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Table of Content

    05 April 2017, Volume 37 Issue 4
    Hot topics on management of endometrial cancer
    Ling-ya PAN
    2017, 37(4):  435-435. 
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    Prognosis after fertility-sparing management with oral progestin for women with complex endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer
    2017, 37(4):  436-442. 
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    Objective To investigate the oncologic and reproductive outcomes after progestin treatment of complex endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and grade 1 endometrial carcinoma (EC). Methods In a retrospective study, data were obtained for patients with CEH or grade 1 EC at presumed stage IA (without myometrial invasion) who wished to preserve fertility and were treated at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, China, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011. Patients had received oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (250–500?mg/day) or megestrol acetate (160–480?mg/day) for at least 6?months. Results Among 53 included patients, median age was 32 years(range 20–42?years). 41(75%) achieved complete response after a median period of 6 (3–24) months. Complete response was less frequent among obese than nonobese patients (4/12 [33%] vs 37/43 [86%]; P=0.001). Disease recurrence was recorded in 10 (26%) patients with complete response; the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 71%. Among the 33 patients who retained a desire to conceive, 17 (52%) became pregnant. Conclusion Fertility-sparing management with oral progestin is effective. Obesity is associated with a lower probability of long-term success.
    Safety and prognosis of ovarian preservation in young women with early-stage endometrial cancer
    Yong-xue WANG Ling-ya PAN
    2017, 37(4):  443-447. 
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    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and prognosis of ovarian preservation in young women with early-stage endometrial cancer. Methods Women≤45 years of age with stageⅠendometrial cancer recorded from Jan 2005 to Dec 2011 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were examined. They were further divided into two groups: ovarian preservation group and oophorectomy group. Clinical and pathological recording of these patients were compared. Results A total of 72 women, including 25 patients (34.7%) who had ovarian preservation, were identified. The ovarian preservation group was younger (P=0.007) and had a lower prevalence of lymphadenectomy (P<0.001). While there were no significant difference in stage, tumor grade, the invasion depth of myometrium and adjuvant treatment between two groups (all P>0.05). Of seventy-two cases, five patients relapsed and all survived after a median follow-up time of 89 months (rang: 7-131 months). The Kaplan-Meier curve and the log rank test showed no difference in recurrence-free survival (P=0.194). In Cox model analysis, ovarian preservation had no effect on recurrence-free survival (HR=3.08, 95% CI 0.54-18.44). Conclusions Ovarian preservation in young women with early-stage endometrial cancer is safe and has no negative effect on recurrence-free survival or overall survival.
    Prognostic Effect of Positive Peritoneal Cytology in Endometrial Cancer and Risk Factors for Positive Peritoneal Cytology
    2017, 37(4):  448-453. 
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    Objective To determine the prognostic significance of positive peritoneal cytology (PPC) among patients with endometrial cancer and to find out risk factors for PPC in endometrial cancer. Methods Data were extracted from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2005 and 2010. Only those patients who had undergone a staging procedure were included. A total of 486 patients were identified. Statistical analyses used Fisher’s exact test, Kaplan–Meier log rank, and Cox proportional hazards models. Results Rate of PPC was 4.8% in endometrial cancer. Non-endometrioid endometrial cancer(P=0.000), stage III/IV(P=0.000), deep myometrial invasion(P=0.001), and cervical stromal involvement(P=0.018) appeared to be risk factors for PPC in endometrial cancer. Univariate analysis revealed statistically difference in 5yr-PFS (70.9% vs 90.0%) and 5yr-OS (72.2% vs 96.0%). Progression-free survival and overall survival showed statistically difference (P=0.005,P =0.000) between PPC and NPC endometrial cancer. On multivariate analysis, PPC remained no statistically difference in progression-free survival or overall survival(RR=3.812,95%CI 0.897-16.200,P=0.070;RR=3.426,95%CI 0.800-14.673,P=0.097). Conclusion PPC is not an independent risk factor in patients with endometrial cancer. Aggressive histology, FIGO stage, deep myometrial invasion, and cervical stromal involvement, are presumed to be associated with PPC in endometrial cancer.
    High-Risk Factors and Prognostic analysis of Pelvic Nodal Metastasis in Patients with Endometrial Carcinoma
    2017, 37(4):  454-462. 
