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Table of Content

    05 March 2012, Volume 32 Issue 3
    Effects of Reg3α gene in insulin secretion in pancreatic endothelial cells
    2012, 32(3):  241-244. 
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    Objective By establishing mouse model of pancreatic injury and regeneration and employing whole genome gene chip technology, to identify regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha(Reg3α)gene whose expression was elevated in pancreatic regenerating models, hence further investigate the regulatory role of Reg3α in pancreatic regeneration by over expression of Reg3α gene in pancreatic endothelial cells (MS1). Methods Mouse model of partial (90%) pancreas removal was established by panceatectomy. Blood glucose levels were tested before and 12hr, 24hr after pancreatectomy, respectively. The remaining pancreas tissues were collected 48h post pancreatectomy. Elevated expression of Reg3α gene was identified by gene chip analysis and verified by q-PCR. The gene was then cloned in an expression plasmid and expressed in MS1 cells in culture. Insulin levels in culture media of the transfected cells were detected by ELISA 48h after cell transfection. The mRNA levels of Pdx1 and Insulin2 genes in transfected cells were tested by q-PCR. Results Comparing untransfected group with vector (PcDNA3.1)-transfected group,no significant change of insulin levels in MS1 culture media was observed(14.63±6.88,P>0.05);when comparing Reg3α over expression group with untransfected and vector-transfected groups, significant increases in insulin levels were observed, 193.43±7.09 (P<0.01) over untransfected group, and 208.07±5.52 ( P<0.01) over vector-transfected group, respectively. Again, comparing with untransfected and vector-transfected groups, Reg3α over expression group expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of Pdx1 and Insulin2 genes(P<0.01). Conclusion Over expression of Reg3α gene in MS1 cells can elevate the expression of Pdx1 and Insulin2 in mRNA levels, and increase insulin secretion. Reg3α promote endothelial cell expression and secretion of insulin ,which may have a compensatory role in β-cell function.
    The mechanism of LDLR promoter DNA methylation in the proliferation of VSMCs induced by homocysteine
    2012, 32(3):  245-250. 
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    Abstract:Objective To explore the mechanism of LDLR methylation in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by homocysteine. Methods 50, 100, 200, 500 μmol/L Hcy were added into the primary cultured VSMCs for 72 hours. MTT was used for the evaluation of VSMCs proliferation viability; the levels of ox-LDL were measured by ELISA; DNA methyltransferase activity was measured by isotope method; the expression of LDLR was detected by Real-time PCR; we examined the promoter DNA methylation status of LDLR by nMS-PCR. Results As the increasing concentrations of Hcy, the levels of ox-LDL and DNA methyl- transferase activity show significant elevation while the proliferation viability of VSMCs were decreased. The mRNA levels of LDLR were increased. nMS-PCR showed that the promoter staus of LDLR were hypomethylated. Compared with the control group, there were significant differences (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion The promoter hypomethylation of LDLR which resulted in the increase of the LDLR expression by Hcy may be one important mechanism of VSMCs injury.
    The role of nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene mutations in the proliferation and apoptosis of THP-1 leukemic cells
    2012, 32(3):  251-256. 
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    Abstract: Objective To investigate the effect of Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations on the proliferation and apoptosis of leukemia cells. Methods The pEGFPC1-NPM1 mA plasmid vector was transfected into THP-1 cells to establish the stably expressed NPM1 mutation A protein leukemia cells (THP-1 mA). The cells transfected with pEGFPC1 plasmid (THP-1 C1) and the untreated cells (THP-1) were set as control. Cells proliferation potential was assessed by MTT assay; flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle and cellular apoptosis. The mRNA and protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2 were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results Compared with the controls, growth ability of THP-1 mA cells was significantly improved. Addition, the percentage of cells in the S phase was increased significantly and that in the G1 remarkably decreased. While there was no significantly change on cellular apoptosis, and no significantly difference was observed on the expression of Bax and Bcl-2, no matter on the mRNA level or protein level. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 also had no significantly change. Conclusion NPM1 mutations may promote cells proliferation potential in vitro, but had no significantly influence on cellular apoptosis, which may provide a new scientific evidence for the relationship of NPM1 mutation and AML.
