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Table of Content

    05 August 2012, Volume 32 Issue 8
    Progress in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus
    2012, 32(8):  858-863. 
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    The treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) involves improving the gestational outcome and preventing adult disease of fetal origin, which is required to provide an appropriate in vivo metabolic circumstance for mother and fetus. Compared with regular diabetes, the treatment of GDM has its unique characteristics. The review demonstrates the progress made on the treatment of GDM in recent years, in terms of the profit of treatment, nutritional therapy, monitoring for blood glucose and ketonuria, exercise and pharmacological therapy.
    Progress of Genetics in Gestational diabetes mellitus
    2012, 32(8):  864-869. 
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    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a serious complication of pregnancy, had an effect on maternal and fetal health and the prevalence of GDM is increasing all over the world. However, the pathogenesis of GDM is still largely unknown. The research indicated that genetic factors had an important role in the etiology of GDM. Therefore, identification of the underlying genetic causes of GDM will eventually provide a basis for the early diagnosis and individualized treatment.
    Vitamin D and Gestational diabetes mellitus
    2012, 32(8):  870-874. 
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    Vitamin D has a wide range of physiological effects. Many animal and human studies have provided evidence that vitamin D plays an important role in insulin sensitivity and pancreatic ?-cell function. This review summarizes the metabolism and mechanism of vitamin D in pregnancy, also provides an overview of studies available on the relationship between vitamin D and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Conflicting results exists on the role of maternal vitamin D status in GDM currently. Hence, well-designed, placebo-controlled, randomized intervention studies are required to establish a true protective influence of vitamin D on glucose homeostasis in GDM.
    Adipokines and gestational diabetes mellitus
    2012, 32(8):  875-879. 
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    Gestational diabetes mellitus is the diabetes firstly found or occurring after pregnancy, which is the one of high risk states in pregnancy. However, its etiology and pathogenesis is not very clear at present. Recent data suggest that various adipokines are dysregulated in gestational diabetes mellitus. These adipokines include adiponectin , leptin, retinol-binding protein 4, vaspin, resistin, visfatin, might be of pathophysiological and prognostic significance in these complications of pregnancy.
    Predictors of biochemical outcome of localized prostate cancer after brachytherapy
    2012, 32(8):  880-883. 
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    Abstract:Objective To analyze the predictors of biochemical outcome of localized prostate cancer after brachytherapy in conjunction with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. Methods Clinical and pathologic data from 50 patients with localized prostate cancer underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy followed by brachytherapy are retrospectively reviewed,including Gleason score,TNM clinical stage,risk level,pre and after neoadjuvant hormonal therapy PSA level PSA1,PSA2,percentage of positive biopsy PPB1 and PPB2. Results TNM clinical stage,risk level,PSA1, PPB1 and PPB2 are significantly associated with biochemical failure,while Gleason score and PSA2 are not. Conclusion TNM clinical stage,risk level,PSA1, PPB1 and PPB2 can be used as predictors of biochemical failure of localized prostate cancer after brachytherapy in conjunction with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy.
    Effects of SDF-1α preconditioning on survival and paracrine of rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro
    2012, 32(8):  884-888. 
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    Abstract: Objective: To investigate effects of SDF-1α preconditioning on survival and paracrine of H2O2 treated rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs). Methods: MSCs were randomly divided into the control group, H2O2 group, 0.02μg/ml SDF-1α +H2O2 precondition group, 0.2 μg/ml SDF-1α+H2O2 group. LDH were determined after different treatment. MSCs stained with Hoechst33342 for counting apoptosis percentage. Cells proliferation were detected by MTT. ELISA for detecting VEGF and bFGF. Expressions of VEGF and bFGF in MSCs detected by Western blot. Results SDF-1α preconditioning reduced LDH release and cell apoptosis, and increased cell proliferation. The protein levels of VEGF and bFGF in preconditioning group were significant higher than H2O2 group. Secretion of VEGF and bFGF from preconditioned MSCs were increased when compared with H2O2 group (P<0.05). Conclusions: SDF-1α preconditioning reduces cell damage and apoptosis, promotes cell survival and enhances the effects of paracrine.
    Correlation of CDKN2A/2B gene polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus
    2012, 32(8):  889-893. 