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    Objective: To investigate the high-risk factors of retroperitoneal lymph nodes metastasis (LNM) and the effect of lymph nodes metastasis on prognosis in patients with endometrial carcinoma (EM). Methods: Retrospective research were carried out from January 2005 to December 2010 to identify 289 endometrial cancer patients treated with retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The high-risk factors of retroperitoneal LNM and prognostic factors of this disease were studied. Results: (1) The median age of at diagnosis was 55 years. Patients of stage I, II, III and IV were 224 (77.5%), 13 (4.5%), 45 (15.6%) and 7 (2.4%), respectively. Two hundred and eighty-nine patients received pelvic lymphadenectomy, of that 30 (10.4%) patients were found the pelvic LNM. Ninety-six patients received periaortic lymphadenectomy, of that 11 (11.5%) patients were found the periaortic LNM. Twenty-one (7.3%) patients developed recurrent disease and 11 (3.8 %) were dead. The median follow-up was 37 months and the median disease-free survival (DFS) was 34 months. (2) In univariate analysis, the incidence of LNM significantly increased in patients with CA125 ≥ 35u/L preoperatively , non-endometrioid adenocarcinoma, low grade, deep myometrium invasion, diameter of tumor ≥ 2cm, cervical stroma involvement, positive peritoneal cytology and vagina or parametrial involvement (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, CA125 ≥ 35u/L preoperatively, low grade, deep myometrium invasion was the independent high-risk factors of LNM (P < 0.05). (3) The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference between positive peritoneal cytology, vagina or parametrial involvement, appendix involvement, LNM and DFS (P < 0.05). We also found a significant difference on the impact of non-endometrioid adenocarcinoma, low grade, deep myometrium invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, appendix involvement and LNM on overall survival (OS) (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed retroperitoneal LNM is the independent prognostic factor of 5-year DFS (patients without LNM 92.1% vs patients with LNM 65.3%, P=0.002, 95%CI 0.078-0.552). We also found the trend that the 5-year OS was higher in patients without LNM than them with LNM, even though there was no significant difference (patients without LNM 96.1% vs patients with LNM 70.0%, P=0.086, 95%CI 0.039-1.238). Conclusion: Our study found that (1) there was the predictive value of low grade and deep myometrium invasion for EC patients with LNM. This finding may give the clinician a guild of lymphadenectomy and lay the foundation for individualized treatment; (2) there was the trend that patients with LNM have poorer prognosis than them without LNM. Therefore, patients with LNM should receive adjuvant therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence.
    Managements of patients with preoperative diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia
    2017, 37(4):  463-467. 
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    Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatments of endometrioid carcinoma patients with preoperative diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia. Methods: Between 2005 and 2010, 404 patients were diagnosed with endometrioid carcinoma after hysterectomy. Among these patients,44 of them were diagnosed atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) preoperatively. Retrospectively analysis the characteristics of these patients with Spss13.0. Results: Among the 44 cases, all of them were grade G1 disease, and 39 of them received comprehensive staging surgery. 14 (32%)young cases preserved bilateral ovaries. 9 cases (20%) were given adjuvant radiology. No recurrence was detected during the median follow up of 52 months. Compared to the premenstrual group, although no statistical difference was detected, more patients with risk factors of deep myometrium invasion (4/22 vs 1/22) and lymph-vascular space invasion(LVSI, 3/22 vs 0/22) in the postmenstrual group. Compared to the patients who diagnosed with endometrioid cancer (EC) preoperatively, there are more patients with grade G1 (P=0.000)) , fewer patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (p=0.03) and fewer recurrence (p=0.019) in AEH group. Conclusion: The endomtrioid cancer patients who diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia preoperatively have better prognosis. Hysterectomy with bilateral ovaries preserved is acceptable in young patients. Post menopause patients with have more risk factors of deep myometrium invasion and LVSI.
    Effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatic stellate cells
    2017, 37(4):  468-472. 
