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Table of Content

    05 July 2015, Volume 35 Issue 7
    Effects of photodynamic therapy on cell cycle and apoptosis in endometrial cancer Ishikawa cell line
    2015, 35(7):  867-872. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of photodynamic therapy(PDT) on cell cycle and apoptosis in endometrial cancer Ishikawa cell line. Methods Ishikawa cell were treated by PDT with photosensitizer 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin(TMPyP). Cell morphology were observed by inverted microscope. Survival rate of Ishikawa cell was evaluated with Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Cell apoptosis was analyzed with Annexin V-FITC/PI Apoptosis Kit for FCM. The expression of Bcl-2、NF-κB P65 and phospho-NF-κB P65(p-NF-κB P65) and were detected by Western blotting. Results PDT could cause Ishikawa cell morphological changes. Survival rate decreased in Ishikawa cell treated by PDT after 24h(P<0.05) and the rate was related with photosensitizer concentration and energy intensity. FCM analysis indicated PDT could induce S phase arrest and apoptosis(P<0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 protein and phosphorylation of NF-κB P65 were down regulated in Ishikawa cell after PDT(P<0.05). Conclusion PDT could induce S phase arrest and apoptosis in endometrial cancer Ishikawa cell , the possible mechanism is down-regulation of Bcl-2 and NF-κB.
    Association of HLA-DQ gene polymorphisms with the outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection
    2015, 35(7):  873-878. 
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    Objective To assessed the effect of the two Single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs9275572 and rs9275319)in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ gene on the outcomes of HBV infection in Chinese Han population. Methods HLA-DQ (rs9275572 and rs9275319) were genotyped in 921 subjects by using the TaqMan probe method, including 310 HBV-related chronic liver disease patients (CLD), 295 HBV spontaneous clearance subjects (SC) and 316 healthy control individuals (HC). Results 1) Rs9275572 AG genotype showed a significant protective effect on HBV clearance (OR,1.82,95%CI, 1.26~2.62; dominant genetic model: OR, 1.84, 95% CI, 1.30~2.61). 2) SNP rs9275319 showed a significant association with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance. The rs9275319 C allele play a protective role (the allele model OR, 0.494, 95% CI, 0.332~0.735; the dominant genetic model OR, 0.47, 95%CI,0.31~0.72 for CLD vs HC; the allele model, OR, 1.610, 95%CI, 1.065~2.434; the dominant genetic model OR, 1.57; 95%CI, 1.01~2.48 for CLD vs SC). 3) a conspicuous association was unveiled between haplotype T-G/T-A and HBV susceptibility or spontaneous clearance. Conclusion HLA-DQ gene polymorphisms were correlated with HBV susceptibility or nature clearance.
    Metformin alleviates saturated fatty acid-induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammation via activating AMPK pathway
    2015, 35(7):  879-883. 
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    Objective To investigate the effect of metformin on inflammatory cytokines of saturated fatty acid (SFA)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage. Methods RAW264.7 cells were treated with SFA to establish inflammatory model in vitro. Macrophages were divided into normal control group, SFA-treated group, metformin + SFA-treated group and AMPK inhibitor Compound C + metformin + SFA-treated group. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6. ELISA was used to detect secretion levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell supernatants. Western blotting was used to analyze phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase. Results Compared to normal control group, both mRNA expression levels and protein secretion levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were elevated in SFA-treated group (P<0.05). Compared to SFA-treated group, both mRNA expression levels and protein secretion levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were decreased in metformin + SFA-treated group (P<0.05), and AMPK phosphorylation level was significantly enhanced (P<0.05). Compared to metformin + SFA treated-group, mRNA expression and protein secretion levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were elevated, and AMPK phosphorylation level was deceased in Compound C + metformin + SFA-treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion Metformin suppresses secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in saturated fatty acid-induced RAW264.7 macrophage via activation AMPK.
    The effect of Cdkl5 shRNA on the expression of Mecp2 and its related downstream target genes in primary cortical neurons
    2015, 35(7):  884-888. 
