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Table of Content

    05 December 2019, Volume 39 Issue 12
    Proliferation characteristics of murine muscle-derived stem cells in three different media
    2019, 39(12):  1669-1674. 
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    Objective To study the proliferation characteristics of murine muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) in three different media. Methods MDSCs were isolated using mixed enzyme digestion combined with magnetic-activated cell sorting. Cells were divided into three groups, which were respectively cultured in normal media (NM), chicken embryo extract-containing media (CEECM) and cytokine-containing media (CKCM). The morphology of the cells was observed by phase contrast microscopy. The proliferation activity of the cells was detected by CCK8. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), stem cell antigen 1 (Sca-1) and myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD1) were detected by Western-blot. Induction experiments were performed for the pluripotency. Results MDSCs formed multinucleated myotubes in CM and CEECM, and the expression of MyoD1 was up-regulated (P < 0.05). Cells cultured in CKCM were still small round and showed stronger proliferative ability than that in NM (P < 0.05), expressing higher levels of PCNA and Sca-1 (P < 0.05), and expressed muscle marker Desmin, endothelial marker CD34 or glial marker GFAP after multi-directional induction. Conclusions MDSCs mainly undergo myogenic differentiation in NM and CEECM, losing pluripotency. When cultured in CKCM, MDSCs proliferate faster and maintain multi-directional differentiation potential.
    Down-regulation of SOX12 expression in hepatic stellate cells inhibits liver cirrhosis
    2019, 39(12):  1675-1681. 
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    Objective Investigate the expression of SOX12 in hepatic stellate cells and normal hepatocytes, and investigate the effect of SOX12 on liver cirrhosis by mediating the expression of TGF-β1in hepatic stellate cells. Methods LX-2 (hepatic stellate cells) and Changliver cell (normal hepatocytes) were cultured. PCR technique was used to detect the expression of SOX12 and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of various indexes in liver cirrhosis. At the same time, the relationship between SOX12 and TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor) was discussed out. Inhibition of SOX12 by cell transfection Effect of gene expression on TGF-β1. Results 1)SOX12 protein was highly expressed in both human hepatocytes and stellate cells;2) the expression of TGF-β1 and collagen I in hepatic stellate cells was decreased by inhibiting the expression of SOX12 gene;3)SOX12 regulates the activity of hepatic stellate cells and the expression of TGF-β1, resulting in the accumulation of extra-cellular matrix. Conclusions Down-regulation of SOX12 expression in hepatic stellate cells inhibits liver cirrhosis.
    MCF-7 cell strain with CACYBP/SIP gene stabilized knockout and its proliferation
    2019, 39(12):  1682-1688. 
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    Objective To construct the CACYBP/SIP-/- MCF-7 cell strain and study the changes of its proliferation. Methods The specific sgRNA sequence was designed and Lenti-CAS9-sgRNA-puro plasmid was constructed, MCF-7 cells were transfected with the plasmid, and puromycin resistance was used to screened for positive clone. Cruiser was used to detect sgRNA activity, monoclonal strain was screened by limiting dilution method, and CACYBP/SIP protein expression was detected by Western blot, Brdu and MTT kits were used to detect cell proliferation after CACYBP/SIP gene deletion. Results The sequencing results showed that the Lenti-CAS9-sgRNA-puro plasmid was successfully constructed. The optimal screening concentration of puromycin was 0.9μg/mL. The results of Cruiser assay showed that sgRNA1 activity was the highest, and the obtained monoclonal strains was sequenced only. MTT and Brdu results showed that the proliferation of CACYBP/SIP-/- MCF-7 cell strain was weakened (P<0.05).Conclusion CACYBP/SIP-/- MCF-7 cell strain is successfully obtained and it’s proliferation ability is decreased.
    miR-195 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line CAL27
    2019, 39(12):  1689-1693. 
