基础医学与临床 ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 2-14.

• 特邀专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

脑靶向纳米药物递释系统研究进展

曹意,蒋晨   

  1. 复旦大学 药学院
  • 收稿日期:2021-12-03 修回日期:2021-12-03 出版日期:2022-01-05 发布日期:2022-01-05
  • 通讯作者: 蒋晨 E-mail:jiangchen@shmu.edu.cn

Brain-targeted nanoparticle drug delivery systems: research advances

  • Received:2021-12-03 Revised:2021-12-03 Online:2022-01-05 Published:2022-01-05

摘要: 血脑屏障(blood-brain barrier, BBB)是中枢神经系统内的一种特殊结构,其优良的屏障特性能够保护大脑免于血液循环中有害大分子及病原体的侵害。然而,这一屏障同时也限制了药物递送的效果,并成为治疗神经退行性疾病、脑胶质瘤等脑部疾病的新药开发过程中最严峻的挑战之一。近年来,纳米技术的突破使得各类纳米颗粒(nanoparticles,NPs)逐渐得到了广泛的运用,在靶向递药领域被用做药物载体,经各种途径辅助药物实现BBB的跨越。本文主要通过阐述 BBB 的复杂成分和特殊特性,以理解跨越BBB的难点及可能途径;同时还介绍了目前用于药物递送系统的NPs的3种主要类型:聚合物型(polymeric-based)、仿生型(biomimetic-based)及无机型(inorganic-based)NPs;在靶向递药策略方面,本文主要介绍了吸附介导(adsorptive-mediated)、载体介导(carrier-mediated)及受体介导(receptor-mediated)的胞吞作用,并在文末对脑靶向纳米递药系统的未来发展进行了展望。

Abstract: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a special structure in the central nervous system (CNS), whose delicate properties can protect the brain from the attack by harmful large molecules and organisms within blood circulation. However, the very barrier also prevents the brain-targeted drugs from taking effects, posing great challenge to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, glioma and other brain diseases. With the development of nanotechnology, more and more nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed as a drug carrier, which can facilitate the drug with various mechanisms to get across the BBB. This article starts with introduction of the BBB, explaining the complexity of BBB structure and its unique features to form barriers, so that we can understand the difficulty in transporting drug into the BBB and the potential methods of targeting and permeate the barrier. Next, we focus on three main types of NPs that have been applied in the brain-targeted drug delivery system: polymeric-based NPs; biomimetic-based NPs and inorganic-based NPs. Furthermore, we deal with the specific NPs drug delivery strategies, which include absorption-mediated, carrier-mediated and receptor-mediated transcytosis. At the end of the article, we talk about the leading trend and future development of the brain-targeted nanoparticle drug delivery systems.