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between CDKL5 and MeCP2 in the mechanism of Rett syndrome. Methods The primary cortical neurons that obtained from embryonic day 18 Sprague Dawley rat were transfected by effective small interfering RNAs to silence Cdkl5, dividing into Cdkl5 shRNA group and control shRNA group. The technology of real time-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the efficiency of silenced gene and detect its influence on both Mecp2 and the related downstream target genes.. The cell viability was assessed by the value of optical density through CCK8. The state of cell apoptosis was investigated by the level of caspase3 and cleaved-caspase3 through real time-PCR and western blot. Results Compared with control shRNA group, transfection with effective Cdkl5 shRNA in neurons decreased Cdkl5 mRNA by 73% and Cdkl5 protein by 75% (p<0.05). Cdkl5 inhibition was related to more than 2-fold induction of Mecp2 both in mRNA and protein level (p<0.05). At the same time, the level of Bdnf XI transcript decreased while Psd95 increased in transfected neurons (p<0.05). Conclusions A stable model of Cdkl5 silenced neurons is established. This preliminary study suggests that CDKL5 may fulfill its duty on downstream target genes through regulating the function of MeCP2.
    The effect of ovarian transplantation on hippocampal neurons and GPR30 expressions in ovariectomized rat
    2015, 35(7):  889-893. 
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    Objective To observe the changes of hippocampal neurons, Nissl body and GPR30 expression on castrated rats after ovarian transplantation,for evaluating the protective effect of ovarian transplantation on hippocampal neurons. Methods The adult SD rats were divided into control group(sham operation),castration group(excision of two ovaries) and transplantation group(transplantation of ovary of 3 days neonate rat under the renal capsule after castration ). 7, 14, 21 and 28d after the ovarian transplantation, the brains were removed for evaluating the morphologic change of hippocampal neurons, amount of Nissl bodies and the expression of GPR30 by Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry and Western-blot in three groups.Results Normal hippocampus and plentiful Nissl bodies were seen in control group, the GPR30 was expressed in cytoplasm of hippocampus neurons. Compared with the control group, the layers of hippocampus neurons were reduced and shrinkage of cytoplasm and nuclei were seen in hippocampus neurons. The amount of Nissl bodies and expression of GPR30 were decreased time-dependently in the castration group, and increased time-dependently in the transplantation group with recovery of neuron structures. Conclusion The ovarian transplantation can reverse the morphological changes of castration-induced hippocampus neurons and improve the expression of GPR30 protein, and promote the recovery of protein synthesis function in hippocampal neurons.
    ATF4 lentivirus represses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in C2C12 cells
    2015, 35(7):  894-899. 
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    Objective To study the effect of lentivirus modification of human activating transcriptional factor4(ATF4) gene on cell apoptosis and cycle in C2C12 cells. Methods The recombinant ATF4 lentivirus were produced in 293T cells following to co-transfection between pWPT-GFP-ATF4 and the lentivirus packaging plasmids. The effect of recombinant lentivirus ATF4 on proliferation and apoptosis in C2C12 cells was detected by flow cytometry(FCM). Western blotting analysis was used to examine the expression of apoptosis-ralated proteins. Results The recombinant lentivirus ATF4 was successfully constructed. FCM analysis showed that under BMP2-induced differentiation condion,the ratio of S phase C2C12 cells in the BMP2+LV-ATF4 group(14.89%) was significantly lower than those in BMP2+LV-GFP group(30.64%)(P<0.05);The apoptosis rate in the BMP2+LV-ATF4 group(31.06%) was significantly higher than those in the BMP2+LV-GFP group(11.39%)(P<0.05).Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of Cleaved Caspase-3,Chop and p-JNK was consistent with results of FCM. Conclusion Under BMP2-induced differentiation condition, LV-ATF4 can suppress the cell proliferation and promote the cell apoptosis in C2C12 cells.
    Effects of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted by abdominal aortic on apoptosis and caspase9 in spinal cord of rats with spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury
    2015, 35(7):  900-905. 
