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Table of Content

    05 June 2016, Volume 36 Issue 6
    Clinical significance and correlation of HMGA2 and HDAC6 expression in gastric carcinoma
    2016, 36(6):  723-727. 
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    Objective To investigate the expressions and correlationship of HMGA2 and HDAC6 in the gastric carcinoma(GC) tissues,corresponding peritumor tissues and normal tissues. Methods Immunocytochemistry staining,Real-time PCR(RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the protein and mRNA expressions of HMGA2 and HDAC6 in GC tissues,paired peritumor tissues and normal tissues,the correlation was analyzed between the expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of GC. Results The positive expression of HMGA2 and HDAC6 were respectively 69.51%(57/82) and 65.58% (54/82) in GC, while peritumor tissues and normal gastric tissues were 14.63%(12/82),12.19%(10/82) and 9.76%(8/82),7.32%(6/82), (P<0.05) ;The mRNA and protein levels of HMGA2 and HDAC6 in GC tissues were higher than those in the paired peritumor tissues and normal tissues(P<0.05). Furthermore,the expression was obviously correlated to clinical stage of GC and lymph node metastases (P<0.05). A positive correlation was found between the expression of HMGA2 and HDAC6 in GC tissues(r=0.56,P<0.05). Conclusions The high expression of HMGA2 and HDAC6 coexist in GC tissues, It may be related to malignant transformation of tumor.
    4-Phenylbutyric acid attenuates the endoplasmic reticulum stress in type 2 diabetes rats
    2016, 36(6):  728-733. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of 4-PBA in high-fat diets-fed with/without streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods Type 2 diabetic animal model was developed by high-fat diets-fed with/without low-dose STZ injection. Diabetic rats were orally gavages each day with 4-PBA for 20 days. The expressions of mRNA and protein were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Results 4-PBA treatment significantly reduced the pancreas apoptosis induced by high-fat diets-fed with/without STZ. High-fat diets with/without STZ-induced increase in expression of CHOP mRNA and protein, p53 mRNA, Bax mRNA and protein, and cytochrome c protein, decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2 were attenuated by 4-PBA treatment. 4-PBA also attenuated the increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by high-fat diets with/without STZ. Conclusion Treatment with 4-PBA significantly inhibits the process of type 2 diabetes in rats through the ER stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.
    Bisphenol-A increases hepatocyte apoptosis in CD1 mice
    2016, 36(6):  734-738. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of BPA on hepatocyte apoptosis in CD1 mice. Methods Forty-eight 4-week old male CD1 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. Mice from different groups were exposed to different doses of BPA (0, 5, 50, 500μg/(kg?d)) through food contamination for 8 weeks. After the decapitation of mice and the isolation of liver, HE staining and Hoechst 33258 staining were used to observe the hepatocyte apoptosis; Western blot was performed to determine the protein expression of cleaved caspase3, Bax and Bcl-2 in liver; caspase-3 activity was detected using a caspase-Glo3/7 assay kit. Results Compared with the control group, mice treated with different concentrations of BPA showed enhanced apoptotic cells and caspase-3 activity in liver(P<0.01), with significantly increased protein expression of cleaved caspase 3 and Bax(P<0.05). Conclusions BPA induces hepatocyte apoptosis in CD1 mice.
    Construction of dynamic miRNA expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis in COPD
    2016, 36(6):  739-746. 
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    Objective The miRNA expression profiling in different lung tissue of COPD dynamic rat model was established. The differential expression miRNAs were analysed by bioinformatics methods.This study is aimed at finding the variety rule of miRNAs and possibly refer to the correlate pathogenesis of COPD. Methods 1 The rats were randomly divided into the control group; the cigarette smoking (CS) for 2、4、6、8w group and 15w plus elastase-treated group. Each group had five rats. Morphological changes of the lungs were performed through pathology observation. 2 The lung tissue of control group、CS for 4w group and 15w plus elastase-treated group(each group had two rats)were analysed by miRNA microarray. 3 The dysregulated miRNAs were detected by qRT-PCR for the further confirming of microarray data. 4 The miRNA expression profiling was analysed by bioinformatics methods including target prediction and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis.Results 1 COPD dynamic rat model were established successfully. The dynamic pathology changes in the lung tissue of this model were inflammatory infiltrates in early stage and emphysema in late stage. 2 The dynamic miRNA expression profiling was established. There were 30 and 37 differentially expressing miRNAs in the lungs of rats with 4w group and 15w group respectively. 3 Further qRT-PCR indicated that the relative expression levels of miR-146a, miR-21, miR-206 and miR-181a were consistent with the microarray data. 4 The differential expression miRNAs may be closely related to the pathogenesis of COPD through bioinformatics analysis. Conclusions:1 The dynamic rats models of COPD and miRNA expression profiling were established successfully. 2 The differential expression miRNAs may play important role in the pathogenesis of COPD through bioinformatics analysis.