    Effect of hypoxia and serum deprivation on the expression of dermatopontin in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.
    2012, 32(3):  257-260. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of dermatopontin (DPT) induced by hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD) which imitated the microenvironment of ischemic myocardium in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in vitro. Methods Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were disposed to H/SD for 0 , 6 , 12 and 24 h. The mRNA and protein expression of DPT was determined by real time RT-PCR and western blot , respectively. Using the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the different expression of DPT between normal cultured cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocytes disposed to H/SD for 24 h. Results Compared with 0 h, the mRNA and protein level of DPT were significantly raised in cultured cardiomyocytes which were disposed to H/SD for 6 ,12 and 24 h (p<0.05). It was confirmed by the method of ELISA that compared with control group, the expression of DPT was higher in cardiomyocytes which were disposed to H/SD for 24 h. Conclusion The DPT expression in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was promoted by H/SD in vitro, which indicated that DPT may be invoved in the ventricular remolding process caused by hypoxia and ischemic in vivo.
    The regulation of inhibitory receptor LAIR-1 on the differentiation of megakaryocytic lineage
    2012, 32(3):  261-267. 
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    Objective To study the expression of inhibitory receptor LAIR-1 on the megakaryocytic lineage cells and the regulatory effect of LAIR-1 on the differentiation of megakaryocytes (MKs). Methods Flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal technique were used to detect the expression of LAIR-1 on the megakaryocytic lineage cells. Cord blood CD34+ cells were purified by a positive selection using an immunomagnetic separation system. The CD34+ cells were induced to differentiate to MKs by serum-free medium system in vitro. LAIR-1 was activated by cross-linking with antibody or ligand and then the effect of LAIR-1 on the differentiation of MKs was detected. Results LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of CD34+CD41a+ and CD41a+CD42b+ cells in the bone marrow of human. In human cord blood, the surface expression of LAIR-1 is detectable in CD34+CD41a- and CD34+CD41a+ cells. When cord blood CD34+ cells were induced to megakaryocytic differentiation, LAIR-1 presented in immature CD41a+ cells with cell ploidy of 2N and 4N. Cross-linking of LAIR-1 appeared to inhibit the differentiation of MKs from cord blood CD34+ cells. Conclusion LAIR-1 may be a new negative regulatory molecule participating in the early-stage differentiation of MKs.
    The signal transduction of tension-sensitive cation channel maintaining basic airway mucus secretion
    Xiang-dong ZHOU
    2012, 32(3):  268-272. 
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    Abstract:Objective To investigate the effects of TRPV4 receptors on the possible signal transduction pathways of rhythmic pressure maintaining airway mucous secretion in airway epithelial cells. Method Using gas/liquid interface vitro culture of human airway epithelial 16HBE cells ,the two devices mimic normal respiratory rhythm generated by the pressure wave and affect the cultured cells.16HBE cells were divide into control group, rhythmic pressure, pressure and Ruthenium red (RR), pressure and Verapamil ,pressure and PKC inhibitors(GF109203x).The levels of Ca2+concentration was observed by laser confocal, the level of TRPV4 mRNA, pMARCKS and SNAP-23 in culture cells ,and the secretion of MUC (2,5 AC and 5B)in culture medium were detected by RT-PCR ,Western blotting and ELISA respectively. Results Intracellular Ca2+concentration(312.34±17.08) and TRPV4 mRNA(0.63±0.03) level were significantly higher in the rhythmic pressure group than in the control group(196.16±35.06,0.28±0.05) (P all<0.01), which decreased markedly after the intervention of RR (P all<0.01). Due to rhythmic pressure, there were an obvious increase in MUC(2,5AC and 5B) level (0.34±0.08,0.77±0.26,0.49±0.18) pMARCKS and pSNAP-23 protein (0.85±0.42,0.74±0.53). After the preprocessing of verapamil and PKC specific inhibitors, either of MUC level, pMARCKS and SNAP-23 protein were reduced (P all<0.01), which were still higher than the control group (P all<0.01). Conclusion Rhythmic pressure can maintain the secretion of MUC in airway epithelial through activating the TRPV4/Ca2+/PKC/MARCKS signaling pathway.
