基础医学与临床 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (7): 1060-1065.

• 短篇综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

尼古丁成瘾机制的研究进展

焦瑒1,贾颖1,朱苹1,张倩2,马晓丽1   

  1. 1. 山东大学附属济南市中心医院
    2. 山东省济南市中心医院
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-19 修回日期:2021-03-31 出版日期:2021-07-05 发布日期:2021-06-17
  • 通讯作者: 马晓丽 E-mail:Maxiaoli_jn@sdu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    山东省自然基金;泰安市科技发展计划

Advances in mechanism of nicotine addiction

  • Received:2020-11-19 Revised:2021-03-31 Online:2021-07-05 Published:2021-06-17
  • Contact: Ma Xiaoli E-mail:Maxiaoli_jn@sdu.edu.cn

摘要: 尼古丁通过烟碱型乙酰胆碱受体(nAChRs)在脑中起作用。nAChRs是由5个跨膜亚单位组成的配体门控离子通道,哺乳动物包含12个α亚基(α2~α10)和3个β亚基(β2~β4)。 脑中nAchRs主要亚型为含α4和β2亚基的nAChR(α4β2-nAChR),其介导许多与尼古丁成瘾有关的行为。近期研究表明,α7、α5、α6-nAChR在尼古丁成瘾中起重要作用。编码α5、α3和β4的CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4基因簇的遗传变异,增加了对烟草依赖和吸烟相关疾病(包括肺癌)的易感性。小鼠中α5或β4亚基的表达改变了尼古丁的消耗模式。此外,尼古丁对食欲、注意力和情绪的影响与吸烟习惯的建立和维持相关。

关键词: 烟碱型乙酰胆碱受体(nAChRs), 胆碱能抗炎通路, 尼古丁, 成瘾, 中脑边缘系统

Abstract: Nicotine plays a role in the brain through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). nAChR are ligand-gated ion channel composed of five transmembrane subunits. Mammals contain twelve α subunits (α2~α10) and three β subunits (β2~β4). The brain mainly contains α4 and the nAChRs subtype of β2 subunit (α4β2-nAChR), which mediate many behaviors related to nicotine addiction. Recent studies have shown that α7, α5 and α6-nAChR play an important role in regulating nicotine addiction. It has been shown that genetic variations in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene clusters encoding α5, α3, and β4 increase the susceptibility to tobacco dependence and smoking-related diseases (including lung cancer). The expression of α5 or β4 subunits in mice changed the consumption pattern of nicotine. In addition,the effects of nicotine on appetite, attention and emotion are related to the establishment and maintenance of smoking habits.

Key words: nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, nicotine, addiction, mesolimbic system