    Up-regulation of AQP9 expression in brain of rat after chronic cerebral ischemia
    2016, 36(6):  747-751. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of aquaporin 9(AQP9) and its influence after chronic cerebral ischemia. Methods rats were randomly divided into sham operation group and chronic cerebral ischemia 1, 3 and 6 months groups. Ligation of bilateral common carotid artery (2-vo) was induced to build chronic cerebral ischemia model. The animals were sacrificed after chronic cerebral ischemia. The ability of learning and memory of rats was measured by morris water maze test. Brain water content (BWC) was measured by the wet-dry weighing ratio method. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes after cerebral ischemia. to detect the contents of lactic acid in brain by absorption spectrophotometry. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting were used to test the expression of AQP9 in brain. Results Compared with the sham operation group, the ability of learning and memory of rats in all chronic cerebral ischemia groups decreased distinctly. Brain water content did not changed significantly in all the groups of chronic cerebral ischemia (P > 0. 05). Proliferation of glial cells and neurons apoptosis were observed in all chronic cerebral ischemia groups detected by HE staining. The contents of lactic acid in brain was increased in all chronic cerebral ischemia groups (P < 0. 05). The expression of AQP9 was increased in all chronic cerebral ischemia groups detected both in immunofluorescence and Western blotting (P < 0. 05). Conclusions The expression of AQP9 was increased after chronic cerebral ischemia, which may participate in transport of energy substrate after ischemia.
    Gemcitabine suppresses glycolysis in human pancreatic cancer cells
    2016, 36(6):  752-757. 
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    Objective To investigate the impact of gemcitabine onmiR-1208 expression and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of gemcitabine holding its inhibitory effect on glycolysis in human pancreatic cancer (PC) cell lines. Methods Real-time PCR analysis was employed to determine the expression levels of miR-1208 in PC tissues and PC cell lines. The cell growth, the cellular lactate production, and the glucose consumption were detected using CCK-8 assay, Lactate detection Kit, and Glucose detection Kit in BxPC-3 and PANC-1 PC cell lines. The correlation between gemcitabine treatment, miR-1208, and the metabolic shift of PC cells through a rescue assay. Results MiR-1208 expression depicts a significant downregulation in PC tissues (60%, 12/20) (P<0.05).Enforced expression of miR-1208 inhibits the cell growth, the cellular lactate production, and the glucose consumption in BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cell lines. The expression of LDH-A and LDH-D is downregulated in these two cell lines with miR-1208 overexpression (P<0.01). The expression of miR-1208 is upregulated in gemcitabine-treated PC cell lines, whereas the expression of LDH-A/D is downregulated in PC cell lines with the same treatment. Rescue assay indicates that miR-1208 inhibition to prevent its induction by gemcitabine treatment leads to increased cellular lactate production and glucose consumption in PC cells. Conclusions Gemcitabine represents its suppressive effect on glycolysis at least partly via triggering the expression of miR-1208 in PC cells.
    5-AZA suppresses the metabolic shift in BEL7402 cells
    2016, 36(6):  758-762. 