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    Abstract: Objective To investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of rs10811661 in CDKN2A/2B gene and gestational diabetes. Methods The 100 normal glucose tolerance pregnant women, 120 gestational diabetes patients and 100 type 2 diabetes patients living in the southwest of Shandong Province were recruited. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, we determined the genotypes of rs1081166 in CDKN2A/2B. Results There were significant difference in genotypic TT, TC ,CC and risk allele T frequency of CDKN2A/2B rs10811661 between NGT group and GDM group(P=0.005, 0.012respectively). So did the difference between NGT group and T2DM group(P=0.014, 0.015 respectively).But there were no difference between GDM group and T2DM group. Conclusion The rs10811661 T/C polymorphisms of CDKN2A/2B gene may be related with the gestational diabetes patients in the the southwest of Shandong Province.
    Chitosan and cationic liposome complex vector for gene delivery
    2012, 32(8):  894-898. 
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    Objective A new type of stable ternary complex was formed by mixing Lipofectamine2000 with chitosan/pDNA polyplex for delivery of plasmid DNA. Methods Morphologies of liposome/chitosan/pDNA were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in tapping model. Vectors could bind pDNA sufficiently, which can be measured by gel retarding. GFP gene expression in Hep-2 cells in vitro was imaged by inverted fluorescence microscope. Cell toxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay. Results Complex vector could combine pDNA and retard it completely. The liposome/polymer/pDNA complexes were incompacted spheroids, short rod and irregular lump of larger aggregates in structure. The transfection efficiency of the lipopolyplexes showed higher GFP gene expression than Lipofectamine2000/pDNA and CTS/pDNA controls. It was 2- to 4-fold than Liposome/pDNA control, while CTS/pDNA had nearly no expression. Chitosan reduced cell toxicity of liposome. Conclusion New ternary complex has very higher transfection potential in gene delivery.
    Dynamic expression of KLF2 and KLF15 during the lineage commitment process of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
    2012, 32(8):  899-905. 
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    Objective To find out whether there is any alteration of KLF2 and KLF15 gene expression during the process of induced adipogenic, osteogenic, and myogenic differentiation from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in vitro, and to discuss the possible roles of KLF2 and KLF15 in these processes. Methods Cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from human bone marrow. Surface markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cultures in the 4th passage were treated with established lineage-specific agents in vitro and confirmed by Oil red O, Alizarin red S, myosin immunofluorescent staining, and several differentiation marker genes expression. Meanwhile, the expression of KLF2, KLF15 and GLUT4 were detected by quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining. Results The hBMSCs expressed markers of mesenchymal stem cells, CD29 and CD90. Cultures in the 4th passage gained the ability to undergo lineage commitment after exposure to adipogenic,osteogenic, and myogenic stimuli, and expressed specific markers. Both KLF2 and KLF15 showed characteristic time-course expression during adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and myogenesis. Conclusion KLF2 and KLF15 are possibly related to the initiation and maintenance of hBMSCs adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and myogenesis; KLF2 and KLF15 may affect hBMSCs differentiation through GLUT4 mediated energy metabolism.
    The binding of Ang-(1-7) and Mas stimulates insulin secretion in NIT cell
    2012, 32(8):  906-910. 
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    Objective To investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) and Mas receptor on insulin secretion in NIT cell and their potential mechanism. Methods NIT cells were exposed to Ang-(1-7) of different concentrations (10-8 mol/l~10-3mol/l) for 24 hours. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion by NIT cells was detected with ELISA. The full cDNA sequence of Mas, GLUT-2 and TGF-β1 were obtained from NIT cell line using RT-PCR. After NIT cells were exposed to 10-5mol/l Ang-(1-7) for 48 hours, Mas, GLUT-2 and TGF-β 1 mRNA expression were estimated by real-time PCR; Meantime, the protein levels of the afore variables were detected by Western blotting analysis. Results NIT islet cell line responds to extracellular Ang-(1-7) (10-8 mol/l -10-3mol/l) with increased insulin secretion in a concentration dependent manner. The insulin secretion increased significantly in the presence of 10?5mol/l Ang-(1-7) (8.86±0.53 mIU/l) compared to control group (8.06±0.39 mIU/l) (P<0.05). In the experiments, compared to control group, the cells preincubated with 10?5mol/l Ang-(1-7) were up-regulated in Mas gene and protein expression (P<0.05~0.01), and caused a significant stimulation of mRNA and protein expression of GLUT-2 (P<0.05). On the contrary, the result showed a reduction in TGF-β1 mRNA and protein expression (P<0.05). Conclusion The binding of Ang-(1-7) and Mas can stimulate the NIT cells to secrete insulin, probably due to its enhancing the ability to intake glucose and inhibit the progression of fibrosis.