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    Objective To determine the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of the human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2.The possible underlying mechanisms were also investigated. Methods The LX-2 cells were treated with SAHA in vitor.The morphology of LX-2 cells in diff- erent concentrations groups were observed by inverted microscope;the proliferation of LX-2 cells was measured by MTT assay;the Annexin V-FITC and PI staining was used to detect the apoptosis rates of LX-2 cells by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope;the expression of α-SMA,collagen I,acH3K9,acH3K14 and acH3K18 were detected by Western blotting.Results The morphology change of LX-2 cells showed that SAHA could inhibit the proliferation rate of LX-2 cells and in a dose dependent manner(P<0.05). The LX-2 cells were sensitive to SAHA along with time increasing ,and in a time- dependent manner(P<0.05).Western blotting showed that the expression levels of α-SMA and collagen-I were significantly lower(P<0.05) ,on the contrary ,the acetylation levels of acH3K9,acH3K14 and acH3K18 were significantly higher (P<0.05).Conclusions The increased acetylation levels of the histone acH3K9,acH3K14 ,acH3K18 and the lower expressed α-SMA and collagen-I in LX-2 cells may be one of the mechanismsof SAHA.
    Lethal action of RI-1 on MSH2-deficient colorectal cancer cells
    2017, 37(4):  473-478. 
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    Objective Toexplore the lethal action and possible mechanism of RI-1, a RAD51 inhibitor, on MSH2 deficient colorectal cancer cells. Method The expression of MSH2 protein level was assessedby Western blot , andthe sensibility of human colorectal cancer cells to RI-1 (10, 20, 30, 40and 50 μmol/L)was measuredby MTT method. Lentivirus vectorsMSH2-shRNA and Neg-shRNA (negative control) were constructed and transfected into HT29 cell. Apoptosis and DNA damage of cellstreated with RI-1(40 μmol/L)were detectedby flow cytometryand Single cell gel electrophoresis respectively. In addition, the formation of γ-H2AX foci was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Results Compared with control, MSH2-deficientHCT8 cellshad obviously apoptosis(P<0.01);in HCT8 and HT29Shmsh2 cells,tail DNA%, tail length, tail moment and olive tailmomentweremarkedly increased(P<0.05),and the number ofγ-H2AX focuswere increased(P<0.01).Conclusions RAD51 inhibitor RI-1 selectivelykilled MSH2 deficient colorectal cancer cells by increasing DNA damage.
    Effects of carboxyamidotriazole on the activation and degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells
    2017, 37(4):  479-483. 
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    Objective To explore the anti-infective mechanism of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) through studying the effects of CAI on the proliferation, apoptosis and degranulation of RBL-2H3 mass cells. Methods Compound 48/80 (C48/80) was used to induce the model of activation and degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. The morphological change of cell degranulation was observed by neutral red staining. The release levels of histamine and β-hexosaminidase were measured by ELISA method and chromogenic assay, respectively. The cell activity was determined by CCK-8 method. And cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. Results Compared with the control group, 10, 20, 40 mol/L CAI inhibited C48/80-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells in different degrees. CAI (20, 40 mol/L) reduced the histamine release (P<0.01), and CAI (40 mol/L) decreased the β-hexosaminidase release (P<0.01). In addition, the viability and apoptosis of RBL-2H3 cells were not affected at the concentrations of CAI used. Conclusions CAI can effectively inhibit the activation and degranulation of RBL-2H3 mast cells, and this effect is not through cytotoxicity. The anti-infection effect of CAI may partially due to the down-regulation of mast cell activity.
    Effects of Jinmaitong serum on the expression of β-catenin, GSK-3β and myelin protein zero in Schwann cells of rats cultured in high glucose medium
    2017, 37(4):  484-487. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of serum containing different concentrations of Traditional Chinese medicine Jinmaitong onβ-catenin、GSK-3βand P0 in Schwann cells cultured in high glucose medium. Methods Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly treated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 times of Jinmaitong and distilled water. Schwann cells were divided into six groups, which are Control group, High glucose group, 5 times group, 10 times group, 15 times group, 20 times group. 72 hours later, the proliferative activity of SCs cells were detected by CCK, the mRNA and protein expression of β-catenin、P0 and GSK-3β was detectived by rt-PCR and Western blotting. Results High glucose medium could inhibit the proliferation of Schwann cells, down-regulate the expression of β-catenin and P0(P<0.01), and up-regulate the expression of GSK-3β(P<0.05) significantly. But Jinmaitong can invert the results (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion High glucose medium will injure the proliferation of Schwann cells, But Jinmaitong can increase the proliferation activity of Schwann cells, and promotes the secretion of P0 Partially dependent on up-regulating the activity of β-catenin and down-regulating the activity of GSK-3β.