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    Objective To study the effect of miR-195 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion of CAL27 cells, and explore its mechanism. Methods RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of miR-195 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues and cells. The miR-195 group (transfected miR-195 mimics), miR-con group (transfected miR-NC), si-con group (transfected si-con), si-SUZ12 group (transfected si-SUZ12), miR-195+Ctrl group (co-transfected miR-195 mimics and pcDNA 3.1), miR-195+ SUZ12 group (co-transfected miR-195 mimics and pcDNA 3.1-SUZ12); MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of each group; Transwell was used to detect the migration and invasion of each group; Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of SUZ12 in each group; dual fluorescein report gene detection assay was used to detect the fluorescence activity of each group cells. Results Compared with normal tissues adjacent to the cancer, the expression of miR-195 was significantly decreased in tongue squamous carcinoma. Compared with human normal oral keratinocytes NHOK, the expression of miR-195 was significantly decreased in tongue squamous carcinoma cells (P<0.05). Overexpression miR-195 and knockdown SUZ12 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of CAL27 cells; SUZ12 is the target of miR-195. Overexpression of SUZ12 rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-195 on proliferation, migration and invasion of CAL27 cells. Conclusions miR-195 can inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of CAL27 cell. The mechanism may be related to targeting SUZ12, which will provide a new target for the prevention and treatment of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
    Up-regulation expression of miR-195-5p inhibits the migration and invasion of lung cancer cell line A549
    2019, 39(12):  1694-1698. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-195-5p on the migration and invasion of A549 cells in vitro. Methods The expression of miR-195-5p in lung cancer tissues, paracancerous tissues and lung cancer cell lines were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, miR-195-5p mimics were transfected into A549 cells by liposome-mediated method. The cell migration and invasion were examined by Transwell assay. Western blot analysis was used to detect the effect of miR-195-5p on the protein level expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition makers and ZEB1. Results Compared with paracancerous tissues and normal lung epithelial cells, the expressions of miR-195-5p were lower in lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell line(P <0.001). The over-expression of miR-195-5p inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells(P <0.001), increased the protein expression of E-cadherin and reduced expression of N-cadherin、vimentin and ZEB1(P <0.01). Conclusions miR-195-5p inhibits the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by reducing the expression of ZEB1.
    Montelukast inhibits hypersecretion of airway mucus in asthmatic rats
    2019, 39(12):  1699-1703. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of leukotriene-mediated inflammatory injury on hypersecretion of airway mucus in asthmatic rats.Methods The rat model of asthma was duplicated with OVA classic modeling method, and the CysLTs1 specific receptor antagonist montelukast was used for ELISA、Western blot and q-PCR to observe the changes of inflammation and airway mucus secretion indexes.Results Montelukast could inhibit CysLTs receptor 1,P38MAPK phosphorylation, and down-regulate MUC5AC gene expression and protein synthesis. Conclusions Leukotriene-mediated inflammation is shown to promote airway mucus hypersecretion in asthmatic rats, which could be antagonized by montelukase.
    Overexpression of TGF-β1 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of human cervical cancer cell line C-33A
    2019, 39(12):  1704-1708. 
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    Objective To study the effect of TGF-β1 gene transfection on proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells in vitro. Methods Overexpression plasmid of TGF-β1 was established by gene transfection in C-33A cell line with well proliferation status. The expression of TGF-β1 mRNA and protein, Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation rate,migration rate and apoptosis were detected by MTT assay, Transwell assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results The expression of TGF-β1 mRNA and protein in cervical cancer cells was lower than that of other cells (P<0.05). TGF-β1 could inhibit the expression of Bcl-2 (P<0.05) and promote the expression of Bax (P<0.05). The rate of proliferation and migration of overexpressed TGF-β1 cells was lower than that of other cells (P<0.05), but the rate of apoptosis was higher than that other cells (P<0.05), and the decrease and increase show time dependence. Conclusions Overexpression TGF-β1 can significantly inhibit the proliferation and promote apoptosis of cervical cancer cells.