    Effect of diets with different fat content on metabolic syndrome in rats and mice
    2012, 32(3):  273-277. 
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    Abstract: Objective To examine effect of diets with different fat content on body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels, and serum total cholesterol (Tch) and triglycerides (TG) concentrations, fatty liver and daily urinary albumin excretion in rats and mice. Methods Males Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed on diets with 10% fat content (MS10%fat), 45% fat content (MS45%fat), and 60% fat content (MS60%fat) for 12 weeks, respectively. Body and organ weight, blood glucose and insulin levels, and serum Tch and TG concentrations, liver Tch and TG contents and daily urinary albumin excretion were measured. Results Compared with the controls (MS10%fat), the animals fed high-fat diets (MS45%fat and MS60%fat) showed a significant increase in body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels, glucose intolerance, serum Tch and TG concentrations, hepatic Tch and TG contents and albuminuria levels. Furthermore, body weight gain and insulin resistance were more profound in animals fed with the MS45%fat diet. Conclusion Both high-fat diets (MS45%fat and MS60%fat) can produce most phenotypes of metabolic syndrome in SD rats and C57BL/6 mice, with the former being more effective. Key words: high-fat diet; insulin resistance; obesity; metabolic syndrome
    Further separating and identifying of differentially expressed proteins analyzed by SELDI
    2012, 32(3):  278-282. 
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    Objectives To further separate and identify the differentially expressed proteins analyzed by SELDI, and discuss the methodology significance. Methods Endothelial progenitor cells cultured in the medium adding with melatonin in concentration of 10μmol/L were used to extract proteins and analyze by SELDI for preliminary screening differentially expressed proteins. Tricine-SDS-PAGE and 2-DE was chosen to separate the target proteins, respectively, and FT-MS was used to identify the proteins. Results α-tubulin and human heat shock protein 90-α were detected by FT-MS after separated by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and 2-DE, respectively. Conclusion Tricine-SDS-PAGE is preferred for separating proteins in the mass range 35~62 ku, while 2-DE is better for separating bigger proteins.
    Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into hair like cells by co-culture with astrocytes and basement membrane cells of mice
    yang wenfei
    2012, 32(3):  283-290. 
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    Objective: To establish a method of efficient production of hair like cells from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)in vitro. Methods: MSCs、astrocytes(ASTs) and basement membrane cells (BAMCs) were isolated from mice, passed and depurated into third generation.We co-cultured MSCs with astrocytes(ASTs) in DMEM/F12/RA+10%FBS for 7 days, then checked the surface molecule of Nestin by immunocytochemical analyses.Afterward,These cells were co-cultured with BAMCs for 14 days in DMEM/F12+10%FBS.Then checked the expression of hair cell markers(MyosinVIIa and Math1 )by immunocytochemical analyses.We checked the mRNA expression of hair cell markers(MyosinVIIa and Math1)by RT-PCR.Results: MSCs which were co-cultured with ASTs for 7 days could express Nestin.Then Nestin-positive cells co-cultured with BAMCs for 14 days could express mRNA and protein of hair cell markers(Math1 and MyosinVIIa).Conclusions: MSCs co-cultured with ASTs and BAMCs could be induced to differentiate into hair like cells.
    Effect of ghrelin on palmitate-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells and its mechanism
    2012, 32(3):  291-295. 
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    Aim The aim of the study is to investigate whether ghrelin could inhibit palmitate-induced apoptosis in rat aortic endothelial cells and the involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway. Methods Rat aortic endothelial cells were cultured in DMEM or DMEM containing 0.3mM palmitate, with or without ghrelin and PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002. Apoptosis was detected using an annexin V /PI double staining assay. Spectrofluorometer assay caspase-3 activity. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of total Akt and P-Akt. Results Exposure of cells to 0.3mM palmitate for 24h increased apoptosis in rat aortic endothelial cells. Ghrelin inhibited palmitate-induced apoptosis. Exposure of the cells to palmitate for 24 hours caused significant inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. While ghrelin caused activation of Akt. Ghrelin-induced activation of Akt was markedly blocked by PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Moreover, LY294002 abolished ghrelin cytoprotective activity against palmitate-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. Conclusions Ghrelin inhibits palmitate-induced apoptosis in rat aortic endothelial cells. The anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin is at least partly mediated by PI3K/Akt pathway.