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    Objective To investigate the impact of 5-AZA on microRNA-34a/c (miR-34a and miR-34c) expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of 5-AZA for inhibiting glycolysis in HCC cells. Methods Real-time PCR analysis was conducted to determine the expression levels of miR-34a/c in HCC cells with 5-AZA treatment. The expression of specific genes related to glycolysis was evaluated by using Real-time PCR in HCC cells with miR-34 overexpression or 5-AZA treatment. The effect of miR-34a/c or 5-AZA treatment on the metabolic shift in HCC cells was explored by detecting the cellular lactate production and glucose consumption. Rescue assay was employed to investigate the correlation between 5-AZA, miR-34a/c, and the regulation of glycolysis in HCC cells. Results The expression of miR-34a/c is increased in 5-AZA-treated BEL7402 HCC cells (P<0.01). No significant change is observed in the expression of miR-34b in HCC cells with 5-AZA treatment. Enforced expression of miR-34a/c leads to reduced levels of LDH-A in BEL7402 HCC cells(P<0.05). Rescue assay reveals that inhibition of miR-34a/c to prevent 5-AZA induction results in suppressed glycolysis in BEL7402 HCC cells. Conclusion 5-AZA inhibits metabolic shift in HCC cells via inducing the expression of miR-34a/c.
    Calcium imaging of the activity of mice neurons in the nucleus accumbens using GCaMP6f
    Liu Ze-Yue
    2016, 36(6):  763-766. 
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    Objective Expressing GCaMP6f in nucleus accumbens of mice using brain stereotaxic injection,examined neuron activity of restrained mice by calcium imaging in real time. Methods To get recombination virus, cultured 293T cell, then packed and purified aav-Syn1-GCaMP6f-P2A- Tomato virus. After being confirmed the recombination virus worked by infecting primary neurons, the virus was injected into nucleus accumbens by stereotaxic injection. And after the animals recovered, the mice were implanted optical fiber in brains, and restrained, then recorded neuronal activity by calcium imaging in the nucleus accumbens in time. Results After stimulated by glutamic acid, the neurons expressed GCaMP6f protein released green fluorescence because of the calcium influx. Brain slices showed that the green fluorescence produced by GCaMP6f and the red fluorescence produced by a carried marker protein in virus could co-localize in the same neuron. Conclusions The adeno-associated virus aav- Syn1-GCaMP6f-P2A-Tomato could be successfully used to real timely monitor activated neurons employing calcium imaging in vivo.
    Over expression of TRIM69 inhibits the expression of endogenous c-Jun
    2016, 36(6):  767-771. 
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    Objective Explore the mechanism of TRIM69 inhibits AP1 pathway and down regulates the expression of c-Jun. Methods Co-transfect luciferase reporter plasmids and empty vector or TRIM69 plasmid in HeLa cells or HEK293T cells and make the empty vector group as control, dual-luciferase reporter assay system was used to check the effect of TRIM69 on eight important pathways; over express all length or the deletion mutants of TRIM69 in HEK293T cells and western blot was used to examine the key domain which inhibits the expression of c-Jun; over express TRIM69 in HEK293T cells and then cells were treated with cycloheximide (CHX), MG132 or chloroquine, CHX-chase assay was used to investigate the mechanism of TRIM69 down regulates the expression of c-Jun. Results TRIM69 could inhibit AP1 pathway and down regulate the expression of c-Jun which depends on its RBCC domain (P<0.05). TRIM69 negatively regulates the expression of c-Jun through proteasome degradation (P<0.05). Conclusions TRIM69 could down regulate AP1 pathway and inhibit the expression of c-Jun which depends on proteasome pathway.
    Trichostatin-A inhibits aerobic glycolysis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells
    2016, 36(6):  772-776. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of TSA on the expression of microRNA-34 family (miR-34a/b/c) and to explore the molecular mechanism of TSA for inhibiting glycolysis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Methods Real-time PCR analysis was conducted to evaluated the expression levels of miR-34 family in HCC cells with TSA treatment. The expression of specific genes involved in the regulation of glycolysis was determined by using Real-time PCR in HCC cells with miR-34b overexpression or TSA treatment. The effect of miR-34b or TSA treatment on the glycolysis in HCC cells was investigated by detecting the cellular lactate production and glucose consumption. Rescue assay was performed to clarify the correlation between TSA, miR-34b, and the regulation of glycolysis in HepG2 cells. Results The expression of miR-34b is increased in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 HCC cells with TSA treatment (P<0.01). Enforced expression of miR-34b leads to reduced levels of LDH-A in these two cells (P<0.05). Rescue assay reveals that inhibition of miR-34b to prevent the TSA induction results in suppressed glycolysis in HepG2 HCC cells. Conclusion TSA inhibits the metabolic shift in HCC cells via inducing the expression of miR-34b.
    miR-320e promotes drug resistance of pancreatic cancer cell line
    2016, 36(6):  777-782. 