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    Objective To investigate the functional recovery and effects of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplanted by abdominal aortic on apoptosis and caspase9 in spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injured (SCIRI) rats. Methods 24 adult female SD rats were assigned randomly to 3 groups (8 rats in each group). Rats in the sham group were subjected to the operative procedure but short of blocking abdominal aorta. Rats in the control group and the transplantation group were subjected to abdomen aorta occlusion for 120 min to induce spinal cord ischemia, and then the aorta was reopened for spinal cord reperfusion. Five minutes later, 10% FBS culture medium and BMSCs suspension were injected by the arterial trocar respectively. BBB scores was assessed at 1, 3 and 7days after the operation. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expressional changes of caspase9 and TUNEL was used to observe apoptosis in the lumbar segments of spinal cord. Result Compared with the sham group, BBB scores in the transplantation group and the control group decreased obviously at 1, 3 and 7days post operation (P<0.01). However, the scores in the transplanted rats were much higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein level of caspase9 was increased greatly in the SCIRI rats, but the level in the transplantation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). Apoptosis had been detected in the injuried cords, the number of apoptosis in the transplantation group was fewer than that in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion BMSCs, transplanted by the abdominal aorta, can promote the functional recovery by inhibiting the expression of caspase9 and reducing the occurrence of apoptosis in the injuried spinal cord.
    The association of GDF5 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with adult height of Han population in Guizhou province
    2015, 35(7):  906-910. 
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    Objectives :To analyze the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms of growth differentiation factor 5 ( GDF5) gene and adult height of Han population in Guizhou province. Methods :1069 healthy Hans, who were long-term residents of Guizhou Province, were recruited in our present study. Physical examination and questionnaire survey were carried out,anticoagulant blood samples were collected,and the genomic DNA was extracted .The single nucleotide polymorphisms of GDF5 gene were detected by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF MS). Results: The genotypes of GDF5 at rs143383, rs143384 ,rs224331and rs6060369 sites were associated with female height, each explained 1.4%、0.9%、1.1% and 1.0% of total variance in height (P <0.05). At rs143383 and rs143384 sites,women with the GG genotype were 1.7 cm (P <0.01), 2.3cm (P <0.05) and 1.6cm (P <0.05),2.1cm (P <0.01) taller than those with AG and AA genotypes. At rs6060369 site, women with the CC genotype were 1.7cm (P <0.05) and 2.2cm(P <0.01) taller than those with CT and TT genotypes. However,the association of GDF5 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with height was not observed in males. Conclusions: The single nucleotide polymorphisms of GDF5 gene might be associated with female height of Han population in Guizhou province .It may be one of the genes which affect adult women’s height in Chinese Han population.
    Expression level and mechanism of miRNA-146a in neuropathic pain rat
    2015, 35(7):  911-915. 
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    Objective To evaluate the expression level of miRNA-146a (miR-146a) in neuropathic pain of bilateral chronic constriction injury (bCCI) rat and the effect of miR-146a on its target gene IRAK1 and TRAF6, and to explore the regulatory mechanism of miR-146a in neuropathic pain. Methods 36 female rats were divided randomly into bCCI group in which 12 rats received bilateral chronic constriction surgery, sham group and na?ve group. Behavior test were performed on the day before surgery and on day 3,7 and 14 after surgery. L4-L6 dorsal root ganglions were harvested on day 14 after surgery. RT-qPCR was used to test the mRNA expression of miR-146a, IRAK1 and TRAF6. Western Blot was performed to explore the protein expression of IRAK1 and TRAF6. Results Pain-related behavioral test scores of bCCI rats were significantly decreased as compared to sham group and na?ve group rats at each time point after surgery (P<0.05). Compared with sham group and na?ve group, the expression of miRNA-146a was greatly decreased, whereas IRAK1 mRNA and TRAF6 mRNA were significant increased on day 14 after surgery in bCCI rat group. Western Blot result showed that IRAK1 and TRAF6 on protein level increased in DRG of bCCI rat on day 14 postoperatively (P<0.05). Conclusion Our research suggested that decreased expression of miR-146a in DRG of bCCI rats and miR-146a might contribute to neuropathic pain by up-regulating IRAK1 and TRAF6.
    Expression and significance of sICOS/sPD-1 in the serum of patients with chronic hepatitis B
    2015, 35(7):  916-920. 