    Epidermal growth factor promotes proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa
    2017, 37(4):  488-492. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells,phosphorylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα)and Ack1 in the absence of estrogen. Methods Ishikawa cell line was stimulated by EGF without estrogen settings, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to evaluate cell proliferation, Western blot was used to detect ER α phosphorylation and Ack1 phosphorylation. Giving tyrosine inhibitor dasatinib to assess the effect of EGF on cell proliferation,phosphorylation of ERα and Ack1 in Ishikawa cells.Results EGF enhanced the proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells (p<0.05). EGF induced ERα phosphorylation at Tyr-537 and phosphorylation of Ack1. Compared with untreated control, Dasatinib inhibited the proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells (p<0.05), phosphorylation of ERα Tyr-537 and Ack1. Conclusions EGF promoted Ishikawa cells proliferation in the possible way of activating ER α site-specific phosphorylation at Tyr-537 and phosphorylation Ack1, which could be blocked by dasatinib.
    Dock180 knockout inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in rat derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes strain
    2017, 37(4):  493-499. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of dedicator of cytokinesis 1 (Dock180) knockout on proliferation and apoptosis in rat derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes and their mechanisms. Methods A single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting rat Dock180 gene was designed and constructed using CRISPR/Cas9 system. A plasmid contained above sgRNA was packaged into lentivirus and selected to knockout Dock180 in the cardiomyocytes. A single clone of cardiomyocyte with Dock180 knockout was established. Cardiomyocytes were divided into negative lentivirus group (Cas9, A group), Dock180 knockout group (B group), Cas9 lentivirus hypoxia group (C group), Dock180 knockout hypoxia group (D group). The expression of Dock180 mRNA was examined by RT-PCR, and relevant proteins were detected by Western blot. The cell proliferation rate of the cardiomyocytes was determined by MTT, and the apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry. Results Dock180 mRNA and protein were absent in B and D groups. Compared with A and C groups, p-ERK1/2 and Bcl-2 protein expression and cell proliferation rate were lower in B and D groups respectively (P<0.01), while Bax protein expression and cell apoptosis rate were higher in B and D groups respectively (P<0.05, P<0.01); Compared with A group, Dock180 mRNA and protein, p-ERK1/2 and Bcl-2 proteins and cell proliferation rate were reduced, while Bax protein and cell apoptosis rate were increased in C group(P<0.05,P<0.01). Compared with B group, p-ERK1/2 and Bcl-2 proteins and cell proliferation rate were decreased, while Bax protein and cell apoptosis rate were increased in D group(P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusions Dock180 knockout with CRISPR/Cas9 can inhibit proliferation and promoted apoptosis via p-ERK1/2, Bcl-2 and Bax in H9C2 cardiomyocytes.
    Differentially expressed gene screening of urine samples from rats renal fibrosis model and bioinformatics analysis
    2017, 37(4):  500-505. 
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    Objective To investigate the differentially expressed genes of urine samples from renal fibrosis model and carry out bioinformatics analysis. Methods Rat renal fibrosis model was constructed with the method of unilateral ureteric obstruction. Urine were collected from the rats with unilateral obstructive nephropathy and sham group, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and sequencing library was established. Differential expression mRNA were analyzed by GO and KEGG pathway. Known pre-miRNA were detected and novel lncRNA family were classified. Results Compared with the sham group urine, 813 up-regulated mRNA/lncRNA and 213 down-regulated mRNA/lncRNA were collected from the urine of renal fibrosis rats. Conclusions There are significant differential expression profile in urine samples between renal fibrosis rat group and the shame group. With high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, the exciting possibility was raised for better understanding renal pathologies and development of new diagnostic biomarkers.
    ATP1A1 gene silencing inhibits the invasion and mechanism of human U251 glioma cells in vitro
    2017, 37(4):  506-511. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of silencing ATP1A1 gene on invasion ability of human U251 glioma cells. Methods The human U251 glioma cells were infected with lentivirus expressing shRNA-ATP1A1. The mRNA and protein expressions of ATP1A1 in U251 glioma cells were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot,respectively. The proliferation of U251 glioma cells was determined by MTT assay.The migration and invasion ability were detected by cell scratch test and Transwell chamber. The protein expression of matrix metallo proteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in U251 glioma cells were detected by Western blot. Results The mRNA and protein expression of ATP1A1 in the silence group were significantly inhibited,The ability of proliferation, migration and invasion were also significantly inhibited (P<0.05),The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also significantly reduced,there was a significant difference(P<0.05). Conclusions RNA interference targeting ATP1A1 gene can significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma U251 cells.The mechanism might be related to the down-reguLation of MMP-9 and MMP-2.ATP1A1 can be used as a potential target for the treatment of glioma.
