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Table of Content

    05 May 2015, Volume 35 Issue 5
    miR-124-3p inhibits N2a/APPswe cells Tau phosphorylation levels via down-regulating Caveolin-1
    2015, 35(5):  579-584. 
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    Objective To explore of the effect of miR-124-3p on the level of Tau phosphorylation through regulating caveolin-1 in Alzheimer,s diseases cell model. Mehods Wild type N2a (N2a/WT) and N2a/APPswe cells were cultured in vitro, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Realtime-PCR) and Western blot(WB)was respectively used to detect the expression levels of miR-124-3p and amyloid precursor protein and caveolin-1; N2a/APPswe cell was respectively transfected by miR-124-3p mimics、caveolin-1 overexpression vector and caveolin-1 siRNA.Realtime-PCR and WB was respectively used to detect the expression levels of caveolin-1 and Tau and Tau-Ser404. Results Compared with Wild type N2a cell, in N2a/APPswe cell the expression of miR-124-3p was decreased (P<0.01), while APP and caveolin-1 was increased (P<0.01). After N2a/APPswe cell was transfected with miR-124-3p mimics, the expression levels of caveolin-1 was decreased (P<0.01) and Tau-Ser404/Tau was decreased (P<0.01);after transfection of caveolin-1 overexpression vector, the expression levels of caveolin-1 was increased (P<0.01) and Tau-Ser404/Tau was increased (P<0.01); after transfection of caveolin-1 siRNA the expression levels of caveolin-1 was decreased (P<0.01) and Tau-Ser404/Tau was decreased (P<0.01). Conclusions miR-124-3p may reduce the level of Tau phosphorylation and play a neuroprotective role in AD through regulating the expression of caveolin-1.
    The human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 was regulated by HIF-1α in mimic hypoxia by CoCl2
    2015, 35(5):  585-589. 
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    Objective To explore if HIF-1α can regulate PPARγ2 in mimic hypoxia by CoCl2. Methods By realtime PCR and Western Blot, we examined the mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ2 and HIF-1α. Dual luciferase reporter system analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis were performed to explore if HIF-1α could regulate PPARγ2 directly. Results The expression analyses revealed coincident trends that the mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ2 and HIF-1α increase in an induction time-dependent manner. By transient transfection experiments, we demonstrated that the overexpresstion of HIF-1α resulted in the up-regulation of PPARγ expression while knockdown of HIF-1α resulted in the down-regulation of PPARγ expression. Dual luciferase reporter system analysis revealed that HIF-1α could active the PPARγ2 in a HIF-1α dose-dependent manner. ChIP analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the PPARγ2 promoter confirmed the binding of HIF-1α to PPARγ promoter. Conclusion Our results suggested that PPARγ takes a part in hypoxia adaptation in a HIF-1α-dependent manner under mimic hypoxia by CoCl2.
    Klf17 protein expression in esophageal squamous carcinoma and its effect on migration and invasion of Eca109 cells in vitro
    2015, 35(5):  590-595. 
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    Objective To study KLF17 protein expression in esophageal squamous carcinoma and their relationship between clinical and pathological factors;To investigate effect on migration and invasion of Eca109 cells caused by KLF17. Methods KLF17 protein expression in esophageal squamous carcinoma and pericarcinoma normal tissues were detected by immunohistochemical stain.To built carrier of KLF17-lentivirus which infect Eca109 cells and divided cells into three groups called CON、Ad-GFP and Ad-KLF17;KLF17 mRNA expression was detected by real-time PCR;KLF17、E-cadherin、N-cadherin protein expression were detected by Western blot;Migrative ability were observed by wound-healing assay;invasive capacity were observed by transwell assay.Result The rate of KLF17 negative was positively related to infiltration depth,lymph node metastasis and TNM stages(P<0.05);KLF17 and E-cadherin protein expression in Ad-KLF17 group were increased significantly than others while N-cadherin protein expression was on the contrary after infection.The migration distance of Ad-KLF17 group was remarkblely shorter than Ad-GFP group and CON group. Transwell assay showed the cells number of Ad-KLF17 group were remarkably less than Ad-GFP group and CON group. Conclusion KLF17 plays a important role in esophageal squamous carcinoma associated with accurrence and progression;EMT could be inhabited in Eca109 cells by KLF17,associated with their migrative and invasive capacity.
