endometrial cancer. The mutation and abnormal activation of the receptors and kinaseof the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway may become the therapeutic target of endometrial cancer.
    Research progress in trimester-specific reference ranges for thyroid hormone during pregnancy
    2017, 37(1):  123-127. 
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    Thyroid dysfunction is particularly common during pregnancy,it is affect pregnancy outcomes,andthreat maternal and child health.Following the 2011 American Thyroid Association (ATA) release pregnancy thyroid-stimulating hormont(TSH) diagnostic guidelines, In 2012,Endocrinology branch and Perinatal Medicine Branchof the Chinese Medical Association jointly issued the "pregnancy and postpartum thyroid disease diagnosis and treatment guidelines", it is important that each laboratory has its own reference interval for diagnosing thyroid disorders in pregnancy. This article provides an overview of researching and establishing serumtrimester-specific thyroid hormone reference during pregnancy all through the world, and discussing trimester-specific thyroid hormone reference of the area in where the auther live.
    Advances of research of thrombosis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
    2017, 37(1):  128-132. 
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    Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria(PNH) is aclonal hematopoietic stem cell disease,andcharacterizedby intravascular hemolytic anemia,pancytopenia and thrombosis. Although PNH is an non-malignant disease, its complications have serious effect on patient’squality of life and survival. The most common serious complication is thrombosis formation.
    Progress on the markers and signaling pathways of colorectal cancer stem cells
    2017, 37(1):  133-137. 
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    Colorectal stem cells have many markers,including Lgr5, its expression is associated with stage of disease, also regulating the cell cycle which the +4 stem cell, which is associated with tumor heterogeneity , also expressed Bmi1, arresting cell cycle.Besides there isMusashi1(Msi1).Many studies show that those markers are high expression in colorectal cancer, which activate Notch and Wnt signaling pathway, and can promote the progress of tumor.
    Comparison of the traditional and situational choice questions in the physiological examination
    2017, 37(1):  138-141. 
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    Objective Evaluating the effect of situational questions for qualifying the students’ abilities in physiology examination. Methods Comparing the difficulty coefficients and discrimination indexes between situational and traditional choice questions. Results Compared with the traditional choice questions, the difficulty coefficient of situational questions increased, while the discrimination indexes were more reasonable. The discrimination indexes of situational understanding questions were higher than those of the traditional memory and understanding questions. There were no difference between discrimination indexes of the situational application questions and those of traditional application questions. Conclusion Situational questions not only improved the quality of examinations, but also did better in evaluating students' learning ability.
    Investigation of “practice teaching methods ”for musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging
    2017, 37(1):  142-144. 
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    Objective This paper discusses the effect of “practice teaching methods ” in musculoskeletal ultrasound diagnosis training process. Methods Thirty refresher doctors for a month with the method training. The effect training is evaluated by objective exam and Questionnaire survey. Results Thirty refresher doctors received tests before and after the training., test results showed that the accuracy after the training was significantly higher than that of before(P<0.05).Refresher doctors survey about satisfaction of the training method showed that whole satisfaction is 100%, in which 70% were very satisfied , 30% were satisfied. The self - assessment results for the improvement of the level of diagnosis musculoskeletal ultrasound showed that 45% doctors are very satisfied ,40% doctors are satisfied, and 15% is not satisfied. Conclusions With the implementation of "teaching in practice" method, refresher doctors could master the knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy as soon as possible, and have the ability to diagnose common musculoskeletal diseases independently.