    BHLHB2 Molecular Biology functions in Human Pancreatic cancer cell line SU86.86
    2012, 32(3):  300-304. 
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    【Abstract】 Aims: Continually to deeply explore BHLHB2 related molecular biology functions, which was proved a novel and independent prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by our protophase experimental results. Methods: Knock-down of BHLHB2 in pancreatic cancer cell line-SU86.86 was achieved by siRNA treatment. Migration essay was performed to research the relationship between BHLHB2 and cell migration. The proliferation assay induced by ACT-D to explore BHLHB2 roles in cell apoptosis. Associativity between BHLHB2 and EMT was analyzed using immunoblot analysis. Results: BHLHB2 silencing with RNAi significantly promote cell migrate, and induced cell apoptosis by Actinomycin D (ACT-D) (10ng/ml, increased 1.32 fold, p<0.05; 100ng/ml, increased 1.41 fold, p<0.05). By Western Blot, BHLHB2 silencing significantly deduced E-cadherin expression (decreased 11.35 fold, p<0.01), which implicated BHLHB2 was correlated with epithelial mesenchymal transform (EMT). Conclusions: BHLHB2 has multiple biological functions, closely associated with cell migration, cell apoptosis and EMT in human pancreatic cancer.
    Activation of ERK Pathway by EGF and Angiotensin II in Adrenocortical Carcinoma H295R Cells
    TONG An-li
    2012, 32(3):  305-308. 
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    Objectives: To study the effects of EGF and angiotensinII on ERK pathways in adrenocortical carcinoma H295R Cells. Methods: Treated with EGF and angiotensin II with different concentrations, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was detected by Western blot. The effect of Angiotensin II on phospho-ERK1/2 was also observed when pretreated with the specific inhibitor of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase, AG1478. Treated with EGF and angiotensin II alone or both, phosphorylation of ERK1/2,p90RSK and Bad was detected. Results: Both EGF and angiotensin II increased phospho-ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner, and they also promoted phospho-p90RSK. EGF and angiotensin II showed an additive effect on phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p90RSK. Treated by Angiotensin II and EGF alone or both, phospho-ERK1/2 were 6.3±1.4、2.2±0.6 and 10.1±1.1, respectively, relatived to the control. Angiotensin II, but not EGF, stimulated phospho-Bad. The effects of angiotensin II on phospho-ERK1/2 was not blocked by AG1478. Conclusion: Both EGF and Angiotensin II promotes ERK pathway, and they show an additive effect in H295R cells.
    A case of β-Thalassemia with rare gene mutation and the family analysis
    2012, 32(3):  309-312. 
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    Objective To identify a rare mutation (GCC-GAC) at codon 27 exon1 of β-globin gene in a β-thalassemia carriers from a Chinese family. Methods Used hematological cytoanalyzer and electrophoretic analysis system to analysis the phenotype. Gap-PCR was used to detect known mutation of α-globin gene. Known mutation of β-globin gene was detected by reverse dot blot analysis. The sequence of β-globin gene was performed to identify the genotype and to find out the underlying mutation of the sample. Results The proband presented a typical β-thalassemia intermedia phenotype, and the HbF was 5.8%,and no abnormal parameter were found in other family members. No known mutation was detected. The sequencing revealed heterozygosity of codon 2(CAT-CAC) in the proband and her mother; and codon 27 (GCC-GAC) mutation heterozygosity at exon1 CD27 (GCC-GAC) (Ala-Asp)of β-globin gene in the proband only. Conclusions A rare mutation at exon1 which may lead to β-thalassemia in Chinese population was found. The finding may enrich knowledge of the screening in β-thalassemia as well as the genetic counseling and Clinical diagnosis.
    CD44 knockdown decreases immuno- bounding to the monoclonal antibody KMP1 and inhibits the growth and metastasis of EJ cells
    2012, 32(3):  313-316. 