    Effect of ATAD2 on metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human glioblastoma cell lines
    2017, 37(4):  512-517. 
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    Objective To analyze the effect of ATAD2 on glioma cell lines. Methods ATAD2 levels in U87MG, U251 and normal human astrocytes were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot. U87MG and U251 cells were divided into four groups: control, mock (lipofection control), ATAD2 siRNA (transfected with ATAD2 siRNA) and ATAD2 overexpression (transfected with ATAD2). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were respectively measured by MTT and Transwell assay. The levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin were measured by Western blot. Results ATAD2 was highly expressed in U87MG and U251 cells. Compared with control, cell proliferation, invasion, migration, N-cadherin and Vimentin expression were decreased by ATAD2 siRNA, while they were promoted by ATAD2 overexpression (P<0.05). E-cadherin expression was upregulated by ATAD2 siRNA and it was inhibited by ATAD2 overexpression (P<0.05). Conclusion ATAD2 participants in human glioma cells metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
    Screening of potential lncRNAs of KIAA1456 inhibiting proliferation of ovarian cancer cells
    2017, 37(4):  518-524. 
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    Objective Exploring the potential lncRNAs of KIAA1456 inhibiting ovarian cancer cells . Methods Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of KIAA1456 in HO8910PM ovarian cancer cell. Microarray was performed to identify differently expressed lncRNAs in HO8910PM ovarian cancer cells overexpressed KIAA1456 compared with the normal control group. The interesting candidate lncRNAs were verified by real-time quantitative PCR.Constructing RNAi lentiviral vector targeting KIAA1456 gene in HO8910PM ovarian cancer cells, RT-qPCR and Western blot was performed to measure the interference efficiency. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR after KIAA1456 knock-down. Results KIAA1456 mainly expressed in nucleus of HO8910PM cell. A total of 654 differently expressed lncRNAs were identified in the KIAA1456-overexpressed group compared with the control group with a set filter fold-change ≥1.2, the most aberrantly expressed lncRNAs including down-regulated gene SSX8 and up-regulated genes SNORD14D,SNORA26,lncRNA-ENST00000384488. The results of the RT-qPCR were consistent with the data from the microarray.The shRNA interference vectors targeting the KIAA1456 gene were successfully constructed, SSX8 was up-regulated, and SNORD14D,SNORA26,lncRNA-ENST00000384488 were down-regulated after knockdown the expression of KIAA1456 in the HO8910/PM ovarian cancer cells. Conclusions KIAA1456 could inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer by regulating correlative lncRNAs, such as SSX8,SNORD14D,SNORA26,lncRNA-ENST00000384488, which could provide a new target for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer.
    Curcumin reducesthe expression of inflammatory factors in model rats with CP/CPPS type III
    2017, 37(4):  525-530. 
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    Objective To study the effect of curcumin on the expression of inflammatory factors in model rats with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome(CP/CPPS)type III.Methods The rats wererandomlydivided into following groups: sham-operated group(sham), CP/CPPS model group(model), curcumin 50 mg group(cur-50 mg) and curcumin 100mg group(cur-100 mg) and p38 inhibitor group(SB203580). Drug was given to each treatment group for 12days by intraperitoneal injection. The levels of TNF-α, p38, COX-2 mRNA were measured by Real-Time PCR.The expressions of TNF-α and COX-2 proteins were measured by immunohistochemistry.The levels of p38, p-p38andNF-κB proteins were detected by Western blot.Results NF-κB, p-p38, TNF-α, COX-2 proteins and TNF-α, p38, COX-2 mRNA in model group were higher than those in the sham group (P<0.01); cur-100mg group and SB203580 group could significantly relieve these change in the model group (P<0.01);COX-2 mRNA and protein in cur-100mg group decreased more than that in SB203580 group; p-p38 was positively correlated with NF-κB in curcumin groups and SB203580 group compared with model group(P<0.01). Conclusions Curcumincanreduce the expressions of inflammatory cytokinesNF-κB, TNF-α, COX-2 and p-p38in model rats with CP/CPPStype III.