    Quercetin up-regulate autophagy in the RSC96 cells cultured in high glucose via the pathway of Akt-mTOR
    2015, 35(5):  596-602. 
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    Objective To observe the effect of the quercetin on autophagy of RSC96 cultured in high glucose.Methods RSC96 cells were cultured with high glucose or quercetin.Ultrastructure were performed using transmission electron microscopy. The expression of beclin1, LC3Ⅱ, phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt), and phosphorylation of mTOR (p-mTOR) were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot.Real-time fluorescent PCR analysis showed that the level of Beclin1-mRNA and LC3-mRNA Results Quercetin significantly alleviated the pathological morphology of RSC96 cells and up-regulated the Beclin1 and LC3-Ⅱexpressions(P<0.05,P<0.01), increased autophagosome, but down-regulated the p-Akt and p-mTOR expressions(P<0.05,P<0.01).Conclusions Quercetin up-regulated autophagy on the RSC96 cultured in high glucose by the pathway of Akt-mTOR.
    Effects of ifi204 gene expression on apoptosis and migration of rat vascular adventitial fibroblast
    2015, 35(5):  603-609. 
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    Objective To investigate effects of Ifi204 gene over-exprssion and silencing on apoptosis and migration of rat vascular adventitial fibroblast cell(VAF). Method Rat VAF were cultured and transfected Ifi204 gene by lentivirus particles(ifi204lv group) or empty vector lentivirus particles(blanklv group),respectively,as the over-exprssion group and blank group. Instantaneous intervention VAF by ifi204 small interfering(ifi204siRNA group) or blank small interfering RNA (Control SiRNA group) ,as ifi204siRNA group and control SiRNA group. VAF was untreated as a negative group .Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry;cell migration by cell scratch and transwell;the mRNA and protein expression of p204/p53 were detected by Real-Time PCR and Western blot. Result Compared with those in the blank lv group ,controlsiRNA group ,ifi204siRNA group or Negative group, in ifi204lv group ,P204/P53 mRNA and protein expression and rate of apoptosis significantly increased (P<0.05), and cell migration speed reduced (P<0.05). Transfection of ifi204siRNA inhibit P204 /P53 mRNA and protein expression(P<0.05), improves cell viability(P<0.05), inhibits cell apoptosis(P<0.05), accelerates the speed of cell migration(P<0.05). Conclusion Effects of ifi204 gene expression on apoptosis and migration of rat vascular adventitial fibroblast may be related to activation of p53.
    Gelatin microcryogels benefit human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue to maintain stemness in vitro and promote application value in vivo
    2015, 35(5):  610-614. 
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    Objective To investigate whether the gelatin microcryogels can maintain biological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs) and enhance the stemness of ADSCs when they are co-cultured in vitro. Method Calcein-AM and PI staining were conducted to test cell viability of ADSCs plated in gelatin microcryogels. Cell titer-blue assay was used to examine the cellular proliferating capacity. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the expression level of the stemness genes OCT4、Nanog、SOX2. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation were induced and compared in ADSCs plated in gelatin microcryogels and in conventional environment. Results ADSCs were biologically active in the 3D scaffolds of gelatin microcryogels. Proliferation rate was not influenced. Stemness genes expression was up-regulated. ADSCs plated in gelatin microcryogels still had osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation ability, but the ralated genes expression levels were lower in comparison with ADSCs in conventional inducing condition. Conclusion Gelatin microcryogels can provide proper microenvironmental factors for ADSCs stemness maintenance, so as to exert the long-term application value in the diseases treated with stem cell by a minimally-invasive delivery method.