    Effects of hepatocyte growth factor secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on proliferation and drug sensitivity of cell line K562 and resistant strain K562/G01
    2019, 39(12):  1709-1716. 
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    Objective To study the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) secrete by mesenchymal stem cell in bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironmen on proliferation and drug sensitivity of leukemia cell line K562 and its drug-resistant variant K562/G01.Methods The MSCs were obtained through culturing in low serum medium.K562 cells and its drug resistant K562/G01 were used. The co-culture of MSCs with leukemia cells are prepared. Leukemia Cells Cultured with MSCs. According to existence of anti-HGF antibody or not, all groups were divided into control group and experiment group.The adhesion of leukemia cells on MSCs cell layer was observed under inverted fluorescence microscope and the adhesion rates were calculated.The pro1iferation of leukemia cells in the co-culture system was observed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Cell cycle of leukemia cells in the co-culture system was investigated by flow cytometry.The survival rate of K562 cells and K562/G01 cells in the co-culture system was measured by flow cytometry after added imatinib incubation for 48 hours. Results After anti-HGF antibody was added and cultured for 24 hours, adhesion rates in experiment groups were significantly lower than those in control group(P<0.05).The pro1iferation of leukemia cells in experiment groups were all significantly lower than those in control groups in the co-culture system(P<0.05).The percentages of leukemia cells in G0/G1 phase in experiment group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05). 0n the contrary, the proportions of leukemia cells in S phase in experiment group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). Survival rate that of K562 cells and K562/G01 cells in the co-culture system after added imatinib incubation for 48 hours in experiment groups were respectively significantly lower than those in control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion The HGF promotes the cell survival and proliferation of K562 and K562/G01 cells by affecting cell adhesion and cell cycle, and reduces the killing effect of imatinib on leukemia cells.
    Assessment of autonomic nervous function in Tibetan patients with high altitude pulmonary hypertension
    2019, 39(12):  1717-1722. 
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    Objective To investigate the changes of heart rate variability (HRV) in Tibet patients with high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) . Methods From November 2018 to March 2019, 120 patients with HAPH in the cardiac care unit of the People's Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region were selected as observation groups, and 50 patients without organic heart disease served as control groups. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was evaluated by Doppler ehocardiography in patients with PAH, according to which PAH is divided into three groups: mild group PASP: 30 ~ 49 mm Hg (1mmHg = 0.133 kPa); moderate group PASP: 50 ~ 69 mmHg Severity group PASP: ≥70mmHg. A 24-h dynamic electrocardiogram was performed on each group of patients.Heart rate variability index [Time domain : standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of 5 minutes average normal RR intervals (SDANN) , root mean square of sueeessive difference in RR interval (RMSSD), percentage of RR intervals differing more than 50ms from the preeding one (PNN50), HRVTI is also called triangle index; frequency domain: total power (TP), very low frequency (VLF: 0.03-0.04 Hz), low frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF: 0.15-0.40 Hz) were measured and compared. Results Compared with the control group, the 24-hour long-range analysis time domain indicators SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, PNN50, and HRVTI were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Short-term analysis of frequency domain indicators included in total frequency domain (TP), very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF). These all showed a significant reduction (P<0.01) . However, LF/HF was the highest in the mild pulmonary hypertension group and the lowest in the moderate pulmonary arterial pressure group, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. Conclusions The heart rate variability of patients with chronic high altitude pulmonary hypertension in high altitude areas in Tibet is significantly reduced relative to healthy controls. It is significantly negatively correlated with the severity of pulmonary artery pressure.
    Leptin influences cholelithiasis formation by regulating bile acid metabolism
    2019, 39(12):  1723-1728. 