    Knock-down ATG5 gene inhibits autophagy and enhances celastrol-induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cell H1299
    2017, 37(4):  531-536. 
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    Objective To establish the lung cancer cell strain of ATG5 low expression and detect the effect of celastrol on lung cancer cell apoptosis after downregulation of autophagy. Methods H1299 was infected by lentivirus-mediated ATG5 shRNA. RT-qPCR and Western blot assays were applied to confirm the effect of ATG5 knock down. Autophagy levels were measured by Western blot and RFP-LC3 transfection. Cell apoptosis between ATG5 normal expression group and ATG5 low expression group of H1299 cells was detected by FACS after cells were treated with celastrol. Finally, Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3. Results The expression of ATG mRNA and protein levels were decreased significantly after ATG5 knockdown in H1299 cells (P < 0.05). The autophagy marker of LC3-II level was downregulated and P62 expression was upregulated after inhibition of ATG5, and the RFP-LC3 puncta reduced significantly after ATG5 knockdown (P < 0.05). Compared with control group, the apoptosis rate in ATG5 downregulation group increased significantly after celastrol treatment (P < 0.01). Pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels were upregulated and anti-apoptotic protein of Bcl-2 level decreased after ATG5 inhibition (P < 0.05). Conclusion The effect of celastrol-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells was enhanced after downregulation of autophagy, demonstrating inhibition autophay may be a new target of lung cancer treatment.
    Down-regulation of miR-31-5p in human acute myeloid leukemia
    2017, 37(4):  537-542. 
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    Objective To study the expression levels and roles of miR-31-5p in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods The relative levels of miR-31-5p in AML patients were evaluated by real-time PCR; THP-1 cells were transfected with the miR-31-5p mimic and control, respectively. The effects of over-expression of miR-31-5p were examined by CCK-8 and FACS analysis; Dual-luciferase and Western blot were performed to detect the levels of target gene HuR expression. siRNAs were used to knock down the endogenous HuR expression. The effects of knock-down of HUR were also examined by CCK-8 and FACS analysis. Results miR-31-5p was down-regulated in AML patients compared to the normal control. Over-expression of miR-31-5p in THP-1 cells reduces cell proliferation and accelerates monocytic differentiation. miR-31-5p could target HuR, and knock-down of HuR inhibits cell proliferation and attenuates monocytic differentiation in THP-1 cells. Conclusions miR-31-5p could regulate AML cell proliferation and monocytic differentiation by targeting HuR.
    Regulation of activity and expression of GRK2 and its role in treatment of malignant tumors
    2017, 37(4):  548-552. 
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    G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (GRK2), which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, is widely distributed in a variety of tissues.With its specificity, it can enable activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to be phosphorylated and desensitized, thus terminating the signal transduction pathways mediated by GPCRs.GRK2 can modulate GPCRs and non-GPCRs, but its own activity and expression may also be subject to the regulation of a number of factors. GRK2 has a variety of physiological and pathological effects, and many signaling pathways involved are closely related to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors.
    Advances on Sirt3 in cardiovascular diseases and longevity
    2017, 37(4):  553-556. 
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    Sirt3 is a kind of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases. Sirt3 is localized in mitochondria and has been involved in a wide range of mitochondrial biological functions, such as nutrient oxidation, ATP generation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification and mitochondrial homeostasis. Sirt3 plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. Increased expression of Sirt3 gene has been associated with extended lifespan of humans.
    Research advances on the ratio of monocyte to HDL in the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary heart disease
    Chao-Fa HUANG Ju-xiang LI,
    2017, 37(4):  557-560. 
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    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary heart disease, Now it is thought that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. The ratio of Monocytes to high-density lipoprotein (MHR) is a new inflammatory marker of coronary atherosclerosis, which is measured simply and cheaply. MHR is associated with short-term and long-term occurrence of cardiovascular events and morbidity of Coronary heart disease, which can be used as predictor of coronary heart disease prognosis.
    Progressin researches on exosomes in non-small cell lung cancer
    2017, 37(4):  561-566. 