    Effect of HBSP on transposition of Omi/HtrA2 and apoptosis of myocardial cells Induced by Anoxia- reoxygenation
    2015, 35(5):  615-620. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of helix B surfacepeptide(HBSP) on transposition of Omi/HtrA2 and apoptosis of myocardial cells Induced by Hypoxia- reoxygenation. Methods neonatal rat myocardial cells (H9C2 cells) was used to be research object, the cells were divideded into 4 groups:control group, H/R group, HBSP group and EPO group. The cell viability was measured by MTS assay, the concentration of LDH of cell supernatant was assessed by ELISA, the intracellular expression changes of cleaved Caspase3 was detected by Western blot. apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was detected by TUNEL.Using Mitochondria/cytosol Isolation Kit to isolate Mitochondria from cytosol, Western blot was used to detect the expression of Omi/HtrA2 protein changes in the mitochondrial and cytosolic.Results Compared with the control group, H/R group cell survival rate decreased significantly, cell supernatant LDH concentration increased significantly,the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was increased, the cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the expression of Omi/HtrA2 protein in the cytoplasm is increased,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); compared with H/R group, EPO and HBSP group cell survival rate increased, cell supernatant concentrations of LDH、cleaved caspase-3、cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the Omi/HtrA2 protein in the cytoplasm expression decreased, the difference was statistically significance (P<0.05).conclusion H / R can induce apoptosis of myocardial cell,which can be reduced by EPO or HBSP,its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of Omi/HtrA2 protein in mitochondrial translocation, thus inhibiting the Caspases pathway activation.
    Ultrasonographic features of chest wall newly developed benign mass after mastectomy for breast cancer
    2015, 35(5):  621-625. 
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    Objective To observe the ultrasonographic features of chest wall newly developed benign mass after mastectomy for breast cancer Methods The ultrasonographic features, clinical and histopathological characteristics of 19 patients with chest wall newly developed benign mass after mastectomy confirmed histopathologically were retrospectively reviewed. Results The postoperative time of 19 patients with chest wall newly developed benign nodule after mastectomy ranged from 3 months to 10 years and 73.7% (14/19) occured within 2 years after mastectomy. The size of the 24 lesions ranged from 5.4 mm to 114.7mm. Confirmed by postoperative pathologic diagnosis: 45.8% (11/24) for fat necrosis, 33.3% (8/24) for inflammation and foreign body giant cell reaction, the other 20.9% (5/24). Preoperative ultrasonography correctly suggested that 11 (11/24, 45.8%) chest wall lesions would be benign lesions, including 4 fat necrosis, 5 inflammation and foreign body giant cell reaction, 1 lipoma and 1 fibrous and fat tissue of inflammation. On ultrasonography, 2 lesions of fat necrosis showed hypoechoic or anechoic, regular shape, clear boundary and no blood flow signal, 2 lesions of fat necrosis showed hypoechoic, irregular shape, indistinct margin, visible in hyperechoic or calcification, no blood flow signal. Five lesions for Inflammation and foreign body giant cell reaction showed that 3 lesions had significant posterior echo attenuation, 2 lesions were hyperechoic, 5 lesions had little or no blood flow signal. One lesion for lipoma and 1 lesion for fibrous and fat tissue of inflammation showed hyperechoic. Conclusions The chest wall newly developed benign mass often occured within 2 years after mastectomy. The pathological type is complex, but often for fat necrosis and inflammation and foreign body giant cell reaction. The sonographic features are varied and the diagnosis still depends on histopathology.
    TRPC1 is an important stretch-activated cation receptor in airway epithelial cells
    2015, 35(5):  626-631. 