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    Objective To further investigate the relationship between leptin and bile acid metabolism. Methods Liver tissues and preoperative serum of 89 patients with Gall Stone (GS), 68 patients with Primary intrahepatic Stone (PIS) and 72 patients with benign liver diseases (Control, CT) were collected. Serum leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the serum TBA, TBIL, ALT, AST, TC, TG and gamma-ggt levels were detected by automatic biochemical analysis. mRNA and protein expression levels of Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-a2, p-AMPKa2 and bile salt export pump (BSEP) in liver samples were measured by Q-PCR and Western blot, respectively. After co-culture of HepG2 cells with leptin and leptin+AMPKa2 inhibitor (compund C), mRNA and protein expressions of OB-Rb, AMPKa2, p-AMPKa2 and BSEP were detected by Q-PCR and Western blot, respectively. TBA content in cell supernatant was detected by automatic biochemical analysis. Results serum leptin level in GS group was significantly higher than that in CT and PIS group (P < 0.05). The expression levels of OB-Rb, AMPKa2, p-AMPKa2 and BSEP in GS group and PIS group were significantly lower than those in CT group (P < 0.05). Leptin stimulates HepG2 cells and increases the expressions of OB-Rb, AMPKa2, p-AMPKa2 and BSEP. Compund C inhibits the effect of leptin on OB-Rb, AMPKa2, p-AMPKa2 and BSEP in HepG2 cells. Conclusions Leptin is involved in the regulation of bile acid metabolism, and its abnormal effect in liver may be one of the mechanisms of cholelithiasis.
    EGB761 alleviates ischemia reperfusion injury on kidney of diabetic rats
    2019, 39(12):  1729-1734. 
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    Objective To investigate the protective effect of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on acute renal injury induced by ischemia reperfusion (IR) in diabetic (DM) rats and its mechanism. Methods All rats were divided into five groups: control group(NC),DM group, DM-IR group, EGb761-100 group and EGb761-200 group(n=10). Rats in the EGb761-100 and EGb761-200 groups were received EGb761 by gavage for 14 days before IR model were prepared(100 mg/kg/d and 200 mg/kg/d,respectively). The levels of serum creatinine, cystatin C and urinary KIM-1 were measured, Pathological changes of renal tissue were observed under light microscope; Expression of inflammatory mediators(TGF-β1, TNF-α and IL-6)and oxidative stress index (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde ) in renal homogenate were measured; The expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 in renal tissue were measured by immunohistochemistry; The levels of Klotho in serum, urine and renal tissue and the expression of Klotho mRNA in renal tissue were detected. Results Compared with DM-IR group, EGb761 decreased levels of Scr, Cys-C, urinary KIM-1 and tubular Paller score(P<0.05); EGb761 decreased the production of inflammatory mediators and attenuated the oxidative stress in IR injury rats(P<0.05); EGb761 also decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 in renal tissue(P<0.05), and alleviated the reduced expression of Klotho in serum, urine and kidney tissue. Renoprotective effects in EGb761-200 group were more significant than that in EGb761-100 group. Conclusions EGb761 may alleviate renal function damage induced by IR in DM rats by inhibiting inflammatory response, reducing oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis and increasing Klotho.
    Coronin 1c overexpression promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cervical cancer cell line SiHa
    2019, 39(12):  1735-1740. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of overexpression of Coronin 1c on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) of cervical cancer cell line SiHa based on Notch1/LOX/Snail1 pathway. Methods RNA interference recombinant adenovirus targeting Coronin 1c gene(Ad-Cor-siRNA) and recombinant adenovirus containing control sequence (Ad-control) were constructed, and infected SiHa cells to silence Coronin 1c gene expression; and grouped into H8 group: H8 cells, blank control group (blank): SiHa cells not treated with any virus, Ad- Control group: SiHa cells infected with empty vector adenovirus, Ad-Cor-siRNA group: SiHa cells infected with recombinant adenovirus Ad-Cor-siRNA; Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Coronin 1c, E-cadherin, Vimentin, LOX and Snail1 in each group. The expressions of E-cadherin and Vimentin mRNA were detected by qPCR. The expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9 and Notch1 were detected by immunofluorescence assay. Results Compared with normal cervical epithelial cells H8, the expressions of Coronin 1c, Vimentin, MMP-2, MMP-9, Notch1, LOX and Snail1 proteins in SiHa cells were increased, and the expressions of E-Cadherin were decreased. After silencing of Coronin 1c, the expressions of Vimentin, MMP-2, MMP-9, Notch1, LOX and Snail1 proteins were decreased, and the expression of E-Cadherin was increased. Conclusions The overexpression of Coronin 1c protein is closely related to the EMT transformation of SiHa cells, which can activate the Notch1/LOX/Snail1 pathway and promote EMT transformation in SiHa cells.
