Basic & Clinical Medicine ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 188-192.

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Application of 3D printed eye model in direct ophthalmoscopy training for medical students


  • Received:2020-06-12 Revised:2020-08-22 Online:2022-01-05 Published:2022-01-05

Abstract: Objective To design an eye model that can simulate the fundus for teaching direct ophthalmoscopy and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods We first used 3D printing materials to make an eye model, and then randomly assigned 92 undergraduates into two groups: group A (model training group) and group B (traditional training group). After the same training time, real patients were used to test the students, with 120 seconds as the examination time limit. We recorded the ability of the students to clearly see the optic disk, and the time to determine the cup-to-disk ratio and whether the students were correct. Results 43 students in group A (93.48%) successfully saw the fundus, while 21 students in group B (45.65%) saw the fundus. The difference between the two groups was 47.83%, and the 95% confidence interval was 29.59%-66.07%, P < 0.0001. The median time to see the fundus was 29s in group A; the 95% confidence interval was 23-45s. Based on the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval, it was estimated that a minimum of more than 80 seconds was required in group B. The P value of the log-rank test was < 0.0001, and group A was significantly faster than group B. Conclusion This 3D-printed eye model significantly improved the students' study interest, study efficiency and study results and is worthy of being promoted.

Key words: direct ophthalmoscopy, teaching, eye model, 3D printing

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