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    Objective To explore the role of transient receptor potential Canonical 1 in the pressure-sensing mechanism in airway epithelial cells. Methods Collect human lung tissue, and divided into control group, COPD group and asthma group. The level of TRPC1 protein and mRNA in human bronchial epithelial was detected by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The level of TRPC1 protein was detected by immunofluorescence after 16HBE cells were transfected by TRPC1 siRNA、NC siRNA. Then 16 HBE human airway epithelial cells were divided into control group, stretch group, stretch+TRPC1 siRNA group, by means of Ca2+ imaging, we explore the activation of TRPC1 in 16 HBE after they were stimulated with cyclic stretch for 6 minutes. Results The level of TRPC1 protein and mRNA was significant higher in COPD and asthma group compared with control group ( P<0.05). The level of TRPC1 protein in TRPC1 siRNA group was lower than control group( P<0.05), NC siRNA group is similar with control group. The concentration of intercellular calcium in stretch group was higher than control group ( P<0.05), but stretch+TRPC1 siRNA group was similar with control group. Conclusion TRPC1 protein plays an important role in the response to stress stimulation in airway epithelial cells.
    Validation of intergenic long non-coding RNA: T-UCRs for their transcriptional activities
    2015, 35(5):  632-636. 
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    Objective Exploration of the embryonic development related transcriptional activities of a specific class of lncRNA, T-UCR (Transcribed Ultra-conserved Regions), in the brain. Methods UCSC Genome Browser (NCBI37/mm9) RNA-seq, Coding Potential Assessment Tool (CPAT) and Coding Potential Calculator (CPC), RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were employed to identify T-UCR, to predict coding potential, to display the spatio-temporal patterns in different mouse adult tissues and different mouse development stages of embryonic brain, respectively. Results The results show that there are 15 intergenic T-UCRs expressed in mouse embryonic brains, which may function as long noncoding RNAs. T-uc.62 is prominently expressed in mouse embryonic brains, rather than other adult tissues. Conclusion The intergenic T-UCR can be transcribed to long noncoding RNAs, and T-uc.62 is expressed mainly in mouse embryonic brains, which infers that T-uc.62 may be important in brain development.
    Enhancement of Thermal Damage to EGFR-positive U251 Cancer Cells by Aptamer Modified Magnetic Nanoparticle
    2015, 35(5):  637-641. 
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    Objective To develop a novel EGFR aptamer-modified magnetic nanoparticle (Apt-NP) for enhancing the targeted thermal damage to EGFR-positive U251 cancer cells. Method EGFR aptamer was implanted onto nanoparticles via biotin-streptavidin reaction. Apt-NP was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay. The binding of aptamer to target cell was evaluated by flow cytometry. The attachment of Apt-NP to target cell was evaluated by Prussian blue staining. Thermal damage under alternative magnetic field was measured by detecting the release of LDH. Results The average size of Apt-NP was 574 nm. Apt-NP could bind with the EGFR-positive U251 tumor cells but not the MDA-MB-231 cell. Importantly,Apt-NP significantly enhanced the thermal damage to EGFR-positive U251 tumor cells but not that to MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions Aptamer-modified nanoparticles may have potential utility in tumor targeted thermal therapies.
    L-Glutamine Treats Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in rats
    2015, 35(5):  642-647. 
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    Objective Observe the effect of L-Glutamine on fat- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rat. Methods Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and L-glutamine treatment group, model group and L-glutamine treatment group build nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model after the high-fat diet, modeling success given the appropriate treatment, after 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to detect relevant indicators. Results Treatment group compared with the model group were significantly changed, liver histology treated group compared with the model group significantly reduced, fat vacuoles reduced; LDL, AST, TBA CHOL, TG, LDL-C, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-α, IL-β, MDA and CRP treatment group compared with the model group was significantly lower (P<0.05); GSH, T-AOC , HDL-C was significantly higher (P<0.05); SREBF1 ACCα and mRNA and protein expression was significantly decreased (P<0.05), PPARα mRNA and protein expression was significantly increased(P<0.05). Conclusion L-glutamine can alleviate the symptoms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats, the mechanism may be by reducing SREBF1 and ACCα expression, while promoting PPARα expression achieved.