    Silymarin inhibits invasion and migration of hepatoma cell line MHCC97
    2019, 39(12):  1741-1745. 
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    Objective To study the effects of silymarin on invasion and migration of MHCC97 cell lines, and explore the possible molecule mechanism. Methods Cell suppression rates were detected by MTT assay. Migration, invasion and adhesion of MHCC97 cells after silymarin treatment were observed by cell migration assay, wound healing assay and cell-matrix adhesion assay. The mRNA and protein levels of MMP9, VEGF, E-cadherin, integrin β1 and Akt were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot separately. Results The silymarin suppressed growth rate of MHCC97 cells; and migration, invasion and adhesion abilities. The mRNA and protein levels of MMP-9, VEGF, Integrin β1 and p-Akt were also reduced, but the expressions of mRNA and protein of E-cadherin increased. Conclusions Silymarin can inhibit the growth of MHCC97 cells, and reduce the invasion, migration, and adhesion abilities of MHCC97 cell lines.
    Butylphthalide attenuates apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in Alzheimer's disease rats
    2019, 39(12):  1746-1751. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of butylphthalide on apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in rats with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods The rats were divided into control group, AD model group and the rats were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose and aluminium trichloride, the low, medium and high dose groups of butylphthalide (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were given intragastric administration, 12 rats in each group. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, HE was used to observe the morphological changes of hippocampal CA1 neurons, real-time-PCR was used to detect the expression of Tau protein and apoptotic factors Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA in hippocampal neurons, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of mTOR, AKT and GSK-3β in hippocampal neurons. Results Compared with the control group, the escape latency and the first time to find the original platform of model group were significantly prolonged, the number of times to cross the original platform was significantly reduced, and the apoptotic rate of hippocampal neurons was significantly increased, and the expression of Tau, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and mTOR, AKT and GSK-3β decreased in the model group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the escape latency and the first time to find the original platform in the low, medium and high dose butylphthalide groups were significantly shortened in the 3rd to 5th day, the number of times to cross the original platform was significantly increased, and the apoptotic rate of hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced, and the expression of Tau, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA decreased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and mTOR, AKT and GSK-3β increased (P<0.05). Conclusions Butylphthalide can significantly inhibit the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in AD rats, its mechanism may be related to inhibition of Tau protein, regulation of apoptosis factors and activation of mTOR/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway.
    Comparison of effects between fluorouracil combined with oxaliplatin and paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer
    2019, 39(12):  1752-1755. 
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    Objective To compare the between effects oxaliplatin combined with fluorouracil and paclitaxel combined with fluorouracil in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer(AGC).Methods We selected 89 cases of patients with advanced gastric cancer and divided then into 2 groups, with least 3 months’ chemotherapy. The group A was treated with oxaliplatin 130 mg /m2 combined with fluorouracil 40mg /m2. The Group B was treated with paclitaxel 135-175 mg /m2 combined with fluorouracil 40mg /m2. Results The ORR of group A was 38.78% higher than Group B, 37.50%, after two cycle of chemotherapy. After three months’ chemotherapy, no differencs was found between group A (ORR 51.02%, DCR 71.43%) and group B (ORR 47.50%, DCR 75.00%). Adverse reactions of group A were less than group B (P<0.05). The median PFS of group A was 4.3 months, and the median PFS of group B was 3.9 months. The difference between the groups by Log-rank test was statistically significant. Conclusions After 3-month treatment no difference is between oxaliplatin combined with fluorouracil and paclitaxel combined with fluorouracil, However the oxaliplatin combined with fluorouracil is higher rate of short-term remission, and less adverse reactions.