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    Objective:To detect the level of soluble inducible co-stimulator molecule (sICOS) and soluble programmed death protein 1 (sPD-1) in peripheral blood supernatant in patients with chronic hepatitis B and then discuss its significance with other index. Methods: Eighty patients with CHB and thirty healthy persons were enrolled in our study. the peripheral blood supernatant were collected and isolated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in CHB patients . According to the clinical HBsAg and HBeAg results, the CHB patients can be divided into the HBeAg(-) group and the HBeAg(+) group, simultaneously,the HBeAg(+) group was divided into two parts: the immune tolerance group and immune clearance group.The sICOS and sPD-1 expression in the peripheral blood was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).the mRNA expression of ICOS、PD-1 and PD-1Δex3 in PBMCs of patients with CHB were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR). Results sICOS level was significantly higher in CHB patients compairing the healthy controls(p<0.05); as same as the HBeAg(+) persons , sPD-1 was increased(p<0.01), in which the sPD-1 level was increased more obviously in patients who were in immune clearance phase than those in immune tolerance phase(p<0.05). sPD-1 was positively correlated with the AST levels in CHB patients( p<0.01); The sPD-1 was only correlated with the ALT levels in the HBeAg(+) patients( p<0.01). But there is no correlation between sICOS levels and the ALT or AST levels.A weakly negative correlation between HBV-DNA and sICOS levels was observed (p<0.05). Whereas the sICOS did not correlate with HBeAg levels.Compared with the healthy controls, before the activation and stimulation, the ICOS mRNA expression were decreased in two CHB groups (p<0.05).Conclusion:The sICOS and sPD-1 levels were significantly higher in the serum of patients with CHB and they may be able to participate in the development of CHB.
    The Relationship Between Placental Thromboxane Receptor involved in the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia
    2015, 35(7):  921-924. 
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between thromboxane receptor expression and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; Methods The expression of TXS, TPr and NOX1 in placenta of 36 preeclampsia gravidas and 34 normal gravidas were analysed with immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR assay. Futhermore, the expression of TXA2 was analyzed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Result The expression of TXS and TPr were mainly located in the cytoplasm of placental cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast and villous vascular endothelial cells. The expression of NOX1 was mainly located in the cytoplasm of placental cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, villous vascular endothelial cells and villous stromal cells. We found that the protein and mRNA expression of TXS and NOX1 were significantly higher in preeclamptic placentas than in normal placentas (P<0.05). Moreover, the protein expression of TXA2 were increased after preeclampsia (P<0.05). There was negative correlation between the protein expression of TXA2 and neonatal weight in preeclampsia (P<0.01). Besides, the positive correlation between the protein expression of TXA2 and NOX1mRNA in preeclampsia (P<0.05) was found. Conclusion TXA2 may improve the expression of NOX1 by activating TPr pathway which participate in the progress of preeclampsia.
    Effects of overexpressed S100A6 on the biological function of eutopic endometrial stromal cells in endometriosis
    2015, 35(7):  925-928. 
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    Objective: To investigate the influence of over-expressed S100A6 on proliferation,migration and apoptosis in eutopic endometrial stromal cells. Methods: The eutopic endometrial stromal cells were cultivated in vitro and divided into Lv-S100A6 group and negative group, which infected with the recombinant lentivirus S100A6 (Lv-S100A6) and recombinant lentivirus vector respectively. CCK-8 assay was performed to identify the proliferation of cell. The cell migration was detected by Transwell chamber. Flow cytometry method was performed to detect cell apoptosis. Results: As compared with the blank group and negative control group, the proliferation was increased in eutopic endometrial stromal cells after transfection with Lv-S100A6 (P<0.05), the ability of migration was promoted. However, the apoptosis rate in eutopic endometrial stromal cells after transfection with Lv-S100A6(2.99%)was decreased compared with the blank control group(13.48%) and the negative group(14.40%)(P<0.05). Conclusions: S100A6 can effectively increase the proliferation and migration in eutopic endometrial stromal cells, and inhibit the cell apoptosis.