    Compensated acidosis, inflammation and etiologies are important factors influencing the prognosis of acute kidney injury
    2015, 35(5):  648-653. 
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    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of AKI cases and then to evaluate the different risk factors and judge the influence of different etiologies on prognosis. Method The clinical data and laboratory results of 507 AKI cases were analyzed. Data from good and poor prognosis groups were compared and then to evaluate the influence of different clinical data and etiologies on prognosis. Results 253 cases (49.9%) of 507 patients were defined as good prognosis group while 254 cases (50.1%) were defined as poor prognosis. Compared with good prognosis group, patients with poor prognosis were tend to be older (P<0.001), with higher baseline serum creatinine (P<0.01), higher incidency of anemia (P<0.01) and hypoalbuminia (P<0.001), as well as higher inflammatory cytokines (P<0.001). Models were established to predict the prognosis of AKI after multivariate logistic regression analysis. The models interpreted that acidosis, even in the compensated stage, was risk factor of AKI (P<0.05); MODS (P<0.001), inflammatory cytokines (P<0.01), and oliguria (P<0.01) were also risk factors while albumin (P<0.01) and hemoglobin (P<0.05) were protective factors. The most common cause of AKI in AKIN 1 and 2 stages was severe infection while in AKIN 3 stage was tubulointerstitial damage; different AKIN staging made no significant difference in the prognosis of AKI in this study. Conclusion 1. Compensatory acidosis, MODS, inflammatory cytokines and oliguria were risk factors of AKI; 2. The causes of AKI should not be underestimated.
    Immune-modulation of cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells on lymphocytes of patients with Alzheimer’s disease
    2015, 35(5):  654-660. 
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    Abstract: Objective To investigate the regulatory effect of cord blood derived-multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs) on peripheral blood lymphocytes (LCs) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to explore the therapeutic potential of CB-SCs for AD. Methods CB-SCs were isolated from human cord blood. Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with AD. Then, after the two cell populations co-cultured with or without phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) for 3 days, the levels of cytokines in the supernatant were detected with the ELISA test, the proportions of T-cell subsets were determined by the flow cytometric analysis. Results 1) CB-SCs showed an inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation and gathers induced by the PHA-P; 2) Compared with the control group, the level of the pro-inflammatory factor IL-1 was dramatically decreased (P<0.05), while the release of the anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly increased (P<0.01) in the CB-SCs co-cultured group. 3) The ratio of CD4+/CD8+T cells in the CB-SCs co-cultured group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). 4) Compared with the control group, the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the CD4+ T cells was higher in the CB-SCs co-cultured group without the stimulation of PHA-P (P<0.01), while the anti-inflammatory proteins expressed in the Tregs was at a higher level with the stimulation of PHA-P. Conclusions CB-SCs can regulate lymphocytes of patients with Alzheimer’s disease in vitro, which was mainly displayed with the increased proportion of Tregs subset and enhanced anti-inflammatoty function of Tregs.
    Interaction of miR-26b and lncRNA SNHG5 in gastric cancer
    2015, 35(5):  661-664. 
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    Objective To explore the interaction and mechanism between miR-26b and lncRNA SNHG5. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR analyzed the differential expression of SNHG5 in normal gastric epithelial cell GES-1 compared with it in gastric cancer cell. Transient transfected MGC-803 cells with SNHG5 overexpressed plasmid and detect the expression level of miR-26b and pri-miR-26b by Taq Man PCR analysis. Meanwhile, transient transfected MGC-803 cells with miR-26b mimics to detect the expression change of SNHG5. Results Expression level of SNHG5 was significantly higher in gastric cancer cells than in normal gastric epithelial cell GES-1 (P<0.05). SNHG5 inhibited the expression of miR-26b and pri-miR-26b(P<0.01), but miR-26b could not influence the expression of SNHG5. Conclusion SNHG5 inhibited the expression of miR-26b, but the mechanism need to be further clarified.