    Effect of angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan combined with amlodipine in the treatment of hypertensive nephropathy
    2019, 39(12):  1756-1759. 
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    Objective: To investigate the effect of angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan combined with amlodipine in the treatment of hypertensive nephropathy. Methods: Totally 84 patients admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from January 2015 to June 2018 were included in this study. They were randomly divided into observation group and control group, 42 cases each. The control group was treated with valsartan only, while the observation group was treated with valsartan and amlodipine. The changes of blood pressure and renal function indexes were observed after treatment. Results: The levels of SBP, DBP, urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Scr) and 24h urinary protein in the observation group were lower than those before intervention (P < 0.05), while the levels of SBP, DBP, BUN, Scr and 24h urinary protein in the control group were lower than those before intervention (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, BUN, Scr and 24h urine protein levels were lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Valsartan can control blood pressure and protect renal function in the treatment of hypertension nephropathy. Valsartan combined with amlodipine has better therapeutic effect than valsartan alone.
    Research advance of endoplasmic reticulum stress and acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Jiao PENG Dao-xin WANG
    2019, 39(12):  1763-1766. 
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    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical syndrome in respiratory department and intensive care department, with no effective treatment and the mortality rate of which is extremely high. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role in the onset and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by inducing inflammation and cell apoptosis, while inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress could alleviate ARDS.
    Research progress on the correlation between hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axis hormone and sarcopenia
    2019, 39(12):  1767-1772. 
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    With the aging of population in China, sarcopenia has become one of the important problems in the field of public health. Sarcopenia (sarcopenia for short) is a syndrome with a high incidence in the elderly, especially in the long-bedridden elderly. The disease is characterized by decreased muscle mass, decreased muscle strength and decreased muscle function. Sarcopenia in the elderly directly leads to an increased risk of falls, decreased independence, and increased hospitalizations. The etiology of sarcopenia has not been identified, and many potential mechanisms have been studied.
    A survey on the cognition and demand of clinical medical undergraduates on the course of scientific research design
    2019, 39(12):  1773-1776. 
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    Objective To understand the cognition and demand of the “medical scientific research design” course among clinical medical undergraduates, in order to provide reference basis for offering the course in medical colleges and universities. Methods Clinical medical undergraduates were recruited from a medical university; the investigation was conducted by a self-designed questionnaire. Results Totally, 458 medical undergraduates participated in this investigation. 76.9% recognized the significance of participation in scientific research among medical undergraduates, 74.2% paid attention to the development of scientific research, 76.9% indicated their willingness to take part in scientific research. However, only 32.1% of the students have participated in scientific research. There was no difference in the willingness to participate in scientific research activities among different grades, but there was a difference in the actual participation in scientific research activities among different grades (P < 0.001). In the aspect of understanding of “Medical scientific research design” course, 67.5% considered it necessary to offer this course. 88.0% considered this course would be helpful to their future study. In the aspect of requirements of “Medical scientific research design” course, 78.7% considered this course should be offered before grade 3. 82.3% considered this course should be carried out through case discussion or project practice, only 15.3% considered this course should be carried out in the class. 89.1% considered the examination method for this course should be project design or writing review, only 6.8% preferred to paper examination. 69.0% considered the academic title of the teacher for this course should be associated professor or above. Conclusions It is necessary to offer the course of "medical scientific research design" among the undergraduates majoring in clinical medicine, but the teaching methods still need to be further explored, the students should be offered more opportunities to participate in scientific research.