    Effect of heme oxygenase-1 on diabetic rats with early stage of kidney injury
    2012, 32(8):  911-915. 
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    Objective To explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on endothelial function and kidney injury in diabetic nephropathy. Methods Rats were divided into control, diabetes mellitus (DM) , Hemin (HO-1 inducer) and ZnPP (HO-1 inhibitor) groups. All samples were collected on 5w, 10w and 15w. Expression of HO-1 in renal tissue were examined by IHC and RT-PCR, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity, levels of NO product and iNOS,eNOS in renal tissue were detected. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) was also observed. Results The content of MDA was progressively increased in kidney of DM rats. Up regulated HO-1 mRNA expression in renal tissue detected by RT-PCR and significantly enhanced of HO-1 expression detected by IHC from DM rats were observed when compared with those of control group. iNOS was decreased and eNOS was increased in DM rats. After pretreatment with Hemin for 5 weeks in DM rats, MDA and UAER were lower than that of DM 5w group. Alternatively, pretreatment with ZnPP in DM rats, a higher content of MDA, and UAER were measured. While eNOS was reduced after treatment with Hemin, NO product was obviously heightened following eNOS induced after administration Znpp. Conclusions Up regulation of HO-1 may ameliorate the renal injury in diabetic nephropathy.
    Donepezil hydrochloride increases the expression of TGF-β and βFGF in the hippocampal neurons of mice with vascular dementia
    2012, 32(8):  916-920. 
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    Abstract: Objective To study the effects of Donepezil Hydrochloride on the expression of TGF-β、βFGF in the Hippocampal Neurons of Mice with Vascular Dementia. Methods 120 SD mice were divided into shame group(Shame),model group(Model) and treatment group with donepezil hydrochloride (Drug)randomly after the water maze test .The rat model of the vascular dementia was made by a Permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotids arteries using 2-VO method. The expression of TGF-β and βFGF in hippocampus CA1 were observed by immunohistochemistry technique. The expression of apoptosis neuron were observed by TUNEL technique. Results The expression of TGF-β(128.45±6.23), βFGF(80.95±9.48) in hippocampus CA1 was significantly higher in the drug group than that in the model group(142.93±10.22;110.45±9.75.p<0.05).The expression of apoptosis neuron was low in the shame group and the drug group, but high in the model group. Conclusion Donepezil hydrochloride can increase the expression of TGF-β and βFGF, reduce the apoptosis neuron, and furthermore improve the abilities of learning and memory.
    Candoxatril combined losartan and omapatrilat decrease myocardial hypertrophy in rats
    2012, 32(8):  921-925. 
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    Objective To compare the protective effect of candoxatril combined losartan on rat myocardial hypertrophy with omapatrilat (OMA) .Methods 1mg/kg isoproterenol (ISO) was given to induce myocardial hypertrophy in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: control, myocardial hypertrophy, candoxatril, losartan, OMA, candoxatril + losartan(full dose and half-value dose) (all n=8). The myocardial hypertrophy index was expressed as heart weight /body weight (HW/BW),cross-sectional area (CSA), myocardial interstitial collagen volume fraction (CVF) and perivascular collagen area (PVCA); The content of plasma angiotensinⅡ(AngⅡ), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)and bradykinin (BK)were measured by colorimetry and radioimmunoassay;The expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt protein were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Results 1) compared to control, ISO significantly increased heart weight index(3.64±0.30, 3.62±0.28, 4.32±0.58 respectively), CSA, CVF, PVCA (P < 0.01); candoxatril + losartan(full dose) and OMA can decreased the effect of ISO (P < 0.01) .2)ISO increased AngⅡcontent〔(741±89)ng/L,(682±66)ng/L and(479±62)ng/L respectively〕significantly and the ANP and BK level mildly compared to control. Compared to myocardial hypertrophy control group, candoxatril + losartan (full dose)and OMA both decreased plasma AngⅡ content and increased the ANP〔(117±33)μg/L,(298±91)μg/L,(288±95)μg/L respectively〕and BK〔(124±12)ng/L,(232±21) ng/L and (309±24)ng/L respectively〕level significantly (P < 0.01), but candoxatril + losartan make less BK level increase than OMA (P < 0.05).3) OMA down-regulated the expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt protein which is not better than candoxatril + losartan(full dose). Conclusion candoxatril combined losartan and OMA decrease myocardial hypertrophy in rats. There were differences in the plasma hormone level.