    Comparison of the intubating laryngeal mask air-Q and i-gel for tracheal intubation
    Ya-Hong GONG
    2015, 35(5):  665-667. 
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    Objective To compare the effectiveness of intubating laryngeal mask air-Q and i-gel for tracheal intubation. Methods Eighty patients scheduled for elective general anesthesia requiring tracheal intubation were randomly allocated to air-Q group (group A) and i-gel group (group I). After general anesthesia being induced and air-Q or i-gel being inserted,the patients were treated with blind tracheal intubation through air-Q or i-gel. The attempts and time for laryngeal mask airway insertion and blind tracheal intubation were recorded. If blind intubation failed, tracheal intubation was performed under fiberoptic bronchoscope via laryngeal mask airway. Results Laryngeal mask airway was inserted successfully in all 80 patients. The time for air-Q and i-gel insertion was (19±5) s and (21±6) s, respectively. And the rate of the first successful insertion was 82.5% and 77.5%, respectively. The time of blind intubation in group A was shorter than group I [(95±28) s vs. (113±39) s] (P < 0.05). The rate of the total successful blind intubation in group A was greater than group I ( 92.5%vs. 72.5%) (P < 0.05). In all cases with blind intubation failed, tracheal intubation was successful performed under fiberoptic bronchoscope via laryngeal mask airway. Conclusion The successful rate of blind intubation via air-Q was greater than i-gel. Meanwhile, the time for intubation via air-Q is shorter than i-gel.
    Differential expressions of serotonin and its receptor subtypes in spinal cord of chronic prostatitis model in rat
    2015, 35(5):  668-673. 
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    Objective To study of the different expression of serotonin(5-HT) and serotonin receptor subtypes(5-HTRs) in T13~S1 spinal segments of chronic prostatitis rat models. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group,45,60 and 90 d model groups. Chronic prostatitis /chronic pelvic pain syndrome of rats were induced by autoimmune. The level of 5-HT was detected by Immunohistochemistry and the expression of 5-HTRs gene were detected by RT-PCR in T13~L2,L3~L4,L5~S1spinal segments in chronic prostatitis rats. Results The spontaneous pain behavior score of CP/CPPS rats was significantly higher compared with control group (P <0.05). The level of 5-HT in three spinal segments in all CP/CPPS model groups were decreased, 45d and 90d model group decreased significantly (P<0.05). The expression of 5-HTR2A,5-HTR5A showed a gradually increasing and 5-HT2C,5-HTR7 were increased at the first and then decreased in T13~L2 spinal segments (P<0.05). The expression of all receptors were decline after rising first in L3~L4 spinal segments (P<0.05). The expression of 5-HT2C,5-HTR5A showed a gradually increasing and 5-HTR2A,5-HTR7 were decline after rising first in L5~S1 spinal segments (P<0.05). Conclusion Our data indicated that there is a distinct expression pattern of 5-HT and 5-HTRs at different stages of CP/CPPS rat, suggesting that 5-HT system may involved in the central regulation mechanism of CP/CPPS,further study are needed for the specific mechanism.
    Screening and identification of ageing associated miRNAs
    2015, 35(5):  674-679. 
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    Objective To explore the mechanisms of aging,hippocampal tissue of senescence accelerated mouse(SAM)were used to screen aging related miRNAs. Methods SAMP8 and SAMR1 (4-, 8-, 12- month old) were randomly selected 3with each group, extracting RNA from hippocampal tissue for miRNA microarray. To verify the relative quantitative expression of miRNAs, SYBR Green was used as a dye for the Real-time PCR and snRNA U6 was used as control. Results Based on the validation of real-time PCR, here we present the microarray results which have better repeatability and authenticity. Comprehensive analysis of three repeat miRNA array data showed that 7 miRNAs, 8 miRNAsand 3 miRNAs are dynamically expressed in the 4- month/8- months, 8- month/12- months and 4- month/12- month hippocampal tissues, respectively. Only miR-9* showed an obviously differential expression pattern in both the three stages. Conclusions The differentially expressed miRNAs in SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice could play an important role in the aging process.