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    Objective To study the function and mechanism of miR-320e in drug-resistance of pancreatic cancer. Methods Q-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-320e in 5-Fu resistant pancreatic cancer cells. MiR-320e was overexpressed in PATU8988 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells and then drug sensitivity and cell proliferation were checked. In addition, luciferase reporter assay and Western blot were employed to identify the target of miR-320e. Results miR-320e was significantly up-regulated in the 5-Fu resistant PATU8988 cells. The overexpression of miR-320e in pancreatic cancer cells strongly promoted cell survival when treated with 5-Fu, and also advanced cell proliferation rate. miR-320e also decreased the protein level of PDCD4 and PDCD4 3′UTR dependent luciferase activity. miR-320e promoted drug-resistance by targeting PDCD4. Conclusions miR-320e can induce 5-Fu resistance of pancreatic cancer cells and might be developed as new drug-resistance marker and therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.
    Expression and functional analysis of RNA methylation related protein Mettl-14 in gastric cancer
    2016, 36(6):  783-788. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression changes of Mettl-14 mRNA in gastric cancer tissues and the functional significance of Mettl-14 in MGC-803 cell lines. Methods Real-time PCR analysis was performed to detect the relative expression level of Mettl-14 mRNA in 83 pairs of clinical gastric cancer tissues and their normal control tissues. RNA interference was used to knock-down the endogenous Mettl-14 level in MGC-803 cells. The effects of Mettl-14 knock-down on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration and invasion were detected by CCK-8, FACS, wounding heal and Transwell assays, respectively. Results The expression level of Mettl-14 mRNA was down-regulated in gastric cancer compared to the normal tissues, and its down-regulation was correlated with tumor grade. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous Mettl-14 could promote cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell migration and invasion. Conclusions Mettl-14 might act as a tumor suppressor in gastric carcinogenesis, and it might sever as a novel biomarker and therapy target for gastric cancer.
    PDGF-C promotes proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and SKOV3 in vitro
    2016, 36(6):  789-793. 
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    Objective To determine the effect of platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) on ovarian cancer cells(SKOV3 and A2780)cultured in vitro. Methods The ovarian cancer cells(SKOV3 and A2780)were cultured in vitro. Cryopreserved SKOV3 and A2780 was cultured after water bath at 37 ℃. CCK8 assay was used to detect the effect of PDGF -C (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 μg/L) on cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell phases. Transwell assay and cell scratch test were used to detect cell migration. Results PDGF-C significantly induced the proliferation of SKOV3 and A2780, and increased the percentage of the cells at S phase. Its effect on the SKOV3 and A2780 proliferation was found in a dose-dependent manner. PDGF-C of 20 μg/L promoted the SKOV3 proliferation at a summit, and PDGF-C of 20 μg/L promoted the A2780 proliferation at a summit. PDGF-C also promoted the migration ability of cultured SKOV3 and A2780. Conclusions PDGF-C promotes the proliferation and migration of cultured VECs and MSCs.
    Screening and verification of altered miRNAs in colorectal adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence
    2016, 36(6):  794-798. 
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    Objective To screen and verify differentially altered miRNAs in colorectal adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and investigate possible mechanism. Methods To screen altered miRNAs in 15 patients of colorectal adenomas, 3 patients of colorectal early cancer and 3 cases of normal control using Human MicroRNA Array. To verify the results in 18 patients of colorectal adenomas, 9 patients of colorectal early cancer and 5 cases of normal control using real-time PCR. Results Compared with group of adenomas, there are 15 altered miRNAsin group of early cancer;compared with group of normal control,there are 13 altered miRNAs in group of early cancer. Level of miR-204,miR-193b and miR-150 was verified further. Serum miR-150 was significantly lower in patients with adavanced carcinoma than normal control (P<0.05). Serum miR-204 was significantly lower in patients with early cancer or adavanced carcinoma (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively). Serum miR-193b was significantly lower in patients with adenomas, early cancer or advanced carcinoma ( P<0.05,P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). miR-193b mimic significantly inhibited proliferation of HCT116 cells (P<0.05)and promoted apoptosis (P<0.001). meanwhile inhibiting the expression of K-ras and β-catenin. Conclusions Serum miR-204 and miR-193b may serve as novel biomarkers in early diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma. miR-193b may exert tumor suppressing effect in adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence.