    Effects of proanthocyanidins on proliferation and apoptosis of medulloblastoma cell line Daoy
    2015, 35(7):  929-933. 
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    Objective To study the effects of proliferation and apoptosis of human medulloblastoma cell line Daoy induced by proanthocyanidins (PC), furthermore to explore the molecular mechanism. Methods Human medulloblastoma cell line Daoy were treated by PC at different concentrations(0.025,0.05,0.1,0.2,0.4 mmol/L) for 24,48 and 72 h,the inhibition rate of tumor cells were determined by CCK-8 assay. Then, the apoptosis of which were evaluated by Hoechst33258 fluorochrome staining and flow cytometry via Annexin-V/PI labeling method. The protein expressions of Akt,p-Akt,NF-κB were detected by Western blot analysis. Results PC inhibited the proliferation of the Daoy cells in time and dose-dependent manner. After treatment for 72 h,the IC50 of PC was 0.25 mmol/L. We can see many apoptotic cells that the nucleus were condensed, and flow cytometry found that the apoptotic rates of Daoy cells treated by 0.2 mmol/L PC for 24,48,72 h were 21.16%±2.49%,36.02%±0.71%,63.79%±1.47%,respectively.The results showed that the total Akt protein had not been changed, but the p-Akt and NF-κB protein expressions were both down-regulated obviously. Conclusion PC inhibited the proliferation of human medulloblastoma cells and induced their apoptosis, and the molecular mechanism was related with down regulation of p-Akt and NF-κB protein expressions in vitro.
    Relationships between Enterogenous TPH1, Expression of LRP5, Serum Level of 5-HT and Aging Bone Mass Loss of the Male Rat
    2015, 35(7):  934-937. 
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    Objective The purpose of this paper is to observe the expression levels of duodenal TPH1 and LRP5 as well as the level of serum 5-HT in SD male rats of different months, and analyze their changes with the increase of age and the correlation with aging bone mass loss. Methods 6 male SD rats at the age of 2, 6, 12, 15 and 18 months respectively (30 in total) were selected in this study for each group and they were grouped according to their ages so as to simulate the physiological aging model. RT-PCR and Westernblot methods were employed respectively in this study to detect the mRNA and the expression of protein level of duodenal TPH1, LRP5 in rats of different months. Moreover, the ELISA method was used to check the level of serum 5-HT and the Dual-energy bone mineral density method was used to determine the bone mineral density of rats’ femur in vitro. Results Both the expression level of the duodenal TPH1mRNA and protein as well as the level of serum 5-HT increased with the growth of the age, but they showed the negative correlation with the aging bone mass loss(P<0.001). Conclusion The enterogenous 5-HT and the expression of TPH1, which is the key enzymes for the speed limit, play an important role in the aging bone mass loss, and they might become the new potential treatment and intervention targets for senile osteoporosis.
    LNAzyme specific targeting against to both 5ˊ-NCR and C gene expression of hepatitis C virus
    2015, 35(7):  938-942. 
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    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects HCV replication of LNAzyme targeting to both 5ˊ-NCR andC genes in hepG2.9706 cells. Methods The experimental groups were divided into five groups:blank control group were treated with DMEM (dulbecco’s modified eagle medium) solution, galactose ligand control group were treated with galactose ligand alone, NCR group were treated with LNAzyme targeting to NCR gene, C group were treated with LNAzyme targeting to C gene, and dual-target group were treated with LNAzyme targeting to both NCR and C genes. LNAzyme was transfected into HepG2.9706 cells by galactose ligand. The levels of HCV RNA was quantified by Fluorescence Quantitative PCR. The expression of luciferase gene was detected by chemiluminescence technique. LNAzyme’s cyto-toxicity on cell was evaluated by MTT method. Results After LNAzyme transfection, the levels of HCV RNA in the NCR group, C group and dual-target group were reduced by 62.12%, 61.39% and 75.37%,respectively, and the luciferase gene expression were also decreased by 66.49%、65.06% and 73.30%, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control groups (all P<0.05). The expression levels of fluorescent protein in the cells of all experimental groups were significantly lower than those in the control groups. Conclusion LNAzymetargeting to both 5ˊ-NCR and C gene can significant inhibit effect HCV replication and expression in vitrol, and dual-target was stronger than single target.