    A retrospective survey of patients’ satisfaction to pain relief after total knee replacement
    2015, 35(5):  680-683. 
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    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of postoperative analgesia in patients after total knee replacement. Methods 430 patients who had total knee replacement between January 2011 and June 2012 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled. Results Continous femoral nerve block had better pain control for patients after total knee replacement. Morphine and sufentanil had similar analgesic effect for intravenous patient control analgesia. Side effects, including nausea and vomiting were higher in morphine group. Conclusion Postoperative pain after total knee replacement is usually severe and multi-model analgesia is necessary for this group of patients.
    Clinical and Pathological character analysis of 1998 cases of colorectal cancer in Wuhan Area
    2015, 35(5):  684-687. 
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    Objective: To investigate and analyze the clinical and pathological characters of 1998 cases of colorectal cancer patients in Wuhan Area. Methods: The date of colorectal cancer was statistically analyzed from 1998 to 2013 in Wuhan eighth hospital, including primary site, gender, age, symptom, tumor location, histology and pathological grades. Results: The frequent initiating symptom was muciferous bloody stools.The tumor occurred most frequently in rectum. Most cases were adenocarcinoma. Lymph node metastasis was related to pathologic typing , invasive depth and TNM’stage. Conclusion Male colorectal cancer incidence in Wuhan area China is significantly higher than female. Aged people are of CRC high-risk population, but the young adults also accounted for a considerable proportion. Most of the patients to see a doctor are in the advanced stage, Most are tubular adenocarcinoma.
    Isolation and identification of mouse spinal cord microvessel pericytes in vitro
    2015, 35(5):  688-694. 
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    Objective To establish a method for selective culturing mouse spinal cord microvascular pericytes (SCMP) by Pericytes Cell Medium (PCM) with 2% FBS. To observe the differentiation and function of the cultured cells. Methods After decapitation of 10 of 3-week-old C57 mice, the intact spinal cord was removed from the spinal column. Meninges were cleared from the spinal cord. Tissues were cut into small pieces (approx.1 mm3). The capillary fragments were obtained through two-step enzymatic digestion and 20% bovine serum albumin (BSA) centrifugation. The microvessels were incubated initially under conditions optimized for endothelial cells, but after two passages switched to a medium optimized for pericyte growth. The morphology of pericytes was observed by inverted microscope. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β,(PDGFRβ), neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2),von Willebrand factor (vWF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected by immunofluorescence.PDGFRβ,CD31,CD11b and GFAP were detected by Flow cytometry. When switching the cells from pericyte medium into DMEM containing 10% FBS, theα-SMA, a marker of pericyte differentiation, was detected by Immunofluorescence and Western blot. The matrigel pericyte-endothelial cell co-culture was used to verify the function of cultured cells. Results The cells migrated from the attached capillary fragments after 48h, and got confluence after 7 to 9 days. Primary cultures consisted endothelial cells with pericytes. After switching to PCM, the pericytes grew predominantly and showed the typical rhomboid morphology. Immunofluorescence revealed that PDGFRβ and NG2 were positive, vWF and GFAP were negative. Flow cytometry showed that cells were strongly positive for PDGFRβ(95.52%±2.55%), negative for CD31(0.80%±0.26%), CD11b(1.02%±0.35%) or GFAP(0.63%±0.26%). DMEM containing 10% FBS promoted α-SMA expression, demonstrating the cells could still differentiate. In matrigel co-culture experiments, pericytes aligned with endothelial cords, retaining the ability to associate with endothelial cell. Conclusion This method may successfully obtain the highly purified SCMP. The cells have morphological and functional characteristics of pericytes and the ability to differentiate.
    Comparative analysis of three different anesthetic techniques for hip fracture surgery in patients aged over 65 years
    2015, 35(5):  695-699. 