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    Exosomes are vesicle-like structures generated and secreted actively by all kinds of cells. They contain proteins, nucleic acids and also lipids from the original cells, functioning in interactions between cells by shuttling cellular cargoes, andregulation of immune response in the microenvironment. Besides, they play important roles in the oncogenesis and progression of lung neoplasms. Considerable studies have demonstratedgreat potentials of exosomal proteins and microRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, prediction and treatment of lung cancers, including immunotherapy and targeted delivering of anti-tumor drugs based on exosomes.
    Perioperative regional pain management of TKA
    2017, 37(4):  567-570. 
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    Perioperative pain management play a critical role in rapid recovery and long term outcome in patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty. With the advancement of peripheral nerve block, technique such as femoral nerve block, sciatic nerve block, abductor canal blockhave play an important role in perioperative pain management. Local infiltration analgesia have also gained popularity. The ultimate goal of perioperative pain management is to ensure analgesia effect and maintain good motor function of lower extremity. We are still in searching of a safe, effective, analgesia without motor block. Currently multimodal analgesia seems to be the most favorable choice.
    Progress of perioperative pain management of spine and spinal surgery
    2017, 37(4):  571-575. 
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    Following the blood pressure, pulse, breathing and body temperature, pain was identified as the "fifth vital signs". Postoperative pain of the spine and spinal cord surgery was a neuropathic pain, it was severe and could affect multiple systems of the patients. Therefore, postoperative analgesia of spine and spinal cord surgery is very important.
    Research progress of the negative effects of extracellular histone
    2017, 37(4):  576-579. 
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    Histones can be released into the extracellular space,and lead to lethal sepsis , ischemia reperfusion injury, trauma, pancreatitis, coagulation and thrombosis. In addition, the increase of serum histone is related to the pathological and pathophysiological process of autoimmune diseases, nervous system diseases and tumors. Therefore, extracellular histone can be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for a variety of human diseases.
    Analysis of the final test paper of medical statistics for nursing undergraduates from Peking Union Medical College
    2017, 37(4):  580-583. 
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    Objective: To learn the overall results of the final test paper on nursing undergraduates of Peking Union Medical College, and to provide the theoretical support for teaching quality assessment of nursing undergraduates. Methods: The difficulty coefficient, the discrimination index, the reliability (Cronbach α coefficient) and the degree of coverage were analyzed based on education measurement and education statistical methods. Results: The mean total score was 67.8±12.5, ranged from 38 to 95. The difficulty coefficient, the discrimination index and the Cronbach α coefficient were 0.68, 0.30 and 0.71 respectively. The rates of loss score were 33.8% for choice questions, 37.2% for completion questions, 22.5%for true or false questions and 24.8% for calculation questions respectively. Among the total 30 examination questions, the proportions of the most difficult ones, the difficult ones, the moderate ones, the easy ones and the easiest ones were 30.0%、13.3%、20.0%、20.0%和16.7% respectively. 28 examination questions (93.3%) had the best or better discrimination. Conclusion: The test paper held the moderate difficulty and the good discrimination, reliability and the degree of coverage. The results of the examination were shown to accurately reflect the knowledge and ability of the students.In addition, more attention should be paid to improve the knowledge of nursing undergraduates on the importance of the medical statistics in medical scientific research.
    A survey on perception of disaster management among medical students
    2017, 37(4):  584-587. 
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    Objective To investigate on current situation of disaster medicine courses among medical schools in China and perception of disaster management among medical students. Methods The survey was conducted among medical students from 14 medical schools in China. A self-filled questionnaire, which included self-evaluation of ability to practice disaster management, status of disaster medicine courses and self-interest in learning disaster management, was used for data collection. Results The survey showed that only a few of medical schools offered disaster medicine courses and the quality of current courses was not satisfying. Medical students were generally lack of systematic perception of disaster management, but they were interested in studying related knowledge. Conclusions It is necessary to design disaster medicine courses of high quality and promote them among medical schools in China. It can not only meet the requirements of medical students, but also effectively improve the response capacity of medical students and doctors when facing catastrophes.
    Discussion on the competency training of the management staff in the resident standardized training base
    2017, 37(4):  588-590. 
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    In the process of building a high level resident standardizedtraining base, the competency training of the management staff is an important part. The connotation of management staff’s' competency is divided into three levels: knowledge competence, work competence and problem-solving competency. The training of management staff’s competency needs to be decomposed and analyzed on three levels of competency, and to beimplemented according to the specific training process.