    Down-regulated expression of CMTM3 is involved in pathogenesis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    2015, 35(7):  943-946. 
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    Objective To investigate the expression of CMTM3 in human hypertophic myocardium, and the mechanism of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods The objects of this study consists of two parts:1). mouse model with cardiac hypertrophy induced by Isoproterenol(ISO) injection with 15mg/kg per day ;2). 32 cases of myocardial tissues from patients with hypertrophic cardiomypathy who were received surgery to clear the left ventricular outflow tract from January 2014 to June 2014 in Beijing Fuwai Cardiovascular Disease Hospital and 3 cases of normal myocardial tissues. RT-PCR, Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of CMTM3 in protein and transcriptional levels. Results 1).Compared with the wild-type mice treated with normal saline, the expression of Cmtm3 mRNA is down regulated. 2). Compared to normal myocardium, the expression of CMTM3 is down regulated both in transciptional and protein levels . Conclusion CMTM3 may play important role in regulating the occurrence of hypertrophic cardiomypathy.
    The relationship between Y chromosome microdeletion and gonadal hormone level in male infertility patients
    2015, 35(7):  947-950. 
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    Objective To study the relationship between Y chromosome microdeletion and gonadal hormone level, and to provide evidences for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility patients. Methods Fifteen sequence tagged sites in Y chromosome were measured by multiplex PCR technology in 798 cases of male infertility patients, and gonadal hormone level was measured by the electrochemiluminescence technology, and 100 healthy normal fertile male were detected as the control group. Results There were 40 Y chromosome microdeletion patients of the 798 infertility patients including 27 cases of azoospermia and 12 cases of severe oligozoospermia, and the deletion of SY254+SY255 was the most common type of Y chromosome microdeletion. The level of FSH in the AZF deletion group was significantly higher than that of the group without Y chromosome deletion and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The common microdeletion region is AZFc on Y chromosome, and SY254+SY255 are the most common type of Y chromosome microdeletion. The level of FSH in the AZF deletion group is significant increased.
    Activation of JNK signal pathway in kidney of mice with lipopolysaccharide induced acute kidney injury
    2015, 35(7):  951-955. 
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    Objective To explore the activation and its role of JNK signal pathway in kidney of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) . Methods Forty-eight male were randomly divided into control group and AKI group to measure the levels of blood urea nitrogen ( BUN ),serum creatinine ( Scr) and cystatin C(Cys C) respectively. The pathologic change to the kidney were detected by HE. Immunohistochemistry( IHC) and Western blot were applied to detected the expression of p-JNK and p-c-Jun respectively. Serum level of TNF-α and IL-1β was determined by ELISA. Results Compared with the control group, BUN, Scr and Cys C levels of the AKI group rose considerably after the injection and the pathological damages of their renal tissues showed a continual worsening trend. A weak expression of p-JNK and p-c-Jun on the renal tubule and glomerular mesangial region was detected. The expression and protein leval of p-JNK and p-c-Jun was up-regulated in AKI group compared with normal controls,which started to increase after 1 hours, peaked at 4 hours and decresed remarkably at 30 hours. Meanwhile, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the blood also rose obviously and peaked at 4 hours after the injection followed by a gradual decrease. Conclusion JNK signal pathway may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AKI induced by LPS. Activation of JNK signal pathway could mediate the occurrence and development of AKI by triggering the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β.
    The application of MoCA in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with mild cognitive impairment
    2015, 35(7):  956-958. 
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    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is known to be associated with impairment in cognitive function. The aim of this study is to develop a sensitive screening tool to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese patients with OSAS. Methods There were totally 51 0SAS patients (OSAS group) and 35 primary snoring peoples (control group) included in our study. All of them were monitored by polysomnography (PSG), administered by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaires to assess their sleep condition and cognitive function. Results Compared with control group, the score of MoCA in OSAS group was 21.1±3.0, strikingly lower than the control group 25.0±2.0(P<0.01),the score of MMSE in OSAS group and control group were 27.8±1.8 and 28.1±1.7,the difference were of no significance. Conclusions The MoCA is a brief and sensitive tool for the assessment of MCI in OSAS patients, whose performance on the MMSE is in the normal range.