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    [Abstract] Objective To investigate the effect of CD44 targeted RNA interference (RNAi) on the growth and Metastasis of human bladder carcinoma EJ cells. Methods We transfected bladder cancer cell line EJ with well-designed CD44 siRNA. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to assess the CD44 immuno- bounding to the monoclonal antibody KMP1. Wound healing assay and Boyden chamber were used to investigate the change of shCD44-EJ cell’s migration. Proliferation of cells was measured using a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Results CD44 knockdown extremely decreased KMP1 staining signal compared with the EJ cells transfected by pSuper-puro empty vector control,Both flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed a remarkable decrease of CD44 expression in shCD44-EJ cells,but not in pSuper-puro vector transfected cells. CD44 silencing also significantly inhibited cell migration through wound healing assay. The modified Boyden chamber assay showed similar results also. Conclusions CD44 silencing can effectively decrease EJ cells immuno- bounding to the monoclonal antibody KMP1 and inhibit the migration and the proliferation of EJ cells in vitro.
    Expression of DLL4 in cobalt chloride treated A549 cells and its influence on migration of endothelial cells
    2012, 32(3):  317-321. 
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    Abstract: Objective To explore the expression of DLL4 in A549 after CoCl2 treatment and elucidate the relationship between hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) and delta like legend 4 (DLL4). Migration of endothelial cells in the condition of cancer culture supernatant was also observed. Methods Cell proliferation was detected by EdU incorporation assay. Expression of DLL4 and HIF-1α were detected by immunofluorescence staining and western-blot. Migration of endothelial cells was measured in a cell scratch wound model. Results The viability and proliferation of A549 were not significantly decreased after the CoCl2 (200 μmol/L) treatment. Expression of HIF-1α and DLL4 were increased in A549 after CoCl2 treatment compared to normal condition. Culture supernatant from CoCl2 treated A549 could enhance the migration of endothelial cells. Conclusion HIF-1α and DLL4 could be stimulated under hypoxic condition in A549. A549 in hypoxic condition can trigger the migration of endothelial cells, which is critical to angiogenesis. DLL4 might participate in tumor angiogenesis and it is a promising target in tumor treatment.
    Development of high-resolution melting analysis with unlabeled probe for the detection of human cytomegalovirus UL97 mutation
    2012, 32(3):  322-326. 
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    Objective To develop a high resolution melting analysis (HRMA)-based genotypic testing for the detection of UL97 mutations of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Methods Wild-type UL97 and H520Q mutant were constructed. HRMA with unlabeled probe were used as genotyping method for the detection of H520Q mutation. Results The melting peaks directly from the PCR products were not able to distinguish wild-type from H520Q mutation, and the sensitivity and accuracy of HRMA were dramatically improved using unlabeled probe. HRMA with unlabeled probe successfully distinguished different contents of H520Q from wild-type. Conclusions HRMA with unlabeled probe proves to be a sensitive and cost-effective genotyping method for the detection of H520Q mutation.
    Isolation of Mitochondria from Liver Cancer Tissue with Nanoparticle-antibody Complex
    2012, 32(3):  327-331. 
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    Abstract: Objective Studying differences between magnetic nanoparticles-antibody complex and the traditional method to isolate mitochondria from human liver cancer tissues. Methods Using magnetic nanoparticles-antibody complex and density gradient centrifugation to isolate mitochondria of human liver cancer tissues separately, then scanning electron microscopy was used to scan the morphology of mitochondria, Western blot was used to detect mitochondrial protein markers and flow cytometry was used to analyze the alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential. Results The mitochondria isolated by magnetic nanoparticle-antibody had intergral structure, contained almost membrane no contaminant of nucleus, cell membrane, peroxisomes and lysosomes. The mitochondrial potential was stable. Conclusion Comparing with the traditional method, magnetic nanoparticle-antibody complex method gets more advantages, such as the preparation is easier, the structure of mitochondria is intact, the purity and activity of mitochondria are higher, large equipments are not needed and so on.
    Expression of Livin in leukemia multi-drug resistance cell line THP-1R
    2012, 32(3):  335-336. 