    Levonorgestrel induces apoptosis through down-regulation of Survivin gene expression in human uterine leiomyoma cells
    2012, 32(8):  926-929. 
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    Objective To explore the function of Survivin in levonorgestrel(LNG)-induced apoptosis in cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells (UtLMC) in vitro. Methods AO/EB double staining was applied to discriminate the apoptotic cells from dead ones. The changes of Survivin mRNA expressions in UtLMC after LNG treatment were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Furthermore, western blot was used to determine Survivin protein expression in LNG-induced UtLMC apoptosis. Results The result of AO/EB double staining showed that there were more viable apoptotic cells in LNG- treated groups than control group and the number of non-viable apoptotic cells and dead cells increased while the concentration of LNG elevated. Survivin expression in LNG-treated cells was decreased both at mRNA and protein levels according to RT-PCR and Western blot results. Conclusion Levonorgestrel treatment could induce a substantial apoptotic response in UtLMC, which was enhanced with the raise of levonorgestrel concentration. It may be due to the marked down-regulation of Survivin gene expression.
    Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells inhibits the transformation of lymphocytes from allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood
    2012, 32(8):  930-934. 
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    Abstract: Objective To study the biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) derived from human cord(UCMSCs) and inhibitory effect on the transformation of lymphocytes from allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood . Methods UCMSCs were isolated from umbilical cord ,the purity of MSC was analyzed by ICC.The effect of UCMSCs on the transformation of lymphocytes from allogeneic UCB was tested by the method of MTT. Results The morphological feature of the third passage’s UCMSCs(P3-UCMSCs) displayed an uniform fibroblast-like phenotype. The doubling time of P3-MSCs was 51.6 hours,they expressed MSCs-related antigen CD29 but did not express hematopoietic cell antigen CD34.The histochemical staining of P3-UCMSCs showed that PAS and NBE were positive but POX was negative. It indicated that the fibroblast-like cells induced and expanded from human cord in our experiment were MSCs ;UCB-lymphocyte transformation was suppressed when UCMSCs were cultured together with UCB-lymphocytes and the suppression effect was related with UCMSCs numbers plated in eath well, the suppression rate reached 60.8% when 2000 UCMSCs were plated. Conclusion UCMSCs had an immunomodulatory function. UCMSCs could suppress the transformation of lymphocytes from allogeneic UC and the suppression function seemed dependent on MSC numbers plated in each well.
    Expression of P16 in renal cell carcinoma and its significance
    2012, 32(8):  935-938. 
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    Abstract: Objective: To study the relationship between the homozygous deletion of P16 tumor suppressor gene and the occurrence and development of kidney cancer,as pathogenesis basis of renal cell carcinoma. In this study, we detected P16 gene mRNA of renal cell carcinoma by RT-PCR method. METHODS: The molecular biology methods such as RT-PCR were applicated to detected the P16mRNA expression of 24 cases of renal cell carcinoma and 10 control group (non-cancerous kidney tissue). Results: In 24 cases of renal cell carcinoma, P16 gene deletion in 14 cases (58.3%), intermediate expression in 6 cases (25%), weakly positive in 4 cases (16.7%). The control group (10 normal kidney tissue) were strongly positive (100%). P16 gene change in renal cell carcinoma is not associated with tumor grade and clinical staging. Conclusion: P16 tumor suppressor gene may play an important role in renal cell carcinoma growth, invasion and metastasis, may have potential clinical value in the diagnosis of kidney cancer and to determine prognosis.