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    Objective To retrospectively analyze the perioperative data of patients aged over 65 years undergoing surgery for hip fracture in Peking Union Medical College Hospital in the past 5 years. Methods: The patients aged over 65 years undergoing surgery for unilateral hip fracture between July 2009 and June 2014 were included in this study, with an average age of 78.8±7.2 years. According to different anesthetic techniques, all cases were divided into three groups: general anesthesia (121 cases), intervertebral anesthesia (215 cases), and nerve block group (127 cases). The data about preoperative complications and the course of operation were collected, the intraoperative hemodynamic changes, postoperative ICU stay, total hospital stay, mortality, morbidity and the cost of treatment were compared. Results: Compared with general and intervertebral groups, patients in nerve block group were older, more patients were in ASA III grade, more patients were complicated with coronary heart disease, COPD, lung infection or respiratory failure preoperatively (P<0.05), at the same time, the intraoperative maximum variations of blood pressure and heart rate significantly decreased in nerve block group compared with other two groups (P<0.05). Compared with the general group, patients in the regional groups (intervertebral and nerve block) had shorter postoperative ICU stay (P<0.05) and lower total costs of treatment (P<0.01). Conclusion: Peripheral nerve block is a safe and effective anesthetic technique for patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, especially for those who were older, in ASA III grade and complicated with coronary heart disease or diseases in respiratory system. This technique could make the intraoperative hemodynamics stable and cut down the postoperative ICU stay and the costs of treatment.
    Introduction to classification and application of materials used in medical three-dimensional printing
    2015, 35(5):  702-706. 
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    Applications of three-dimensional (3D) printed medical products make demands of materials, which can be divided into model materials and biocompatible materials. This article aims to introduce, classify and compare different materials used in medical 3D printing, provide examples and guidelines of choosing materials.
    Progress of the antitumor effect of adiponectin in digestive system
    2015, 35(5):  707-710. 
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    Adiponectin, which is an adipocytokine secreted predominantly by white adipose tissue, not only modulates the metabolism of glucose and lipid, but also have tight relationship with various cancers developed in the reproductive, digestive and endocrine system, and has obviously antitumor effect in the development and progression of many kinds of maligancy.
    International students short-term exchange program in PUMC Hospital
    2015, 35(5):  711-713. 
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    The outcome of international students short-term exchange program in PUMC Hospital, originated from 1985, was evaluated. Acception of international students has positive impact on PUMC in broadening perspective on global health, bridging communication among international students and faculty, meanwhile improves English proficiency of local students.
    Features of medical education in Taiwan district of China and its enlightenment
    2015, 35(5):  714-716. 
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    After visiting several hospitals in Taiwan district of China and having communicated with Taiwan medical students and doctors, the authors were offered insight into local medical education system and had summarized some features of it, including humanity education, ubiquitous quality control and English usage. The authors thus propose some medical education reform plan in the mainland of China, in order to meet the requirement of biology-psychology-society medical pattern.
    The exploration of optimizing training approach for 8-year program of medical education
    2015, 35(5):  717-719. 
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    To obtain the goal of improving the 8-year program of medical education, the necessary training details should be improved. The following approaches are involved: combination of teaching pattern of both Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and Lecture-Based Learning (LBL), bilingual and digitization education; Postgraduate education of double mentor should be developed in early stage; Also, based on the strengthening of humanistic education, 8-year program student should deal with medical practice earlier and with many approaches.
    The general characteristics and the daily team management of standardized patients in China
    2015, 35(5):  720-722. 
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    The career of standardized patients in China is in the stage of popularization. The important role of standardized patients in medical education has been aware by more and more medical colleges, whom began to establish a standardized patient teaching team, and to explore the recruitment, training and management of the team of standardized patient volunteers. There are many positive practical significances for the reference of the standardized patients’ career development to other medical universities, colleges and hospitals by analyzing the general characteristics, common problems and daily management of standardized patient teams which already exist in domestic.