    Expression of EMT-related protein in tissue of colon rectum cancer patients complicated with diabets
    2016, 36(6):  799-804. 
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    Objective To observe the expression of relative protein in the tissue of colon rectum cancer(CRC) patients with diabets(Db) in EMT progress. Methods Collecting some tissues, including the tumor tissues of CRC patients combining with diabets(Db)and nontumorous tissues. All the tissues were divided into control group and tumor group. The tumor group was divided into group with Db and without Db, according to the existance of Db. Associated protein RAGE, AGE, E-cad, β-catenin and vimentin were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The expression levels of these protein were measured by Western blot. Results RAGE, AGE, E-cad and vimentin were mainly located in cell membrane, β-catenin was mainly located in cytoplasm, and the two tumor groups were stained deeper than control group(P<0.01).The expression levels of AGE, RAGE, β-catenin and vimentin in two tumor groups were higher than those in control group, E-cad was lower than it(P<0.01). Compaerd with CRC without Db group, the expression levels of AGE, RAGE, β-catenin and vimentin in the CRC with Db group were up-regulated, E-cad was lower than it in the same differential degree(P<0.01). Conclusions the relative protein β-catenin and vimentin are up-regulated, E-cad is down-regulated in the tissue of CRC patients with Db. The EMT progress is promoted and it has played an play a vital role in enhancement to the development of CRC.
    Association between temperature and mortality in three cities in China
    2016, 36(6):  805-810. 
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    Objective To explore the relationship between temperature and mortality in three cities (Beijing, Chengdu and Nanjing) in China and evaluate the temperature-related risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Methods Data on daily deaths of the three cities as well as meteorological factors and air pollution were collected from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to assess the effects of temperature on cause-specific mortality after controlling the long term, seasonal trend and other confounders. Results Non-linear relationships between the temperature and cause-specific mortality were observed in Beijing, Chengdu and Nanjing. The associations of the cumulative hot effects of extremely hot temperature for non-accidental mortality at lag 0 in Beijing, Chengdu, Nanjing were statistically significant (p <0.05), and the relative risk (RR) were 1.09 (95% CI:1.04,1.14), 1.03 (95% CI:1.01,1.05) and 1.17 (95% CI:1.10,1.25), respectively. Meanwhile, the associations of the cumulative cold effects of extremely cold temperature for non-accidental mortality at lag 0-15 in Beijing, Chengdu and Nanjing were statistically significant (p <0.05), the RRs were 1.71 (95% CI:1.43,2.04), 3.09 (95% CI:1.57,6.10) and 1.95 (95% CI:1.21,3.16), respectively. Conclusions Extremely cold and hot temperature could increase the risk of daily cause-specific mortality in Beijing, Chengdu and Nanjing. Hot temperature could cause acute effect, the effect of cold temperature had a several days delay, but a longer persistence.
    Effects of Jinmaitong on expressions of UCP3 and IGF-1 in dorsal root ganglion of diabetic rats
    2016, 36(6):  811-816. 
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    Objective To study the effects of Jinmaitong on expression of UCP3 and IGF-1 in dorsal root ganglion(DRG) of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods The STZ-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including normal control group (Con), Diabetic group(DM), JMT group(JMT) and Taurine group(Tau). Six rats were in each group. All rats were given intragastric administration for 16 weeks and then culled.The mechanical withdrawal threshold was tested by electronic Von Frey instrument before death.Immunohistochemical and q-PCR method was applied to detect the expression of UCP3 and IGF-1 in dorsal root ganglion. Results Compared with the control group, the mechanical pain threshold in the DM group was significantly decreased (P<0.01). The protein levels and the levels of mRNA expression of UCP3 and IGF-1 in DM group was much lower than that in control group (P<0.01). JMT significantly improved mechanical pain threshold (P<0.01).Compared with DM group, the protein levels and the levels of mRNA expression of UCP3 and IGF-1 significantly increased (P<0.01). Conclusions JMT stimulated neuroprotection as well as neuroregeneration through up-regulating the expression of UCP3 and IGF-1 in DRG.