    Discussion on the training modes of refresher doctors of clinical pathology
    2019, 39(12):  1777-1780. 
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    Objective To explore the training mode of advanced physicians in clinical pathology. Methods 10-15 refresher doctors were adopted every year. And they were trained from pre-job training, participation in difficult case discussion, literature reading, scientific research training and stage assessment. Results At the end of the training, most of the refresher doctors could achieve the expected training goal. They mastered the standardized pathological diagnosis workflow, the diagnosis methods and ideas of common and difficult diseases, and the methods of clinical research, and improved the ability of pathologic diagnosis, self-study and English learning. Conclusion Through systematic training, the clinicopathological diagnostic ability of the refresher doctors has been improved comprehensively, and a large number of high-level pathologists have been provided for the grass-roots hospitals.
    Evaluation on the learning effect of online and offline mixed teaching mode in physiological experiment course
    2019, 39(12):  1781-1784. 
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    Objective to explore the effect of online and offline blended teaching modes in the physiological experimental courses. Methods Statistically analyze the correlation between the data of course website login, experiment quality, average grades, examination results and final evaluation results of students’ physiological science experiment course in grade 2015 and comparatively analyze students’ data for teaching quality questionnaire scale in grade 2014 and 2015. Results Students spend more time on self-study of online courses in the evening and the number of times they logged on the course website has a significant impact on their performance. Students’ test scores and experimental quality can be improve through two stages of teaching. Students give higher marks for flipped classroom teaching model, improving basic ability and scientific research ability through course learning. Conclusion The perfect experimental teaching content and teaching mode can promote students’ independent learning, improve students’ independent practice ability and the ability to raise, think and solve problems scientifically, which is conducive to cultivating students’ good qualities of independent learning, practice and inquiry.
    Micro-course design and production of clinical medicine
    2019, 39(12):  1785-1788. 
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    Micro-course is an emerging educational method in the internet age. It presents boring medical principles and operational skills to students in video form,in order to achieve such an effection of clear theme, scene reduction, multi-dimensional display, short and fine, easy to remember. The application is mainly focused on medical theory, hospital nursing practice, clinical foundation and multi-disciplinary subjects. In this paper, the author aimed to improve the doctor's clinical diagnostic skills, innovatively apply micro-courses to the first-line clinical teaching of vascular surgery and had received wide acclaim from students and grassroots medical workers, and summarized some experiences of making clinical medical micro-courses. Several experiences provided theoretical guidance for the subsequent production of medical micro-courses.
    Programmed ophthalmology residency training system in the United States and its implications to China
    2019, 39(12):  1789-1792. 
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    Objective Through visit to ophthalmic hospitals in the United States, the characteristics and advantages of resident training in the United States were summarized, and the enlightenment to Chinese resident training was revealed. Methods A retrospective analysis was made of the Ophthalmology residency training at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute in Miami, USA. Results The residency training system in the United States had a lot to learn from, such as improving the initiative of resident learning, focusing on the combination of clinical and scientific research, and strengthening the assessment of resident clinical assessment. At present, the quality and effect of residency training in China need to be improved, especially in surgery training and clinical assessment. Conclusion Standardized residency training plays an important role in ensuring medical quality and promoting medical development.
    Practice of MDT combined with PBL in clinical teaching of neurology
    2019, 39(12):  1793-1795. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of multiple disciplinary team(MDT) combined with problem-based learning (PBL) in clinical practice teaching of neurology. Methods a total of 72 5-year medical students majoring in clinical medicine in grade 2014 of Xiangya Second Hospital of Central Couth University, who had clinical practice in neurology from June 2018 to December 2018, were randomly divided into the experimental group (MDT-PBL group) and the control group (LBL group) to compare the exam results and questionnaire survey results of the two groups. Results the MDT-PBL group's theoretical test score (86.65±4.03) was significantly higher than that of LBL group (81.77±3.77) (P < 0.001). The score of clinical skills operation test in MDT-PBL group (87.42±3.71) was also significantly higher than that in LBL group (78.23±4.84) (P < 0.001). The teaching satisfaction of MDT-PBL group was significantly better than that of the LBL group (P < 0.001). Conclusion MDT combined with PBL teaching mode has achieved good results in clinical practice teaching of neurology, which is worthy of further promotion in clinic teaching.