    Fucoidan inhibits cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction in mice
    2015, 35(7):  959-962. 
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    Objective: To investigate whether fucoidan could improve cardiac function and attenuate inflammation after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Method: Mice were randomly divided into sham group, myocardial infarction model group (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation), low or high concentrations fucoidan-treated group (mice were gavaged 200mg/kg or 500mg/kg fucoidan daily after surgery). Mice were observed daily for death. Three weeks later echocardiography was used to detect cardiac function. pathology staining was used to detect infarct size and RT-PCR to measure the mRNA expression levels of SOD, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL -1β and TGFβ. Western blot was used to detect the eNOS signaling pathway. Results: After treatment for 3 weeks, Fucoidan could increase survival rate (p<0.05), improve heart function (p<0.05) and decrease infarct size (p<0.05) compared with vehicle. Moreover, Fucoidan could down-regulate the mRNA expression of some inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β, TGFβ (p<0.05) and activate eNOS pathway. Conclusion: Fucoidan can reduce inflammation, and improve cardiac function after ischemic injury. It represents a potential novel therapeutic approach for treatment of ischemic heart disease.
    Determination of iohexol concentration in serum and its clinical application by HPLC in children
    2015, 35(7):  963-967. 
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    Objective To establish a method for the quantification of iohexol in serum by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and to evaluate its application for iohexol plasma clearance in children. Methods Set up the chromatographic conditions of HPLC and validate the linearity of standard curve, precision, trueness, stability of samples and drug interference. Thirty-three chronic kidney disease (CKD) children were included and examined by 99mTc-DTPA plasma clearance and iohexol plasma clearance and evaluated by the updated Schwartz formula (eGFR). Using 99mTc-DTPA plasma clearance as reference, compare the agreement and accuracy of the GFR-Iohexol or eGFR with GFR-99mTc-DTPA. Results The method for determination of the serum iohexol concentration was established by HPLC. The standard curve showed a good linearity (R2 =0.9998). The relative standard deviation RSD% of intra-assay and inter-assay were lower than 5% and the recovery rate was more than 96%. Iohexol plasma clearance showed better agreement and accuracy with99mTc-DTPA plasma clearance than eGFR. Conclusion A stable method for the measurement of serum iohexol concentration by HPLC has been established. Iohexol plasma clearance in children for GFR determination was accurate and feasible.
    The effectiveness and safety of double self-expanding metal stents for patients with esophagorespiratory fistula
    2015, 35(7):  968-971. 
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    Objective: Evaluate the efficacy and safety of double stents (bare metal stent and covered metal stent) for esophagorespiratory fistulas (ERFs). Methods Clinical data from 10 patients receiving double stents treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Results A total of ten ERFs in 10 patients were included. The fistulas, all caused by lung cancers, had diameters of 0.5 to 5.0 cm. Double stents were successfully placed. Fistula was completely sealed in 70% of patients and other 30% patients showed a partial response. The total efficacy rate was 100%. Conclusion A bare metal stent followed by a covered metal stent( double stents), appears to be a safe and feasible regime for ERFs.
    The progress of realationship between different tissue cell and autophagy under obese state
    2015, 35(7):  980-984. 
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    In recent years, it has been attracting more and more attention to the relationship between obesity and autophagy. Autophagy in different tissue cell plays a different role under the obese state. Adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related gene 7 and gene 5 have reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets and improved insulin resistance;Increased autophagy in hepatocytes may improve the metabolism;Autophagy defects in pancreatic β-cells may damage cells function;The appropriate level of autophagy is very important to maintain the function of skeletal muscle homeostasis.
    Research progress of mucin-2 and intestinal mucosal barrier damage
    2015, 35(7):  985-988. 
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    Mucin-2 (MUC2), secreted by goblet cells of the intestine, covers the gastrointestinal tract and is the most abundantly expressed mucin in the mucus layer. It contains high concentrations of antibacterial peptides and proteins, which protects the epithelium against noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria. In recent years the role of MUC2 on the intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction get more and more attention, which may also be an important breakthrough in the treatment of intestinal mucosal barrier damage.