    Recombinant human erythropoietin alleviates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing autophagy in rats
    Qiao ZHENG
    2016, 36(6):  817-821. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective effects of recombinant human erythropoietin(rhEPO)on rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion(I/R)injury and the relationship with autophagy. Methods 60 SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group(sham group), ischemia-reperfusion group(I/R group), rhEPO treatment group(rhEPO group), rhEPO + autophagy activator Rapamycin treatment group (rhEPO +Rap group)and Rapamycin treatment group (Rap group). Myocardial ischemia- reperfusion(I/R)models were established, and hemodynamic indices(LVSP 、LVEDP、+dp/dtmax、-dp/dtmax)were monitored during the procedure. Serum creatine kinase (CK) , lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) of different groups were detected at the end of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct areas were measured by applying Evans blue and TTC staining respectively. The protein expressions of autophagy associated genes LC3 and Beclin1 in myocardium were identified by Western blot. Results Compared with sham group, I/R group showed weaker cardiac function,higher levels of serum CK、LDH and obvious myocardial infarct, LC3Ⅱ/ LC3Ⅰ, Beclin1 expressions were significantly increased(P < 0.01). rhEPO treatment can significantly improve cardiac function, reduce the serum levels of CK and LDH, reduce the myocardial infarct area, and significantly decrease the expressions of LC3Ⅱ/ LC3Ⅰ, Beclin1(P < 0.01). Autophagy activator rapamycin can weaken the effect of rhEPO .Conclusions rhEPO reduce autophagy plays an important role in the cardioprotection of rhEPO in rats model of myocardial ischemia- reperfusion injury.
    Analysis of airway management in patients with ankylosing spondylitis
    2016, 36(6):  822-825. 
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    Objective To evaluate the airway management among patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Method 171 patients who had orthopedic operations due to ankylosing spondylitis from January 2004 to December 2014 were enrolled. Result 96.5% of patients were operated under general anesthesia. The percentage of Cromack grade III and IV using Macintosh laryngoscopy and Glidescope were 9.6% and 6.6%, respectively. 90.6% patients were successfully intubated with first attempt. 9 patients had to change intubation devices and 2 had difficult mask ventilation. 5 patients received epidural and or spinal anesthesia and one of them had to change to general anesthesia because of incomplete block. Conclusion Patients with ankylosing spondylitis are at high risk of difficult airway due to the rigidity of spine and joints. Comprehensive preoperative evaluation and preparation, detailed anesthetic plan and decreasing complications are important for this specific group of patients.
    Effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine on bupivacaine induced subarachnoid blockade in patients undergoing cesarean section
    2016, 36(6):  826-829. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine on block duration of subarachnoid bupivacaine in patients undergoing cesarean section. Methods 50 parturients of ASA ⅠorⅡscheduled for caesarean section were randomly allocated to two groups: dexmedetomidine group (DEX group) and normal saline group (NS group). All parturients received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 8 mg intrathecally. 10 mins after delivery, DEX group received dexmedetomidine 1μg/kg bolus infusion for 10mins followed by 0.5 μg/(kg?h) continuous infusion until end of surgery, whereas NS group were infused equivalent amount of volume. The onset time, sensory and motor block duration of subarachnoid bupivacaine, Ramsay score, MAP and HR of timepoint of before delivery (T0), 10 mins after delivery (T1), 10 mins(T2), 20 mins(T3) and 30 mins(T4) after study drug infusion were recorded respectively. The incidence of drug adverse effect and Apgar score were also recorded. Results The sensory and motor block duration of DEX group were significantly prolonged compared with NS group (p<0.05). Ramsay score of DEX group was higher than NS group (p<0.05), and the HR of T2 of DEX group was lower than that of NS group (p<0.05). 6 patients (24%) in DEX group experienced bradycardia. Conclusions Intravenous dexmedetomidine could significantly prolong the sensory and motor block duration of subarachnoid bupivacaine in patients undergoing cesarean section, and in the meantime provide satisfactory sedation without any obvious influence on parturient hemodynamics and neonate Apgar score. The primary adverse effect observed is bradycardia.