    Application of the co-teaching mode of general hospital and special hospital in the standardized training of pediatric residents
    2019, 39(12):  1796-1800. 
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    Objective To explore the advantages and feasibility of the co-teaching mode of general hospital and specialized hospital in standardized training of pediatric residents. Methods From 2016 to 2018,the residents received theco-teachingmode of Peking Union Medical College Hospital andCapital Institute of Pediatrics.And they were questioned by Systematic Evaluation of Teaching Qualities.The residents,who have completed the standardized training in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2013 to 2016,were questioned by Systematic Evaluation of Teaching Qualities too. Compare the results of the two groups of questionnaires. UseSPSS to analyze the differences in the quality of training,teaching attitudes and abilities,and teaching effect between the two groups. Results There were significant differences between the observation group and the control group in terms of training content,humanistic education and heuristic teaching (P<0.05).The co-teachingmodeis superior to single-teaching mode in the content of standardized training of resident doctors. But humanistic education and heuristic teaching have more advantages. Conclusion The co-teaching mode is feasible for the standardized training of Pediatrics in general hospitals,which can solve the problems of insufficient disease types and imperfect establishment of sub-specialties. But in order to carry out the co-teaching smoothly and effectively,we need a unified teaching mode,perfect supervision and feedback mode.
    Effect of hospital informatization on case follow-up of radiology department
    2019, 39(12):  1801-1804. 
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    Objective To explore the influence of hospital informatization on case follow-up of radiology department.Methods The cases in 2016 and 2018, that were followed up and discussed in the department, were retrospectively analyzed. The number of cases tracked and the kind of diseases in the two periods were compared. The methods, time, frequency, interest of tracking cases in the two periods were counted by questionnaire. Results There was little difference in the number of cases between the two periods, and the kind of diseases increased. With the continuous improvement and enrichment of the functions and contents of the outpatient medical record system, the inpatient medical record system and the pathological system, real-time network query had become the main way of tracking cases. Time spent significantly decreased(P<0.05); Physician interest and willingness increased significantly(P<0.05).Conclusions Hospital informatization greatly facilitates the case follow-up of radiology department. Under the new situation, we should pay more attention to and make good use of this tool.
    Application of teaching assessment on teaching traditional Chinese medicine in nursing department of western medical college
    2019, 39(12):  1805-1808. 
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    Objective To explore the role of teaching assessment on students of nursing majors after teaching traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in western medical college. Methods To summarize the teaching assessment of TCM course among students of nursing majors in Peking Union Medical College from 2012 to 2017. Results The complete satisfaction of the students increased gradually with the curriculum setting, teaching content, content of lecture and final exam meeting requirements of the syllabus and teaching methods contributed to the cultivation of students' abilities to think independently and solve problems. Conclusion The application of teaching assessment plays a promoting role in the practice of TCM course.
    Development of a standardized anesthesiology resident training system in Tibet Autonomous Region through the "Team Based" Medical Aid and Mentorship Program
    2019, 39(12):  1809-1812. 
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    "Team based " medical aid and mentorship program for Tibet had been gradually developed for more than four years. The Department of Anesthesiology of Peking Union Medial College Hospital (PUMCH) had sent a number of experts to aid the department of anesthesiology of Tibet Autonomous Region People’s Hospital (TARPH). They contributed their wisdom and gathered their experience on standardized training of anesthesiology residents through multi-model teaching methods, such as bedside teaching, simulation, crisis resource management, simultaneous quarterly on-line assessment, clinical subspecialty training, scientific research ability acquirement and humanism characteristics cultivation.