    Differences of compound A concentrations at low and high sevoflurane flow and its effect on hepatic and renal functions
    2012, 32(8):  939-942. 
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    Objective: To measure the differences of compound A(CA)between low gas flow(500ml/min)and high gas flow(2L/min),and effects on renal and liver function. Methods:The general surgical patients(n=40)were randomized to low-flow anesthesia group and high-flow anesthesia group. Gas samples were taken from the aspiratory limbs of the anesthetic circuit in 30-minites interval during anesthesia. Analyze CA concentrations. Test the markers of hepatic and renal functions pre- and post-surgery. Results:There were no statistical differences between sevoflurane concentrations(0.97vs0.97MAC)and concentration-time-AUC(2.40vs2.41MAC-h).There were significant differences between concentrations(27.70vs11.54ppm)and concentration-time-AUC(55.76vs23.19ppm-h).All markers of hepatic and renal function(ALT、AST、Tbil、Dbil、BUN、Cr) were unchanged after anesthesia. Conclusion:CA concentrations and concentration-time-AUC between low-flow(500ml/min)and high-flow(2L/min) anesthesia were significantly different,but it did not result in any significant changes to markers of hepatic and renal functions,including、ALT、AST、Tbil、Dbil、BUN and Cr.
    Oxymatrine attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys
    2012, 32(8):  943-947. 
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    Objective Renal ischemia followed by reperfusion leads to acute renal failure, which is a complex pathophysiologic process involving hypoxia and free radical (FR) damage. We investigated the effect of oxymatrine on kidney ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the antioxidant effects of oxymatrine in rats. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (I/R group, sham operation group and oxymatrine treatment groups). Rats in the I/R group were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 45min and followed by reperfusion. Rats in the oxymatrine treatment groups received oxymatrine intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 3 different doses before I/R for 7 days. In some experiments, rats were killed and kidney function, tissue catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Results Oxymatrine significantly prevented I/R-induced kidney injury as indicated by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels compared to I/R group (p <0.05). Reduction of tissue CAT, SOD and GSH-Px activities after I/R were significantly improved by oxymatrine (p <0.05). Treatment with oxymatrine also resulted in significant reduction in tissue MDA that was increased by renal I/R injury (p <0.05). Conclusion Based on our results, it could therefore be concluded that oxymatrine protects the kidneys against I/R injury at least partly via its antioxidant effects.
    Activation of PKCε by isoprenterenol induce ERK phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes
    2012, 32(8):  948-952. 
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    Objective To evaluate PKCε translocation after β-adrenergic stimulation in isolated cardiomyocytes and the cross-talk with Epac and ERK phosphorylation. Methods Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were cultured and treated with isoproterenol (Iso) and Epac activator 8-CPT. After infected with adenovirus coding for dominant negative (DN) form of Epac (Epac R279K) and adenovirus coding for rabbit muscle cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (Ad.PKI), cells were subjected to Iso. PKCε content was measured in the particulate fractions of cell lysates by Western blot. The localization of translocation of PKCε was studied by confocal microscope. After using of a specific PKCε inhibitor peptide, cells were treated with Iso, and pERK1/2 expression was assessed by Western blot. Results In cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes it was shown that, in response to Iso, PKCε content was increased in particulate fractions of cell lysates, and PKCε was translocated to the perinuclear area determined by confocal microscopy. After incubation with 8-CPT, PKCε content in particulate fractions was increased(P<0.05). Epac R279K blocked Iso-induced PKCε activation. After infected with Ad.PKI, PKCε content was not decreased in particulate fractions by Iso stimulation(P<0.01). Iso-induced ERK phosphorylation was blocked by the specific PKCε inhibitor peptide. Conclusion β-adrenergic stimulation activates PKCε in an Epac-dependent and PKA-independent fashion inducing ERK phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes.
    An improved method for protein staining with CBBG-250 following electrophoresis
    2012, 32(8):  953-955. 