    Progress of studies on ulcerative colitis and NLRP3 inflammasome
    2015, 35(7):  989-992. 
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    Ulcerative colitis is an immune-mediated chronic intestinal inflammation. Genetic susceptibility, colonic microflora and mucosal immune dysfunction are important in the development of ulcerative colitis. Most of the studies showed that NLRP3 inflammasome maintained the intestinal homeostasis and had a protective influence on the experimental colitis. The defect in NLRP3 function may lead to be more susceptible to ulcerative colitis. NLRP3 inflammasome is probably a new target of ulcerative colitis treatment.
    Current status and prospect of massive open online courses in medical education
    2015, 35(7):  993-996. 
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    Objective Explore the current status of massive open online courses (MOOCs) in the field of medical education. Methods Select ‘MOOCs’ and ‘medical education’as the key words to review the experiences of MOOCs applied to medical students, medical examinations and new medical teaching way in the global field of medical education from PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar and Coursera et al. Results So far there are limited experiences of MOOCs applied to medical courses in global medical colleges. In theory as well as in practice, MOOCs used in medical education need to be further explored. Conclusion As a new way of teaching, MOOCs should be recognized and promoted in modern medical education.
    Post-graduating continuing education training needs survey by department of ultrasound in PUMC Hospital
    2015, 35(7):  997-1000. 
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    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe the current need of postgraduate training for physicians and sonographers in department of ultrasound. Method This was a cross-sectional survey of all 95 physicians working at department of ultrasound in Peking Union Medical college hospital,which is taken in July 2014. The examiners’ confidence, difficulties and barriers in work and training needs were scored. Results A total of 94 valid questionnaires was gained. The examiners’ have a moderate degree of confidence in performing the ultrasound examination. They thought that appreciate decision-making of ultrasound findings is more difficult. The physicians have an overall medium satisfaction rate for the current training program. There are differences in the training needs for different people respectively. Conclusion Explicit the needs of trainees will benefit the ultrasound post-graduating training program.
    Establishment of a new system of neurobiology curriculum for the medical graduate students with the opportunity of human brain project
    2015, 35(7):  1001-1003. 
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    With the rapid development of brain science in recent years, many countries sponsored a “Human Brain Project”. As a backbone course of brain science, neurobiology aims to understand the structure and function of brain. The graduate education of neurobiology plays a crucial role in cultivating talents in brain science field. To achieve this goal, a rational curriculum program of neurobiology is very necessary and important, which can directly influence the academic level and innovation ability as well as academic morality of the graduates. With the opportunity of human brain project and teaching practice of department of neurobiology in the Fourth Military Medical University in recent few years, we established a new system of neurobiology curriculum for the medical graduate students. This curriculum system combines academic morality, basic knowledge with skill training in neurobiology, which lays a foundation for the cultivation of talents in brain science.
    Implementation and effectiveness analysis of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Graduation Exams of Clinical Medical Students
    2015, 35(7):  1004-1007. 
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    In order to improve the process of Objective Structured Clinical Examination program for graduation exam, a questionnaire was distributed to medical students. The questionnaire included the following aspects: the necessity, design, organization and implementation of examinations, standardized patient performance, results of assessment of clinical skills, help for future learning, objectiveness\reasonableness\fairness, and examinations issues and recommendations. OSCE is a fair, comprehensive and effective clinical skills assessment tool, but in implementation need to be more concerned about the professionalism and details.
    The preliminary exploration of modular teaching for neuroscience in organ system course
    2015, 35(7):  1008-1010. 
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    Neuroscience is an integrated discipline for studying the neural system. So Personnel training of neuroscience need a suitable teaching pattern. A modular teaching pattern for neuroscience was established by department of neurobiology and anatomy, histology and embryology in the fourth military medical university. Multiple ways including theory course, lecture course, experiment course and problem-based learning course help undergraduate learning neuroscience. The exploration of modular teaching pattern not only promotes the learning capacity of undergraduate but also improves the teaching ability and knowledge of teachers.