    Correlation between plasma GDF15 and coronary artery stenosis in patients with chest pain
    2016, 36(6):  830-834. 
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    Objective To find the correlation between growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) plasma level and coronary artery stenosis in patients with chest pain. Methods 158 patients with chest pain were divided into coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAD) group (n =108) and non-CAD group (n =50), according to the results of coronary artery angiography (CAG). Blood samples were obtained before CAG from all patients. GDF15 levels were determined by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay. Gensini score was used to evaluate the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Results GDF15 levels of the CAD group and non-CAD group were 605±205 ng/L and 359±155 ng/L respectively (P<0.001). GDF15 level was positively related to Gensini score in patients with chest pain (r=0.555,P<0.001), and multiple linear regression analysis showed that circulating level of GDF15 was independently related to Gensini score of the coronary artery (P<0.001). Conclusions GDF15 is a potential biochemical marker for prognosis of the severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients with chest pain.
    siRNA-mediated downregulation of SNCG inhibits proliferation and invasiveness of bladder cancer cell line 5637
    2016, 36(6):  835-839. 
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    Objective To explore the effects of γ-synuclein (SNCG) on the proliferation and invasiveness of 5637 bladder cancer cells. Methods Three pairs of SNCG-specific siRNAs were designed and transfected into the 5637 cell lines, then the SNCG expression of the three siRNAs were assessed using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, while the cell proliferation and invasiveness of the 5637 cells were evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and transwell assay, respectively. Results The bladder cancer cell line 5637 was chose to use in next step due to its highest SNCG expression than that in cell lines EJ, T24 and UMUC-3 (P<0.05). Compared with NC and empty vector controls, all three SNCG siRNAs were observed to significantly inhibit SNCG expression (P<0.05), among which the lowest SNCG expression was detected in SNCG-siRNA-244. The proliferation and invasiveness of 5637 cell lines were both suppressed (P<0.05). Conclusions The proliferation and invasiveness of the bladder cancer cells could be decreased by specifically interferring the SNCG expression, SNCG siRNA may become as a novel target for biomedical therapy in bladder cancer.
    Correlations among lymph node metastasis, clinical pathological features and prognosis in endometrial carcinoma
    2016, 36(6):  840-845. 
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between lymph node metastasis, clinical pathological features and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma. Methods One hundred and five patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. They were pathologically diagnosed as endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) with pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Clinical and pathological data analysis showed pelvic lymph nodes (iliac, internal iliac, external iliac, obturator lymph nodes) and para-aortic lymph node metastasis, tumor location, tumor differentiation, myometrial invasion, lymph vascular space invasion, estrogen and progesterone receptor expressions have important impacts on OS (overall survival) and DFS (disease free survival). Results Patients with invasion beyond the uterus were more likely to have para-aortic lymph node metastasis(P < 0.01). Myometrial invasion, external Invasion of Uterus and peritoneal cytology positive were related to shortened OS and DFS(P < 0.05). Conclusions The patients with tumor invasion beyond the uterus are more likely to have paraaortic lymph node metastasis. myometrium involvement, involvement outside the uterus and peritoneal cytology positive are indepedent negative prognosis factors in endometrial cancer.
    Progress in the study of the relationship between DKK3 and gastric cancer
    2016, 36(6):  852-855. 
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    The development of gastric cancer is a result of a multi gene genetic and epigenetic common function. DKK3(dickkopf-3) is a newly discovered tumor suppressor gene and an antagonist of the classic Wnt signaling pathway. DKK3 protein inactivation and Wnt signal pathway abnormal activation can lead to tumor occurrence. The silence of DKK3 gene expression is a frequent event of gastric cancer, which was usually caused by the promoter methylation, and significantly correlateswith the prognosis of gastric cancer.