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    Objective: To establish a simple and less toxic method for protein staining following SDS-PAGE. Methods: After electrophoresis, the gel was fixed temporarily, and then stained with the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBBG-250) solution containing aminosulfonic acid. De-staining was not required. Results: The sensitivity of this method was higher than that of the classical CBBR-250 staining method. Moreover, toxic solvents such as methanol, though commonly used in the staining and de-staining solutions, were eliminated. Conclusion: The improved method has a series of advantages including high sensitivity, clear background, dye-saving, direct color development without de-staining, and having a safe and less toxic recipe.
    Primary intraspinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: two cases report
    2012, 32(8):  956-959. 
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    Abstract: Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, pathological features and treatment of primary intraspinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET). Methods The clinical materials of 2 intraspinal PNET,such as image data,neurosurgical treatment and histopathology features were analyzed retrospectively. Results Two PNETs were isointense on T1-weighted images and T2-weighted images, and with Gd-DTPA enhancement apparently. Both of them were treated by surgery and underwent subtotal resection. They were identified peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor by histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, they underwent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Both of them were followed up. Conclusions Intraspinal PNET is very rare and frequently located at lumbar/lumbosacral spinal level and most of them are peripheral PNET. The patient has short duration of symptoms and poor prognosis. Treatment proposals are based on histopathological results. Newer therapeutic strategy will improve the survival of patient.
    Application of tumor markers in breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis
    2012, 32(8):  960-963. 
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    Tumor markers have been widely used in diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. This article reviews the clinical applications of classic breast cancer biomarkers, such as CA15-3, HER2, ER and PR, and the clinical values of emerging biomarkers of breast cancer. Combined detection with multi-biomarkers has higher sensitivity and specificity than detection with single tumor marker, and will become a trend how breast cancer biomarkers are used in clinical treatment.
    New progress of clinically relevant spinal cord injury models
    2012, 32(8):  968-970. 
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    Since the first spinal cord injury model was established in 1911, various models, which are similar to clinical situations, have been developed. These were transaction, retraction, compression and vascular exclusion. Nowadays, many new technologies, such as computer-controlled accurate strike, guided precision surgical cut, digital retractor and biomechanical compression device, have been applicated in modeling. With development of science and technology, kinds of models could be closer in simulating different clinical states. This article introduced us the progress and development trends of this spinal cord injury animal model.
    Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold and its applications in tissue engineering
    2012, 32(8):  971-973. 
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    Abstract: Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold(SAPNS)has recently been widely studied as a kind of biomaterial scaffold which has been applied extensively in the fields of 3 dimension cell culture,tissue repair and regeneration and so on. Based on the introduction to the current research in SAPNS, this paper expatiates on the research progress,existing problems and prospects of SAPNS’s applications in tissue engineering according to the sequences of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm derived tissues.
    Progress in hexavalent chromium pollution and health damage
    2012, 32(8):  974-978. 
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    Hexavalent chromium is classified as human carcinogens, based on increased incidences of lung cancers in animals and occupational people after inhalation exposures. However, it is limited that the current health effect research which focus on the digested tract of exposure to Hexavalent chromium pollution. This paper reviewed the latest exposures to hexavalent chromium through ingestion, the digestive system tumors, the impact of development on the skeletal system, blood system effects and tissue infiltration, tissue distribution of hexavalent chromium in the liver and kidney, the skin after direct contact impact, and molecular mechanism of chromium metabolism.
    Research advance of fascin expression in gynecological neoplasms
    2012, 32(8):  979-982. 
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    Abstract: Fascin protein as a kind of actin-binding protein, by increasing the cell membrane bumps, participate in cell signaling pathways and changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix and other ways to promote tumor cell invasion and metastasis. It's related to tissue differentiation, tumor grade and lymph node metastasis and other factors of gynecological malignancies. Fascin protein is expected to be the effective judgment of prognosis of the patients of gynecological tumors. The fascin protein as a target for the treatment of gynecological cancer treatment may provide a new way of thinking.
    The curriculum design and current change of pre-medical education in 8-year medical education program
    2012, 32(8):  983-986. 
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    Authors review the history of pre-medical education, summarize the courseworks, graduate requirements and change of pre-medical education in the U.S. Authors also summarize the timeline, courseworks of pre-med education in China. The differences of pre-med education in different Chinese medical schools have been analyzed. Referring to the international medical education, the pre-med education in China should be allocated more time. The combination of pre-med education and undergraduate education also should be concerned.