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    Abstract: Objective To investigate the relationship between Livin and leukemia multi-drug resistance, and study its effect on leukemia multi-drug resistance. Methods The expressions of Livin in leukemia cell line THP-1 and leukemia multi-drug resistance cell line THP-1R were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The siRNA of Livin was transfected by RNAi-Mate into THP-1R, the expression of Livin was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, The resistance index was detected by MTT. Results The expression of Livin in THP-1R was higher than that of THP-1 (P<0.05). After transfected with the siRNA of Livin, the resistance index was decreased significantly, and the expression of Livin was decreased compared with untransfected cells (P< 0.05). Conclusion The high-level expression of Livin may be one of the mechanisms of leukemia multi-drug resistance.
    The progress of studies on immunomodulation and clinical application of decidual mesenchymal stem cells
    Hua-Yang WANG Zhao-gang DONG Xun QU
    2012, 32(3):  340-344. 
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    Decidual mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs), a subtype of the multipotient stromal cells, are characterized by stemness phenotype, low immunogenicity and differentiation potential similar with other MSCs. DMSCs not only provide suitable microenvironment for embryo implantation during gestation, but also secret the immnomodification cytokines, or interaction with many immunocytes, such as T cells, NK cells, DCs. DMSCs play an important role in embryo implantation, immunotolerance establishment as well as pregnancy maintainance, thus may be an attractive source for clinical application. DMSCs has currently been applied on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or regeneration therapy et al. The source, characteristics, function and potential uses in future therapy are reviewed in this paper.
    Progress in aptamers for cancer research
    Xian-da YANG
    2012, 32(3):  345-348. 
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    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA molecules that can specifically bind to their targets with high affinity. They are generated by a procedure called SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment). Comparing to antibodies, aptamers possess distinctive advantages: ability for chemical synthesis in large quantities, low-immunogenicity, easy chemical modification and low synthesis cost. Combining nanobiotechnology and RNAi with aptamers, this technology opens the way to more sophisticated applications in tumor molecular diagnosis and therapy.
    The relationship between CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 axis signal transduction and the biological features of tumor
    2012, 32(3):  349-353. 
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    [Abstract]More and more studies demonstrate that CXCR4 and CXCR7 as G-protein coupled receptors(GPCRs) are important mediators and cascader of cellular signal transduction,which is closely revelent to tumorigenesis.Here we review the relationship between their respective signaling modules,the cascade of intracellular signal pathways and biological behaviors of carcinoma,such as growth, proliferation,adhesion,migration and so on.
    Methotrexate is a new consideration in treatment of rheumatoid
    Ya MA Xue-jun ZENG
    2012, 32(3):  354-357. 
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    Absract: MTX is the most commonly used DMARDs of first choice. In comparison with other DMARDs, MTX is more effective in reducing signs and symptoms, disability and radiographic structural damage. In order to ensure the compliance and remission of patients, cost-effectiveness should be taken into consideration when choose between the biological agents and traditional DMARDs such as MTX. Searching proper biological or genetic markers predicting the safety and efficacy to MTX may optimize the treatment of RA.
    The diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections in central nervous system
    2012, 32(3):  358-361. 
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    The incidence of fungal infections in central nervous system (CNS) has been increased recently. Intracranial fungal infections included diffuse infections and focal infections, the clinical presentations were fever and intracranial hypertension due to meningitis, meningoencephalitis and even focal neurological deficits. The diagnosis of intracranial fungal infections depends on the history, epidemiology, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, imaging findings and laboratory examinations, while the golden standard is the identification of the fungi in the brain tissue or cerebral spinal fluid. Controlling the underlying risks, administering effective antifungal drugs and removing fungal abscesses are the treatment principles for CNS fungal infections. New diagnostic and therapeutic approaches need to be explored to improve the prognosis of these patients.
    Preliminary research for fostering students’ creative thinking in gene molecular biology experimental teaching
    2012, 32(3):  362-366. 
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    Abstract: Objective Improving teachers’ concepts and methods of teaching can foster students’ creative thinking. Methods In practicing experimental teaching in gene molecular biology, we intend to reform the contents and the teaching procedures so as to inspire the students to strengthen their thinking abilities through curriculum development. Results and Conclusion This change shows that bringing in the methods of discussing study can enhance students’ learning motivation, abilities of cooperation, presentation skills and creative thinking.