    Progress of the molecular biology in adrenal tumors diagnosis and treatment
    2016, 36(6):  856-859. 
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    Adrenal medulla tumors have been reported associated with 18 kinds of somatic and germline genes mutation. With the development of genomics and proteomics, recent findings reveal the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumor and new marks for the adrenocortical carcinoma prognosis. Mitotane as the essential drug to the adrenocortical carcinoma combine with etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin will improve progression-free survival.
    Treatment progress of metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcionma
    Xing-cheng WU
    2016, 36(6):  860-864. 
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    Non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas(nccRCC) represent a heterogeneous group of diseases. Once metastatic, nccRCC histologies are generally characterized by resistance to traditional systemic therapies, and survival rates are low. Recent research showed that some therapies can treat nccRCC effectively.This article reviews the current therapies approved for nccRCC, such as such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, MET inhibitors, cytotoxic drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors, so to ultimately, enhanced the understanding of the optimal strategies for each subtype in nccRCC.
    Enlightenment of curriculum system reform in Harvard Medical School to the medical education in China
    2016, 36(6):  865-868. 
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    The paper compared the changes before and after the Harvard Medical School course teaching reform in 2015, analyzed the transformation of the Harvard medical curriculum system deeply, and summarized the direction of Harvard reformation. The Harvard medical education reformation paid more attention to the medical humanistic education, brought forward the medical clinical practice significantly and strengthened the development of medical students' leadership. It is hoped that through the introduction of the tope medical school in the U.S., this paper will provide the reference for the reformation of the domestic medical education.
    Implementation of clinically oriented workshops in human anatomy teaching
    2016, 36(6):  869-871. 
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    In order to stimulate students’ interest and improve teaching quality, a series of clinically oriented workshops was introduced to human anatomy education. According to the curriculum, the workshop series was arranged along with the traditional human anatomy course. In each workshop, a simulated surgery was accomplished on cadaver specimen by a team of students under the direction of a clinical teacher to gain a better understanding of regional anatomy. After several years of exploration, the workshop-teaching mode has become an official part of the human anatomy curriculum. Clinically oriented workshops have been popular among the students.
    A cross-sectional study of medical students’ cognition level towards medical photography at Peking Union Medical College Hospital
    2016, 36(6):  872-874. 
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    Objective To learn the cognition and the participation at medical photography for the clinical medical students by , the problem of systematic learning and revolution for medical photography model. Methods The general survey was conducted among the new clinical students of PUMC by cross-sectional study. Results The survey shows that the most important part medical photography plays in is medical education(4.29) and research(4.15). Most medical students lack the learning of medical photography and it is because of lack of time (3.63)and photographer tools(2.91). Conclusions It is important to improve the education department’s attention, to construct the reasonable curriculum system, to strengthen the construction of teachers, and increase the propaganda.
    Effect of brochure on patients’ anesthesia-related discomfort and satisfaction
    2016, 36(6):  875-878. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of brochure on anesthesia related discomfort and satisfaction for patients undergoing general anesthesia. Methods A selected scale was translated and modified. One hundred and sixty patients scheduled for selective thyroid surgery with general anesthesia in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were randomly assigned to two groups, 80 patients received brochure before preoperational visit (brochure group) and 80 patients did not (control group). Questionnaires which used for evaluating patients’ anesthesia related discomfort and satisfaction were completed on the second postoperative day. Results Internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s α was 0.830. Content Validity Index (CVI) was 0.960. The most common anesthesia related discomfort were “pain at the site of surgery”(84.4%), “sore throat”(79.1%), “drowsiness“(75%) and “thirst”(69.4%). The data on patient satisfaction showed a high degree of satisfaction (>90%), the most dissatisfaction were “treatment of PONV” (22.5%) and “pain therapy after surgery” (15.0%). There was no significant difference in anesthesia related discomfort between the two groups. Compared with the control group, patients in brochure group had significantly higher satisfaction with “information given” and “satisfaction in general” (P<0.05). Conclusion Brochure can improve patients’ satisfaction with information given and anesthetic care in general, but it could not significantly alter patients’ anesthesia related discomfort.